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Benchmarking of International Visitor Expenditure Surveys and design a proposal for Guatemala application.

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End of master project presentation

  1. 1. Benchmarking of International Visitor Expenditure Surveys and design a proposal for Guatemala application. Julio Estanislao Cuc MTEE 2010 1
  2. 2. Introduction International Tourism, Basic Definitions, Tourism Expenditure Measurement, Tourism Statistic System, Methods and Models, International Visitor Survey. 2
  3. 3. International Tourism   Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.   A Traveler is someone who moves between different geographic locations for any purpose and any duration.   Domestic travel   Inbound travel   Outbound travel 3
  4. 4. Basic Definitions • With overnight • Domestic accommodation • Inbound • Outbound • Same day visitor 4
  5. 5. Basic Definitions   Tourism expenditure refers to the amount paid for the acquisition of consumption goods and services, as well as valuables, for own use or to give away, for and during tourism trips.   The OECD and UNWTO defied the tourism expenditure as a expenditure made by, or on behalf of, the visitor before, during and after the trip and which expenditure is related to that trip and which trip is undertaken outside the usual environment of the user. 5
  6. 6. Basic Definitions • With overnight • Domestic accommodation • Inbound • Outbound • Same day visitor 6
  7. 7. Tourism Expenditure Measurement   And Vanhove (2005) identified four main categories of the components of visitor consumption: 7
  8. 8. Tourism Expenditure Measurement   Vanhove (2005) The economic importance of the sector in terms of value added, employment, exports and imports.   Mihalic (2002) The consumption of tourism is the centre of the economic measurement of tourism.   Frechtling (2006) the measurement of the economic benefits along with related costs of tourism could help marketers, planners, and others with an interest in visitor activities. 8
  9. 9. Tourism Statistics System   Harmonize the main observation and measure tourist statistics instruments and methodologies in the tourism activity because it will allow us to compare macroeconomic indicators between countries.   It is the basis for other statistics instruments and methodologies such as: Tourism Satellite Account and others macroeconomic indicators.   In Guatemala there is not a statistical system that allow us to estimate the visitor expenditure in all activities related to tourism sector. 9
  10. 10. Tourism Statistics System   Tourism sector:   Amalgam of services that the visitor consumes   Tourism and non-tourism goods and services   At the destination and country of origin.   How we can measure the international visitor expenditure when the visitor consumes tourism and non-tourism goods and services and some of these goods and services have been consumed outside of the country? 10
  11. 11. Methods and Models for measure the visitor expenditure Seasonal Cost Factor Existing Data Difference Model Model Supply side Expenditure Visitor Surveys Judgmental Ratio Model model Tourism Central Bank Direct Establishment Data Observation Surveys 11
  12. 12. International Visitor Surveys 12
  13. 13. International Visitor Survey   Lovejoy (2003) argues that the best way to measure the impact of visitor spending is to use surveys.   Wilton and Polovitz (2006) indicate that to obtain visitor- spending data, surveying actual visitors is the most straightforward method.   The survey often is reported in lump sums total group or per-day expenditure for various visitor groups or individual. (Wilton and Polovitz, 2006)   Related to the recall bias many researchers have been analyzed the difference between the exit surveys and daily expenditure records two popular techniques for estimate the tourist expenditure. 13
  14. 14. Data & Methodology Benchmarking and Tourism, TSS Central America, IVS sample countries, IRTS UNWTO. 14
  15. 15. Benchmarking & Tourism   Benchmarking is defined as the continuous measurement and improvement of an organization's performance is not just a comparison analysis, the method tries to identify the differences in process, procedure, methods and techniques and improve the performance and quality. (Kozak, 2002) 15
  16. 16. Data   TSS - Central America:   Guatemala   El Salvador   Belize   Honduras Multi – destination tourism   Nicaragua   Costa Rica   Panama   IVS - Countries analyzed:   Spain Mature destinations   UK   El Salvador Similar destinations   Mexico   Thailand Exotic destination   New Zealand Emerge destination 16
  17. 17. Methodology   First we analyzed the Actual Tourism Statistics System in Central America Region in terms of method applies and information collected.   Identify the structure for design international surveys according to the International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics of the UNWTO.   Analysis of the Sampling method, Methodology applied, and Structure and Classifications of the International Visitor Surveys of the countries chosen as a sample.   Design the proposal. Sampling, Methodology and Questionnaire. 17
  18. 18. Results TSS Central America, IRTS UNWTO, IVS Sampling, IVS Methodology, IVS Structure and Classifications. 18
  19. 19. Actual TSS in Central America • Guatemala • Immigration/ • Number of • Belize Migration arrivals • Honduras Department • El Salvador • Foreign • Nicaragua • Central Bank exchange receipts • Costa Rica • Panama • Visitor Survey (Guatemala • Visitor Profile, and El average Salvador) expenditure. 19
  20. 20. International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics UNWTO • Tourist (overnight visitors), Excursionist (same day visitor) Other Inbound Travelers* • Country of Residence of the visitor • Business and Professional, Holiday, Leisure and • Air, Water, Land, On foot. Recreation, Visit Friends and Relatives, Education and Training, Health and medical care, Religion / Pilgrimages, Shopping, Transit, Other • Sex, Age, Economic Activity Status, Occupation, • Market basis, Non-market basis, Owner occupied vacation Annual household, family or individual income, homes, Other. Education • Cultural and History, Ecotourism, City Tourism, Sun and Sand Tourism, Agro-tourism, Health Tourism, • Consumption delivered before and during the trip. Winter Tourism, Summer Break. • Package travel, package holidays, and package tours., Accommodation, Food and Drink, Local Transport, • Number of nights International Transport, Recreation, culture and sporting activities, Shopping, Others. 20
  21. 21. International Visitor Surveys Sampling • Stratified cluster sample with quotas, New Zealand error of 6%, age 15yo. And older. • Random sampling of entry/exit United Kingdom passenger. • Random sampling stratified by country Spain of residence, entry mode, and borders. • Quota sampling by market share of Thailand country of residence. C.L. 95% • Stratified by type of visitor, tourist and Mexico excursionist. • Quota sampling by type of visitor, tourist El Salvador and excursionist. 21
  22. 22. International Visitor Surveys Methodology New Zealand • Three stages of Weighting methodology and exit interviews face to face. United Kingdom • A quarter of million interviews face to face chosen systematically at fixed intervals and 8 stages of weighting. Spain • Exit face to face interviews with minimal monthly quotas by country of residence. Thailand • Face to face interviews in the main airports and borders. Mexico • Face to face interviews in the main airports, ports and borders. El Salvador • Face to face interviews at the main borders and international airport. 22
  23. 23. International Visitor Survey Structure and Classification • New Zealand • Type of visitors • United Kingdom •  Main purpose of tourism trip • Spain • Characteristics of the visitor • Thailand • Type of product • Mexico • Duration of the trip or visit • El Salvador • Country of origin • Mode of transport • Type of accommodation • Tourism expenditure timing • Classification of Ind. Consumption by purpose. • Satisfaction Level • Others: Internet Use, Quality of services Mexico, UK , Thailand and El Salvador do not include the satisfaction level in their IVS. Mexico and UK conduct other survey for measure the satisfaction level. Spain and New Zealand include other fields such as the Internet use and quality of the services. 23
  24. 24. Proposal Tourism in Guatemala, Sampling, Methodology, Questionnaire. 24
  25. 25. Tourism in Guatemala   Guatemala is recognize as a great Cultural destination for its legacy of Maya culture and for its large richness in history and nature, is located in a privilege spot right in the center of America continent and this makes it an important commercial as well as tourism center.   Guatemala has an extension of 108,889 km2 witch are home to a population of 13,002,206. There is an exquisite cultural mix of 22 Maya ethnics groups, Ladinos and Garifunas. 25
  26. 26. Tourism in Guatemala International Visitors Arrivals 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Series1 826240 835,492 884,190 880,223 1,181,526 1,315,646 1,502,069 1,627,552 1,715,426 1,776,069 The affluence of tourism have been increased from 2000 to 2009 in 115%. 26
  27. 27. Tourism in Guatemala Foreign Exchange Receipts in millions of US$ 1275.5 1298.0 1199.3 1012.2 868.8 770.1 612.2 599.7 535.3 492.7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 In concept of foreign exchange receipt by tourism Guatemala has a significant incremental since 2000 to 2009 it increased 142% from 535,3 to 1298,0 millions of US$. 27
  28. 28. Tourism in Guatemala   Guatemala Tourism Board have been divided the country by tourism regions and segments of specialized tourism for its marketing strategy to enhanced the country’s comparative and competitiveness advantages:   Modern and Colonial   Bird-watching   Highlands, Living Maya culture   Meeting, Conventions and Incentives   Peten, Adventure in the Mayan world   Cruises   Izabal, The Green Caribbean   Sport Tourism   Las Verapaces, Natural Paradise   Community Tourism   The Pacific, Exotic and diverse   Health and Wellness   Western, Mystical and natural   Spanish Language Schools 28
  29. 29. Sampling and Methodology   Sampling: Probabilistic sampling with an error plus and minus +/- 6%. Cluster stratified sample by country of residence or region (Europe, Latin America, North America, Asia, etc.)   Methodology: It recommends applying 3 stages of weighting sampling for country of residence, mode of entry and non-respondents. Create monthly quotas to conduct exit surveys face-to-face in the main international airports, ports and borders. 29
  30. 30. Questionnaire • Gender • In which country have you lived in the last 12 months? • What is your year of birth? • What is your marital status? • What best describes your current economic activity status? • What is the highest level of education you have achieved? • Which of the following ranges describes your personal annual net income in US$? 30
  31. 31. Questionnaire • Which of these was your arrival point in Guatemala? Show Card A: Airports, ports and land borders. • Which was the main purpose of your visit? • How did you organize your travel? • How many persons (including you) are traveling with you? • What type of accommodation did you use? • What hotel regimen did you arrange? • How many nights did you stay in Guatemala? • Using this map, could you indicate the region visited and the number of nights that you stayed in each place? And if you stayed in hotels please indicate the category. • Did you visit some of these protected natural areas? • What type of activities did you do? (You can select more than one) • This was your first time in Guatemala? • When was your last visit in Guatemala? • Included this trip, how many times have you visited Guatemala? • Could you please indicate the five (5) main reasons that motivated your travel to Guatemala? 31
  32. 32. Questionnaire • What was the total expenditure of your travel? (Individually) • Of your total travel expenditures, how much did you spend in your country of origin? • From this total what did you pay in your origin country? • Could you indicate your expenditure in the following items made in Guatemala? (You can indicate the amount or percentage, Ignore the items included in your package tour if you bought it in your country of origin) • In terms of prices, how did you perceive the destination? • How do you evaluate the quality-price relation of the following groups? Answer from 1 (Worst) to 7 (Great) 32
  33. 33. Questionnaire • How do you evaluate your experience in Guatemala? • If you have visited Guatemala before, do you think that from a global perspective the country is: • What is your global impression about your travel? • What are you satisfaction level regarding to the following issues? Evaluate from 1 = Worse to 7 = Excellent • Do you think that you will visit Guatemala again in the future? • If you answered “no” above, could you mention 5 reasons? • According to your perception Guatemala as a holiday destination is: • In this trip have you visited some of these countries before or after Guatemala? 33
  34. 34. Questionnaire •  Do you use Internet? •  Do you use the Internet for: •  Did you visit any of these sites? (You could choose more than one) •  Would you like to receive information by e-mail about promotions and discounts of Guatemala? 34
  35. 35. Conclusions   The surveys should to conduct regarding to quality, timeliness, costs and burden on respondents to achieve the consistency and efficient principle on the statistical system.   Recently the IADB (Inter-American Development Bank) starts the project “Harmonization of Tourist Statistics System in countries of American Southern Cone”.   Also the UNWTO is trying to harmonize the tourist statistics worldwide through out the standardization of principles and procedures allow compare each country. 35
  36. 36. Questions? MTEE 2009 – 2010 36
  37. 37. ank you for your attention!!! julio.cuc@gmail.com 37