Journal review of hospitality and leisure marketing ppt

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Journal review of hospitality and leisure marketing ppt

  1. 1. JOURNAL REVIEW SUTINI / 1263620054 LOGO
  2. 2. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/whmm19 Country as Destination-Norwegian Tourists' Perceptions and Motivation Nina K. Prebensen a a Department of Tourism, Finnmark College, Alta, Norway Version of record first published: 12 Oct 2008.
  3. 3. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 1. 2. Some researchers use "regions" when analysing destinations (e.g., Moshin and Ryan, 2003; Gomez- Jacinto et al.,1999; Murphy, 2003; Locker and Perdue, 1992; Gitelson and Kerstetter, 1990). Others employ the category of "attractions or events" when seeking for a better understanding of the purpose of tra-vel, motivation, activities undertaken and information sought (e.g., For-mica and Uysal, 1998).
  4. 4. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND . Implications of Tourists' Perception of the Destination They Have Visited The question concerning how to measure the content "destination" is raised by other researchers (e.g., Laws, 1995). The present study dis-cusses different ways of treating the destination problem; as country visited or by tourists own expressions of destinations. Accordingly, the aim is to find out what dimensions of the construct "destination" is rec- ommendable when analysing tourists' choice of where to travel. Con-struct validity is defined by Bryant (2000: 139)
  5. 5. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND . Implications of Tourists' Perception of the Destination They Have Visited In tourism several researchers stress the importance of acknowledg-ing tourists' own words in defining their own situations when vacation-ing (e.g., Dann, 1995; Embacherand Buttle, 1989; Gotlieb, 1982; Jacob- sen and Dann, 2003; Pearce, 1982). However, while these authors stress the importance of what tourists are saying, few seem as concerned about the way tourists articulate the destination they have been visiting.
  6. 6. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND . Implications of Tourists' Perception of the Destination They Have Visited Learning about tourists' wording of where they have stayed during their holidays is important for several reasons. People like to talk about their own recent purchases and experiences and even to advise others considering a purchase.
  7. 7. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND . Implications of Tourists' Perception of the Destination They Have Visited Likewise, tourists tell their friends and relatives about where they have been and what activities they have undertaken there, called "word of mouth" (cit. Arendt, 1967,1973), Mayo and Jarvis (1981)
  8. 8. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND . Implications of Tourists' Perception of the Destination They Have Visited Mayo and Jarvis illustrate their point by discussing how destinations which are difficult to categorise have a less likelihood of being considered, and thus have less chance of being chosen.
  9. 9. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND . Implications of Tourists' Perception of the Destination They Have Visited The other recearchers tells that the desire to experience novel destinations and cultures has repeatedly emerged as a key motive of travel behaviour (Cohen, 1972; Crompton, 1979; Dann, 1977,1981;Oh, Uysal and Waver, 1995; Yuan and McDon-ald, 1990).
  10. 10. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Norwegian Outbound Tourism Outbound travel from Norway for leisure purposes accounted for 2.626 million journeys in 2001 (Auno and Normann, 2003), almost 49 percent of all Norwe-gian outbound leisure trips. The two foreign countries that Norwegians most frequently visited in 1998 were Spain and Denmark (Lystad, 1998).
  11. 11. 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Norwegian Outbound Tourism Many of them comprise buy-ing a package that includes accommodation and transport by charter flight (charter tours). The number of outbound journeys by charter flights from Norway was estimated in 2001 to be 967,000 passengers (Startour, 2002).
  12. 12. 2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS When asked where they have been, how many tourists express destination visited in terms of a "country, " a "region," a "city" or by combinations of terms? RESEARCH PROBLEMS
  13. 13. 2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS Are there any motivational differences among Norwegian charter tourists visiting different countries? RESEARCH PROBLEMS
  14. 14. 2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS Is the expressed category of a destination influenced by individual motives for travelling? E.g., would a person who claims to have visited Spain be different from someone who says s(he) has been to Puerto Rico (in Spain) regarding their motivation for travelling (e.g., sunlust versus learning)? RESEARCH PROBLEMS
  15. 15. 2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS Is the expressed category of a destination and/or country visited in-fluenced by how experienced tourists are with the destination vis-ited or their travel experience with this type of vacation in general? RESEARCH PROBLEMS
  16. 16. 3. METHOD AND MATERIAL 1 2 A questionnaire was designed to capture destination visited, tourist motivation and experience. Norwegians who had taken a charter-flight trip within the last 12 months were asked to complete the questionnaire .
  17. 17. 3. METHOD AND MATERIAL Measurements and Research Design TEXT TEXT The present study is not exploring the motivational side of tourism, there-fore an existent motive scale was implemented. TEXT TEXT In the present study respondents were asked to rate thirty-five statements, on a five-point scale ranging from not important (1) to very important (5).
  18. 18. 3. METHOD AND MATERIAL Measurements and Research Design TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT To discover the tourist need for novelty, the re-spondents" were asked on a five-point scale to express how important it was for them to visit an unknown destination.
  19. 19. 4. RESULTS RESULT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT The two most visited countries among the respondents were Spain and Greece. Among the 510 respondents who had visited Spain, all to-gether 53 different destinations or combinations of words were utilised. For the 213 respondents who had been to Greece a total of 42 destina-tions or combinations of destination names were expressed.
  20. 20. 5. DISCUSSION DISCUSSION The major finding of the study was that destinations conceived solely in terms of country were not the most immediate expression of the destination that people had visited. For most respondents, specific names of regions or cities were more fre-quently employed when describing a destination.
  21. 21. 5. DISCUSSION DISCUSSION The results reveal eight distinct motivation factors of Norwegian out-bound tourists: sun/bathing, kids/family, friends, accomplishment, cul-ture, stress reduction, fitness and hedonic. The relax factor was also important for the Norwegian tourists traveling on a pre-arranged tour. It is possible that the need to relax impacted directly on why the tourists bought this.
  22. 22. 5. DISCUSSION DISCUSSION Interestingly, there was no significant association between motiva-tion and the country visited. An explanation could have been that re-spondents travelling on outbound charter tours would have been less concerned about what destination they visited as long as their motives were expected to be fulfilled (sun, relax, learning, culture, etc.), and that they expect any southern European country to be able to fulfil their needs.
  23. 23. 5. DISCUSSION DISCUSSION In order to find out if tourists visiting the same country, but to differ-ent places within that country, had the same motivational profile, the most mentioned destinations within the six above mentioned countries were analysed.
  24. 24. 5. DISCUSSION DISCUSSION The results showed that tourists travelled to all these countries with a variety of motives, but they did not choose certain countries because of distinct motives. This finding further indicates that, even if Norwegian charter tourists perceive different southern European countries as diver-gent, they do not choose these countries on account of motivational variance.
  25. 25. 5. DISCUSSION DISCUSSION Experience and search for novelty effect upon destination visited when measured by tourists own expression, but not on the country vis-ited or type of category (country, region, city, etc.), which correspond to the findings concerning relationship between motivation and destina-tion visited.
  26. 26. 6. CONCLUSION Conclusion People vary when it comes to how they express the destinations they have visited. Some use country as the destination, while others use re-gions, islands or cities when asked about where they have been on their vacations. Some tourists even express combinations of names of desti-nations. .
  27. 27. 6. CONCLUSION Conclusion These results show that for some countries, Norwegian charter tour-ists might travel to different destinations with different motives. In other words, these countries do not necessarily have one single image, a distinct challenge for marketing and branding expenses.
  28. 28. 6. CONCLUSION Conclusion Experience and search for novelty does significantly impact upon people's way of categorising the destination they have been visiting, but not on the country they have visited or if they employed country, region, city or combinations of words.
  29. 29. 6. CONCLUSION Conclusion Considering charter trips from Norway, further research on how ex-perience and the need for novelty impact on tourist's choice of where to travel, and how they categorise the destination visited, is needed.
  30. 30. 6. CONCLUSION Conclusion These results imply that the destination category as "country" should be treated with care when analysing destinations.
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