Tri yuan,cai, morrison & linton new


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Tri yuan,cai, morrison & linton new

  1. 1. SEGMENTING WINE FESTIVAL ATTENDEES: A FACTOR-CLUSTER APPROACH JINGXUE (JESSICA) YUAN1, LIPING A. CAI2, ALASTAIR M. MORRISON2 and SALLY LINTON3 1 Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and Retailing, Texas Tech University, USA 2 Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, USA 3 Indiana Wine Grape Council, Food Science Department, Purdue University, USA Address correspondence to Dr. Jingxue (Jessica) Yuan, Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and Retailing, Box 41162, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA 79409-1162. Tel: 1- (806)-742-3068; Fax: 1-(806)-742-3042; E-mail: Abstract: This paper investigates the segmentation of wine festival attendees on the basis of their motivations. Three distinct groups were identified using a factor-cluster approach. They were wine focusers, festivity seekers, and hangers-on. Through multiple discriminant analysis, the study revealed that each of the three segments placed a unique set of priorities on the available products and activities at the festival. The demographic characteristics of all three segments were examined. The findings were discussed in comparison with those of the existing literature on travel motivations and festival motives as well as wine tourist segmentation. Practical implications of the study’s findings are presented. Key words: Travel motivation, festival motives, market segmentation, wine festival, wine tourism, Indiana, USA
  2. 2. Introduction Wine tourism is emerging as a viable and rapidly growing field of study for tourism researchers and practitioners alike, as many wine growing regions throughout the world are experiencing substantial growth in the wine tourism sector (Macionis & Cambourne, 1998; Ali- Knight & Charters, 1999; Cambourne et al., 2000). Substantial research to date on wine tourism has been conducted in the “New World”, particularly in Australia and New Zealand. The research efforts have recently culminated in the publication of two books (Hall et al., 2000; Getz, 2000) and a number of proceedings of the International Wine Tourism Conference (Carlsen & Charters, 2004). A few researchers in North America have made important contributions to the field from either the supply or demand side (e.g., Dodd, 1995; Dodd, Pinkleton, & Gustafson, 1996; Dodd & Bigott, 1997; Dodd, 1998; Telfer & Hashimoto, 1999; Telfer, 2001). According to Hall and Macionis (1998), wine tourism is the “visitation to vineyards, wineries, wine festivals, and wine shows for which wine tasting and/or experiencing the attributes of a wine region are the prime motivating factors for visitors.” Wine tourism is in essence a phenomenon that involves the participation of a particular group of consumers – wine tourists. Yet in-depth research is lacking in examining the nature of wine tourists, their motivations, and how they can be effectively segmented using information inferred from the demand side (Mitchell, Hall, & McIntosh, 2000; Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002). It is imperative that more empirical evidence to be gathered from the consumers for a more accurate and comprehensive picture of wine tourists. With an increasing number of studies on wine tourism consumers appearing in academic journals, studies on the subject in general are on the rise. 2
  3. 3. Researchers have acknowledged the role that wine festivals play in selling wine brands, promoting the attractiveness of wine growing regions, and helping build customer loyalty toward individual wineries (Cambourne & Macionis, 2000; Getz, 2000; Hoffman, Beverland & Rasmussen, 2001; Bruwer, 2002). Yet few studies to date have examined issues related to the nature of wine festival attendees’ motivations and segmentation in the field of wine tourism research (Beverland et al., 2001; Bruwer, 2002). Visiting wine festivals is one important activity in the complete construct of wine tourism (Hall & Macionis, 1998). As special events, wine festivals, if taking place at convenient locations, may attract attendees who do not intend to visit any winery or wine region and thereby would never be ascribed to the category of wine tourists (Yuan et al., in press). The current research was a second in a series of studies on wine tourists. The purpose of the series was to develop a typology of wine tourists attending the 2003 Vintage Indiana Wine and Food Festival. The current study was designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) To segment wine tourists at a wine festival based on their motivations to attend the festival (2) To identify factors differentiating wine tourist segments (3) To profile the segments by their demographic characteristics The segmentation of wine festival attendees, using their motivations as the base, was the focus of the current study. Literature Review Travel Motivations 3
  4. 4. Travel motivation is accepted as a central factor in understanding tourist behavior (Baloglu, 2000; Dunn Ross & Iso-Ahola, 1991; Fodness, 1994; Pearce, 1995). Crompton (1979) notes that the understanding of motivation answers the question, “Why do tourists travel?” or in more specific terms, “Why do certain groups of people choose certain holiday experiences?” (Pearce, 1995). A more in-depth elucidation of motivation, therefore, may lead to a better understanding of the overt behaviors of tourists. The initial stage of tourism behavior begins when an individual recognizes a need to be satisfied (Fluker & Turner, 2000). Basic motivation theory describes a dynamic process of internal psychological factors (needs, wants, and goals) that lead to actions designated to release the resulting tension and thereby satisfy the needs (Fodness, 1994). A major tourist motivational model was presented by Dann (1977, 1981) and Crompton (1979) in the explanation of push and pull theory. Push factors represent the general desire to be somewhere else (Bansal & Eiselt, 2004). Pull factors (e.g., destinations) are external to an individual. People travel in response to push and pull factors, that is, to satisfy certain psychological needs and in search of specific benefits at the destination (Turnbull & Uysal, 1995). Iso-Ahola’s (1982, 1989) concept of motivation involved simultaneously avoiding and seeking behaviors. The psychological benefits of travel derive from the interplay of escaping routine or stressful environments while seeking opportunities for certain psychological rewards (Dunn Ross & Iso-Ahola, 1991). Pearce and Caltabiano (1983, also cited in Pearce, 1988) used Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a framework to infer motivations from travelers’ experiences. They applied a five-fold hierarchical system (physiological, safety and security, love and belongingness, self-esteem, self-actualization) to rank tourists’ experiences. Fodness (1994), 4
  5. 5. using a straightforward approach to the study of attitudes, suggested that the reasons people give for leisure travel represent the psychological functions (the needs) the travel serves. These studies suggest that travel motivations can be explained in many different ways. No single conceptualization has been agreed upon (Krippendorf, 1987; Fodness, 1994; Holden, 1999). Motivations for vacations are dynamic and may involve multiple variables (Wight, 1996). Interpretation of travel motivations lies in a mixture of different theories that researchers have depended upon (Krippendorf, 1987; Pearce, 1993). Pearce (1995) posited three main approaches to examining travel motivation: historical and literary accounts of travel and travelers, the discipline of psychology and its long history of trying to understand human behavior, and the current practices of tourism industry researchers, particularly those involved with surveying visitors. From a marketing perspective, tourism products can be designed and marketed as solutions to consumers’ needs (Fodness, 1994). Tourism researchers measure motivation so that they can identify types of tourists and segment those traveling for pleasure for the purpose of product development and service quality evaluation (McIntosh & Goeldner, 1990). Crompton (1979) concluded that a motivational basis for tourist segmentation may provide cues and insights around which destinations could develop and promote products and activities to target markets. Researchers have suggested categories of travel motivations to classify tourists into various segments (e.g., Cha, McCleary & Uysal, 1995; Bieger & Laesser, 2002; Loker & Perdue, 1992; Lundberg, 1971; Mayo & Jarvis, 1981; Shoemaker, 1989, 1994). While psychology theories and the extant tourism literature provide a rich source of potential motives, for travel motivation to be useful and meaningful, it must be placed in a context (Pearce, 1995). Travel motivations are subject to specific situations and unique settings 5
  6. 6. (Yuan et al., in press). Gnoth (1997) proposed a dichotomy of internal and external motivators containing drive-based push factors and pull factors related to knowledge or beliefs. The push factors are motives, representing the needs that all humans experience. The pull factors indicate the presence of specific situations with which these needs arise. Motivations thus refer to an interaction between motives and situations (McCabe, 2000). Festivals and special events provide such contexts or situations in which people are aroused and motivated to travel. Festival Motivations Festivals are embedded in the construct of special events, which reflect the cultural resources of an area and are organized to deliver a positive image of a place (Uysal et al., 1993). Festivals are themed and unique (Falassi, 1987; Getz, 1991). The name of an event or festival can potentially influence motives and behavior (Getz & Cheyne, 2002). The benefits attained through participation in festivals and special events are diverse and accordingly, festival attendees attempt to satisfy one or more needs at the event (Iso-Ahola, 1982). The analysis of motivations and the underlying benefits sought for festival attendance is an important marketing tool for market segmentation and effective promotion (Lee, 2000). Segmenting festival visitors and understanding their characteristics through motivations enables organizers to identify the strengths and opportunities of each market and promote festival features valued by target segments (Lee & Lee, 2001). In recent years, with the wide recognition of festivals and events as one of the fastest growing forms of tourism attraction, researchers have been prompted to study motivations of visitors attending festivals and events with a variety of themes (Backman et al., 1995; Carlson, 1998; Crompton & McKay, 1997; Formica & Uysal, 1996, 1998; Gitelson et al., 1995; Green & 6
  7. 7. Chalip, 1998; Kerstetter & Mowrer, 1998; Lee, 2000; Lee & Lee, 2001; Lee, Lee & Wicks, 2004; Kim, Uysal, Chen, 2002; Mohr et al., 1993; Nogawa et al., 1996; Pitts, 1999; Ralston & Crompton, 1988; Raybould, 1998; Saleh & Ryan, 1993; Schneider & Backman, 1996; Scott, 1996; Uysal et al., 1991; Uysal, Gahan & Martin, 1993; Weiler, Truong, & Griffiths, 2004; Yuan et al., in press). A review of the findings from these event- or festival-specific studies on motives reveals some key dimensions of motivations common in these studies, although the order and the components of factors vary depending upon the type of festivals. These key dimensions include escape, excitement and thrills, novelty, socializing, family togetherness, and cultural exploration. In addition to the common motives and benefits, some of the cited studies also found unique dimensions of motivation attached to different festivals and events. The uniqueness is often associated with and specific to the theme of the festival or event. For example, Scott (1996) noticed differences among visitors’ motivations across three different festivals and verified that motivations were situation specific. In his study, nature appreciation was found to be the most important motivation for the two festivals facilitating education of insects and maple sugaring. Kerstetter and Mowrer (1998) examined First Night, a community-oriented and alcohol-free festival, and ascertained four reason factors: family fun, entertainment, community, and alcohol free, of which the latter two exhibited the theme of the festival. Travel motivated by festivals and special events thus concerns seeking universal leisure experience connected with a special event as well as attaining unique benefits related to the theme of the event (Getz & Cheyne, 2002; Lee, 2000; Yuan et al., in press). In their exploratory qualitative research on event motives and behavior, Getz and Cheyne (2002) provided a general framework for evaluating motives to attend festivals and events. 7
  8. 8. Multiple motives may apply to any given event visit. First, generic (common) leisure and travel motives incorporate the related theories (e.g. Iso-Ahola and Maslow). Second, event-specific motives stem from the inherent uniqueness of events and targeted benefits related to the theme and program. Getz and Cheyne’s (2002) theoretical framework is congruent with the dichotomy view of travel motivations postulated by Gnoth (1997) and McCabe (2000), in which the internal motives represent the needs that all humans experience, whereas the external motivators indicate the presence of specific situations with which these needs arise. An additional dimension proposed by Getz and Cheyne in their framework encompasses a number of extrinsic motives that are unrelated to any specific appeal of the event itself (i.e., business, obligation, and incentive). For instance, some people might attend a festival out of obligation because friends or family want to go. Generic leisure/travel motives, event-specific motives, and extrinsic motives form an integrated framework that can serve as a foundation to study festival motives. So why do people choose to attend a wine festival? Are there any generic leisure needs, event-specific benefits and/or extrinsic obligations that they intend to realize at the specific venue? Can the attendees be segmented on a motivational basis? Can the resulting motivational groups be differentiated based upon their demographics? The context in which these questions were addressed in the current study was a festival with a wine theme. In such a context, the attendees’ motivational segmentation should be examined via their internal or generic needs, the more situational-based and event-specific motivations (Gnoth, 1997; McCabe, 2000) and the extrinsic motives that are independent of the event (Getz & Cheyne, 2002). The understanding of wine festival motivations from both internal and external factors affords a sound basis for subdividing or segmenting the attendees. 8
  9. 9. Segmentation of Wine Tourists Wine tourism researchers and marketers have come to realize that wine tourists are not alike in terms of their needs, wants, and personal characteristics as there are different types of experiences sought (Tzimitra-Kalogianni et al., 1999; Bruwer, Li & Reid, 2001; Charters & Ali- Knight, 2002). Wine tourists should not be treated as being a homogenous group and, consequently, careful segmentation strategies will benefit wine marketers (Cambourne & Macionis, 2000). A proper segmentation of wine tourists enables a better understanding of the characteristics and needs of the particular groups, increases the effectiveness of advertising and promotional efforts, and enables wine tourism marketers to better target high-yield customers (Dodd & Bigotte, 1997; Getz, 2000). The attempts to segment or classify wine tourists have been recent. Examples include the works of the Roy Morgan study (1996) cited in Cambourne and Macionis (2000), Movimento del Turismo del Vino (MTV, 1996) cited in Mitchell et al. (2000), and Charters and Ali-Knight (2002). The MTV study used a lifestyle approach to classify Italian wine tourist into four types: “the professional”, “the impassioned neophyte,” “the hanger-on,” and “the drinker.” Hall (1996) (also cited in Hall and Macionis, 1998) identified three market segments: “wine lovers,” “wine interested” and “curious tourists” according to the different levels of experience sought by wine tourists at New Zealand wineries. Ali-Knight and Charters (1999), in their qualitative study exploring the value and importance of education to the wine tourist, confirmed this in their interviews with eight Western Australian wineries. At least two types of visitors were identified by the wineries. The “casual visitors” looked to taste and little else. They may have been seeking “novelty” or “lifestyle” experiences. The “sophisticated drinkers” were hungry for information 9
  10. 10. and were already educated. Most wine tourists, however, fell into the middle category, claiming no special knowledge, but were interested in experiences as much as learning. Dodd and Bigotte (1997) adopted a visitor socio-demographic market segment approach. They suggested two consumer clusters based on age and income using a consumer-perception survey at Texas wineries. One cluster was older, with a higher mean income than the other cluster. Differences in terms of visitor perceptions of wine, winery environment, and service attributes were detected between the two clusters. Their study, however, focused on the purchase of wine by wine tourists rather than the process of wine tourism (Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002). Williams and Dossa (2003) analyzed non-resident visitor markets in British Columbia’s wine tourism destinations. Two wine tourist clusters were generated and labeled as “the generalist” and “the immersionist” according to differences in trip motivation characteristics. The immersionists placed greater importance on being able to increase their knowledge of the region they were visiting and becoming immersed in a variety of activities. The two market niches exhibited several other different traits related to socio-demographic, travel philosophy, trip behavior, activity, and product importance-performance characteristics. Williams and Dossa used a general visitor survey and the motivation variables, therefore, were not specifically meant for wine tourists. They also made the assumption that respondents indicating they had included a visit to a winery/farm during their travels were “wine” tourists. Charters and Ali-Knight (2002) continued the progress in this research stream. They conducted personal interviews outside the tasting rooms of six wineries within two different wine regions of Western Australia in Margaret River and the Swan Valley. Respondents were asked to self-classify on the basis of their interest and knowledge of wine. This classification 10
  11. 11. produced a modification of the categories previously suggested (Ali-Knight & Charters, 1999; Hall, 1996; MTV, 1996). The wine lover (the “highly interested”), the wine interested (the “interested”), and the wine novice (those with limited interest) segments were joined by a fourth, marginal group, the “hangers on,” who went to wineries with no apparent interest in wine, but as a part of a group. The previous educational experience of different segments varied, with the wine lovers having a more comprehensive grounding in wine education. The entire lifestyle package (e.g., learning about wine and food links) was particularly important for the wine lovers. One limitation of the study was that the visitor survey examined wine tourist motivation mainly in relation to the educational possibilities at the winery. The current study, built upon Gnoth’s (1997) and McCabe’s (2000) postulations on travel motivations and Getz and Cheyne’s (2002) framework for evaluating festival motives, attempted to segment wine tourists attending a regional wine festival based on their reasons for attending the festival as well as the wine-related leisure experience. The first study in the series by the authors uncovered the underlying dimensions of wine festival attendees’ motivations (citation omitted in the review process). The current study focused on the motivational segmentation of wine festival attendees, with the three objectives as specified earlier. Methodology Sample and Measurement A visitor survey was conducted at the 2003 Vintage Indiana Wine and Food Festival (referred to as the festival hereafter), a one-day event organized by the Indiana Wine Grape Council. It is Indiana’s only statewide wine and food festival and was initiated in June 2000. The 2003 event featured 14 Indiana wineries, live music, a variety of foods presented by local 11
  12. 12. restaurants, and a wine/food educational area with demonstrations on cooking. More than 6,000 visitors attended the event in 2003 (The Indiana Wine Grape Council, 2004). Ten trained field workers intercepted the attendees on the site of the festival and completed survey questionnaires through personal interviews. Only visitors above 21 years old were selected. A total of 510 questionnaires were collected during the festival. Of these, nine were incomplete and thus excluded from the data analysis. One major component of the survey was to examine visitors’ motivations to participate in the festival. A set of 25 questions were extracted from the literature on motivations to visit wineries/wine regions and to attend other types of festivals. Respondents were asked to indicate the importance of the reasons to attend the festival on a 7-point Likert scale where 1 = not at all important and 7 = extremely important. Data Analysis The analyses of the study consisted of four steps in two stages (Figure 1). To test the first objective, the 25 motivational elements were factor-analyzed by using the maximum likelihood method combined with a Varimax rotation. A four-factor solution emerged. This factor analysis was followed by a cluster analysis to identify the underlying segments on the basis of factor scores. A two-step clustering procedure was adopted: (1) a hierarchical cluster analysis, identifying the appropriate number of clusters by Ward’s method; and (2) a K-means cluster analysis, providing further elaborative information on the cluster membership. A tracing of the ratio of within-group to between-group variance suggested a three-fold grouping as an appropriate compromise between generality and within-group uniformity (Hair et al., 1998). 12
  13. 13. “Insert Figure 1 about here” To test the second objective, the study employed multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) to examine the differences in terms of the motivation factors associated with each cluster. The clusters acted as the dependent variable. The principal objective of the discriminant analysis was to identify those variables (also known as attributes) that were best able to separate or distinguish the predefined groups and to interpret these findings (Duarte Silva & Stam, 2000). The MDA identified the motivation factors that best differentiated members of the three groups from one another. Since this was a three-group MDA model, it was necessary to define two canonical discriminant functions in order to discriminate among the three groups (Hair et al., 1998). To test the third objective, cross-tabulations with chi-square analyses were performed to compare the demographic profiles of the clusters. Five demographic variables, i.e., gender, education, age, income, and marital status, were examined to determine whether statistically significant differences existed among the three different groups. RESULTS Sample Description About 76% of the respondents at the festival had college or above degrees. Nearly 69% had annual household incomes of more than $40,000. These two demographics were comparable to the findings of other wine tourist studies (Yuan et al., in press). The respondents were, nevertheless, younger than the average wine consumers (MKF Research Report, 2000), as 29.5% of them were in the 21-29 age group and another 22.6% in 30-39 category; and a total of 74.1% were less than 50 years old. The percentages of male and female respondents were 35.9 and 63.7, respectively. Married (53.3%) and not married (46.5%) respondents were fairly evenly split (for 13
  14. 14. the table containing the detailed demographic information, refer to the earlier study conducted by the authors or contact the authors). Reasons for Wine Festival Participation Four factors explaining 53.05% of the variance emerged from the factor analysis of the 25 motivational items (for details of the factor analysis, refer to the earlier study conducted by the authors or contact the authors). The total Cronbach’s alpha value indicated that the model was internally reliable (α = 0.89). The four dimensions were labeled as: (1) Festival & escape (eigenvalue = 4.08, variance explained = 21.5%, α = 0.88), (2) Wine (eigenvalue = 2.67, variance explained = 14.0%, α = 0.81), (3) Socialization (eigenvalue = 1.77, variance explained = 9.3%, α = 0.73), and (4) Family togetherness (eigenvalue = 1.56, variance explained = 8.2%, α = 0.78) (Yuan et al., in press). The first factor, “Festival & escape,” consisted of nine variables: enjoying special events, going after the festive atmosphere, enjoying a festival crowd, enjoying a day out, changing pace from everyday life, enjoying the entertainment, for the uniqueness of the festival, getting away on weekend and trying something new. The second factor, “Wine,” included five variables: experiencing local wineries, tasting wine, getting familiar with Indiana wines, increasing wine knowledge, and buying wines. The third factor, “Socialization,” included three variables: meeting people with similar interests, exchanging ideas with wine makers, and visiting a place one can talk about when getting home. The last factor, “Family togetherness,” included two variables: bringing family together more and spending time with family. These four wine festival motivational dimensions demonstrated the combined effects of push motives and pull factors associated with the context as posited by Gnoth (1997) and McCabe (2000). Escape, 14
  15. 15. socialization, and family togetherness represented the inner desires of the respondents. Festival and wine expressed the characteristics or activities (pull factors) of the wine festival. Motivational Segments of Wine Festival Attendees The cluster analysis produced three distinct groups on the basis of the motivational factor scores. These three clusters were named after the highest cluster coefficient(s) on each motivational dimension (Table 1). The clusters were labeled, respectively, as: (1) wine focusers, (2) festivity seekers, and (3) hangers-on. The festivity seekers segment made up the largest portion of the respondents (56% of the valid sample), followed by the wine focuser cluster (27%). The hangers-on represented a smaller group (17%) whose significance should, nevertheless, not be ignored. “Insert Table 1 about here” The wine focusers geared their attention toward the wine-related experience at the festival. The benefits they were seeking were straightforward and clear-cut: wine was their primary pursuit. Seemingly, they did not care much about the other activities or entertainment available at the festival. The festivity seekers indulged themselves in almost every aspect of the festival with an evident enthusiasm for festivals and escaping. They seemed to consider wine as an add-on experience. Their major purpose at the festival was to enjoy a special event and its festive atmosphere, escape from everyday life, be entertained, and/or try something new. The hangers-on group showed no interest in virtually anything at the festival. They were just hanging around at the festival site, making no evident attempt to get involved with the festivities. They particularly eschewed the wine theme. 15
  16. 16. The means of the four motivation factors for the members of each cluster were computed and compared (Table 1). The summary information revealed the importance of each factor for attending the festival for members of each cluster. Significant differences in the mean scores were detected among all pairings of the three clusters over three motivational factors: festival & escape, wine, and socialization. For the family togetherness factor, the only significant difference was between the festivity seekers and the other two clusters. The results provided clear evidence that motivations represent a potentially useful base to segment the wine tourists at a regional wine festival. The factor analysis demonstrated that there were multiple motivations for attending the festival, some of which were directly related to wine, and others that were due to the festival’s appeal as a special event. The respondents were subsequently classified into three distinct groups on the basis of motivation factors. Differentiating Factors Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) was performed on the three clusters. The goal of the discriminant analysis was to identify the motivation factors that best differentiated among the three identified clusters. Table 2 contains the results for the MDA model. Two canonical discriminant functions were calculated in order to discriminate among the three groups. The two functions were statistically significant, as measured by the chi-square and corresponding p- values. With an eigenvalue of 1.616, Function 1 explained 52.38% of the variation. Function 2 had an eigenvalue of 1.470 and explained the remaining variation (47.62%). Together the two functions explained 100% of the variance. To determine whether the functions were valid predictors of cluster memberships, the classification matrices were examined (Table 3). The discriminant functions achieved a high degree of classification accuracy. They did particularly well in distinguishing the festivity seekers as 100% of the respondents were correctly ascribed 16
  17. 17. into that cluster. The hit ratio (percentage of respondents correctly classified by the discriminant function) of the analysis sample was 93.5%. “Insert Table 2 about here” “Insert Table 3 about here” In determining which predictor variable contributed the most to each function, the partial F-values and discriminant loadings were employed. The partial F-value is an additional means of interpreting the relative discriminating power of the independent variables (Hair et al., 1998). A ranking of the partial F-values in this study showed that the factor differentiating the clusters the most was wine (F = 347.583, Wilks Lambda = 0.390), followed by festival & escape (F = 224.287, Wilks Lambda = 0.497). The factors of socialization (F = 19.962, Wilks Lambda = 0.918) and family togetherness (F = 12.656, Wilks Lambda = 0.946) did not contribute as much to the prediction, though their F-values were significant (p < 0.001). It was also noted that the F- values of these two factors were much lower compared to those of the other two factors. The discriminant loadings in Table 4 reveal that in Function 1 the wine factor differentiated the clusters most. In Function 2, the festival & escape factor had the most differentiating power followed by the socialization and the family togetherness factors. Respondents at the wine festival were motivated by multiple reasons and could be classified into distinct clusters on the basis of their motivations. Yet these motivation factors had varying degrees of power in separating the groups. The ability of the wine and festival & escape factors to distinguish the members into wine focusers and festivity seekers was more significant than the other two factors. The wine and the festival & escape delineated the characteristics and theme of the event. “Insert Table 4 about here” 17
  18. 18. Segment Profiles A demographic profile of each cluster was compared through cross-tabulations. The chi- square statistic was employed to determine if there were any statistically significant differences among the three clusters with respect to selected demographic characteristics. Table 5 provides the results of the chi-square analyses. It appeared that the three clusters were only significantly different in terms of annual household incomes. Compared with the other two clusters, the hangers-on consisted of more people whose incomes were below $20,000 and $60,000, successively. This cluster had less people in the $60,001-$80,000 income group. The wine focusers cluster had the largest potion in the $60,000+ income group. The festivity seekers were mainly in the $20,000-$80,000 income range. “Insert Table 5 about here” Conclusion The study defined the segments of wine tourists attending a regional wine festival on the basis of attendance motivations. The results indicated that people were drawn to the wine festival due to multiple motivational factors. Festival & escape and wine, the dominant reasons for attending the festival, reflected the attendees’ internal needs as well as how their decisions were influenced by the situational motivations (Gnoth, 1997; McCabe, 2000). These two motivational factors had the greatest power in distinguishing cluster membership. The wine festival thus provided a special occasion where the attendees actively pursued the theme of wine and/or searched for the hedonic attainment made available by other leisure activities at the festival. 18
  19. 19. The study identified three different types of wine festival attendees, namely wine focusers, festivity seekers, and hangers-on. The wine focusers were similar to the “wine lovers” group identified in Charters and Ali-Knight (2002). This was the wine-intensive group, whose members seemed the most highly interested in wine. They were purpose-driven and pursued the wine theme when attending the festival. Their motivations were very much focused on the wine, while the other festival activities were of secondary priority. The hangers-on were similar to the “hangers on” as described by Charters and Ali-Knight (2002). Their interest in wine was limited and it was not the reason for attending the festival. This group had no particular goals in seeking the festival’s leisure experience. They attended the festival as a part of a group or to accompany someone else. In comparison with the findings from previous wine tourist segmentation studies (Ali-Knight & Charters, 1999; Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002; Hall, 1996; MTV, 1996), the festivity seekers identified in the current study were a seemingly newly-defined group, due to the uniqueness of the study venue. This group searched for a more diversified or integrated experience incorporating wine, food, environment, setting, learning, and cultural aspects, i.e., the appeal of a festival. The integrated experience has been referred to by Beames (2003) as the “total experience” or a culmination of wine-related travel. The festivity seekers may have an interest in wine, but their participation also involved savoring other leisure experiences at the festival. This festival provided an ideal venue for them to relax and have fun while pursuing a special experience with the wine. The motivational segmentation of attendees at the regional wine festival corresponded with the postulation for structuring festival motives by Getz and Cheyne (2002), who stated that festival motives of any given event visit incorporated three interacting components, namely generic leisure and travel motives, event-specific motives, and extrinsic motives. The festivity 19
  20. 20. seekers were primarily seeking to fulfill generic needs for a leisure experience. Their participation in the festival was motivated by common reasons that have been found in other festival and/or travel motivation studies. The wine focusers were largely pursuing the wine and its related themes at the festival. Their motives stemmed from the inherent uniqueness of the festival and targeted benefits related to the theme. The hangers-on might have attended the festival out of obligation, for example to accompany their friends or families, which are considered extrinsic motives unrelated to any specific appeal of the festival itself. From a marketing perspective, tourism researchers measure motivation so that they can classify and segment tourists, which in turn lead to a systematic analysis of travel patterns for product development and service quality evaluation (McIntosh & Goeldner, 1990). A motivational segmentation approach may provide insight on effective promotions and target marketing (Crompton, 1979; Lee, 2000; Lee & Lee 2001). The segmentation approach in this study produced viable market segments that can be differentiated on managerially-relevant variables. These findings should be valuable to the organizers of wine and food festivals and destination marketers in wine-growing regions. The festival atmosphere appealed successfully to a large group of attendees who were motivated by the prospect of enjoying a fun experience. The festival organizers should continue with the provision of the total wine tourism experience to retain this group of visitors. Other attendees who were highly interested in wine found the festival an ideal venue to sample and buy local wines and get acquainted with local wineries. This is where the organizers may accentuate the unique wine theme to meet the needs of these wine lovers and to promote the regional wines. A small portion of the attendees (the hangers-on) came for a completely different set of reasons and had limited interest in the event. However, the exposure likely opened up the world of wine to them. Incentives may be offered to induce them 20
  21. 21. to attend subsequently, and these people might eventually enjoy the festival. The three groups were not demographically distinguishable, except for household incomes. This may indicate that people of similar socio-demographic backgrounds were attracted by this festival. It might also suggest that segmenting wine festival attendees using demographics is not as viable an approach as compared with classifying them by motivations. These findings on the motivational segments of wine festival attendees can be an important input to designing and implementing marketing programs of wine-growing destinations. While a wine festival is an attraction in its own right from a destination’s point of view, its role in generating interest in visiting wine regions represented at the festival should be explored. Future studies may be designed to investigate wine festival product development, service quality evaluation, and the interaction between wine festivals and wine-growing destinations. Biographical Notes Jingxue (Jessica) Yuan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and Retailing, Texas Tech University. Her research interests include wine tourism, special interest tourism, consumer behavior for hospitality and tourism, and e-marketing and Website evaluation. Her current research focuses on typology and modeling of wine tourists. Liping A. Cai is an Associate Professor and Director of Purdue Tourism and Hospitality Research Center in the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University. His research interests include destination branding and management, visitor socio-economic and 21
  22. 22. behavioral profile, and international tourism development. His current research focuses on destination branding and rural tourism. Alastair M. Morrison is a Distinguished Professor of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University. He holds the position of Associate Dean for Learning and Director of International Programs in the School of Consumer and Family Sciences. His research interests include destination marketing, Internet marketing and e-commerce, international tourism market development, and consumer behavior in tourism. His current research focuses on special interest tourism markets, destination image measurement, Website satisfaction and evaluation, and wireless applications in tourism. Sally J. Linton is the Marketing and PR Specialist for the Indiana Wine Grape Council, an association created to enhance the economic development of wine and grape industry in the state of Indiana. She is the creator and coordinator of the Vintage Indiana Wine & Food Festival, an annual event attracting more than 5,000 people. References Ali-Knight, J., & Charters, S. (1999). Education in a Western Australian wine tourism context. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 11(1), 7-18. Backman, K., Backman, S. J., Uysal, M., & Sunshine, K. M. (1995). Event tourism: An examination of motivations and activities. Festival Management & Event Tourism, 3(1), 15-24. Baloglu, S. (2000). A path-analytical model of visitation intention involving information sources, socio-psychological motivations and destination images. In A. G. Woodside, D. I. Crouch, J. A. Mazanec, M. Oppermann, & M. Y. Sakai (Eds.), Consumer psychology of tourism, hospitality and leisure (pp. 63-90). Oxon, UK: CABI Publishing. 22
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  29. 29. Figure 1 Steps Involved in the Analysis Stage 1: Cluster Segmentation Step 1: Factor analysis of 25 motivation items Results: Identification of four motivation factors Step 2: Cluster analysis of respondents on the identified four factor dimensions of motivations Results: Identification of three clusters Step 3: Discriminant analysis of motivations Results: Identification of discriminating motivation factors for each cluster Stage 2: Identification of Cluster Descriptors Step 4: Chi-square tests on demographic variables Results: Identification of significant cluster descriptors 29
  30. 30. Table 1 Means of Motivation Factors among the Three Attendee Clusters Cluster Segments I II III Motivation Factors Wine Focusers Festivity Seekers Hangers-On (n = 121) (n = 252) (n = 74) F-value Festival & escape** 3.76 II, III 5.82 I, III 4.30 II, I 264.10* (-.99) (.54) (-.21) Wine 5.34 II, III 5.78 I, III 3.19 II, I 272.99* (.42) (.27) (-1.60) Socialization 2.00 II, III 3.57 I, II 2.45 II, I 59.24* (-.37) (.19) (-.02) Family togetherness 2.55 II 3.85 I, III 2.79 II 24.29* (-.29) (.19) (-.17) Note: Numbers in the brackets are cluster coefficients. * Significant at p < 0.001 level. ** Respondents were asked to choose from a 7-point scale where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 7 = Strongly Agree. I, II, III The mean of the segment is significantly different from the mean(s) of other segment(s) (p < .05) on the same attitude dimension based on Tukey’s HSD test. The superscripts represent the corresponding segments. 30
  31. 31. Table 2 Summary of Three-Group Discriminant Analysis Results Discriminant Percent of Wilks Function Variance Eigenvalue Lambda Chi-square Sig. Level 1 52.38 1.616 0.155 825.65 0.000 2 47.62 1.470 0.405 400.04 0.000 31
  32. 32. Table 3 Classification Results of Discriminant Analysis Predicted Group Membership Actual Group I II III Total Wine Focusers (I) 88.43% 11.57% 0.00% 121 Festivity Seekers (II) 0.00% 100.00% 0.00% 252 Hangers-On (III) 4.05% 16.22% 79.73% 74 Percent of original grouped cases correctly classified: 93.5% 32
  33. 33. Table 4 Discriminant Function Loadings Centroids (group means) Function 1 Function 2 Wine Focusers 1.165 -1.643 Festivity Seekers 0.234 1.039 Hangers-On -2.701 - 0.853 Motivation Factors Wine 0.959a 0.231 Festival & Escape - 0.141 0.816 b Socialization - 0.065 0.238 b Family Togetherness 0.007 0.197 b a One motivation factor discriminates the three clusters in Function 1. b Three motivation factors discriminate the three clusters in Function 2. 33
  34. 34. Table 5 Demographic Profile of Three Clusters Cluster Segments I II III Demographic Profile Wine Focusers Festivity Seekers Hangers-On χ2 (n = 121) (n = 252) (n = 74) Gender (%) 7.03 Male 38.0 33.3 47.3 Female 62.0 66.3 51.4 Age 13.57 21-24 9.9 6.0 12.2 25-34 30.6 40.1 32.4 35-44 20.7 18.7 16.2 45-54 19.8 23.4 27.0 55-64 12.4 10.7 6.8 65+ 4.1 0.8 2.7 Education 6.16 High school 4.1 6.7 8.1 Some college 14.9 18.3 16.2 Associate degree 9.1 11.5 6.8 Bachelor’s degree 41.3 38.1 47.3 Graduate degree 30.6 25.4 21.6 Marital Status 7.25 Not married 38.0 48.8 55.4 Married 62.0 50.8 44.6 Household Income 37.78* Less than $20,000 6.6 5.2 13.5 $20,000-$40,000 11.6 18.3 20.3 $40,001-$60,000 15.7 18.3 13.5 $60,001-$80,000 15.7 15.5 5.4 $80,000+ 43.0 36.2 40.6 * χ2 = p < 0.05. Note: Percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding or missing values. 34