Tourist behaviour, unit 1


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The students who have asked difficult questions, which have helped us clarify our own thinking, and the students from many countries who have provided us with interesting insights into the national and cultural differences in tourist behavior.

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Tourist behaviour, unit 1

  1. 1. Tourist Behaviour © Aditya Ranjan UNIT 1 : INTRODUCTION © Aditya Ranjan
  2. 2. This unit covers : 1. Concept of tourist behaviour 2. Importance of understanding of tourist behaviour 3. factors affecting tourist behaviour 4. Models of Tourism behaviour 5. Indian out bound travel market © Aditya Ranjan
  3. 3. What is Tourism ? • Tourism is defined as “a short-term movement of people to places some distance from their normal place of residence to indulge in pleasurable activities.” • It may also involve travel for business purposes. • An activity which is serviced by a number of other industries such as hospitality and transport. • Incorporates leisure • Collin (1994), leisure -‘free time to do what you want’. © Aditya Ranjan
  4. 4. What is Tourist Behaviour ? “ Study of why people buy the product they do, and how they make their decision” - Horner and Swarbrooke (1996) “ It is process involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services , ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and wants” - Solomon (1996) © Aditya Ranjan
  5. 5. What is Tourist Behaviour ? “Those activities directly involved in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services including the decision processes that precedes and follows these actions.” - Engel, Blackwell and Miniard (2001) © Aditya Ranjan
  6. 6. Development of Tourist Behaviour Divided in two aspects : 1. The varied type and pace of development in the different regions of the world. 2. The different types of tourism have developed including - 1. VFR ( Visiting Friends and Relatives ) 2. business 3. religious 4. health 5. educational etc. © Aditya Ranjan
  7. 7. Chronological growth of tourism Europe A desire to travel 1. BC 776 – Olympic began and Roman pioneered tourism; 2. Loud parties , Sun bathing & leisure 3. Sightseeing , historical buildings 4. Dark age – fall of roman empire 5. New born tourism in Europe – Pilgrimage 6. Infrastructure development 7. Education tourism ( Paintings & buildings) 8. Grand Tour in Italy ( France, Holland, Germany , Austria & Switzerland) 9. Loving Art , landscapes & monuments led to Natural tourism 10. Thomas cook came 11. Modern Mass Tourism © Aditya Ranjan
  8. 8. Chronological growth of tourism ( Europe) Removal of obstacles that prevented people from taking trips 1. Increased disposal income 2. Advance aircraft technology 3. Greater availability of motor cars or private vehicle 4. Increase in leisure time 5. Increased Education 6. Growth of tour operators & Package holidays © Aditya Ranjan
  9. 9. Chronological growth of tourism North America Development of Inns & taverns Development of railway tracks Growth of Car Ownership Creation of roadside motels Growth in number of Visitor in nearby areas Growth of Amusement parks Leisure shopping Museums & live interpretations © Aditya Ranjan
  10. 10. Chronological growth of tourism Central America In 1960 the region received 749 000 international arrivals, according to the World Tourism Organization; This figure had risen to 2.9 million in 1970and more than 7 million by 1989 and ever increasing year after year; Mexico has focused on beach and coach tour holidays, other countries in the region have pioneered new forms of tourism, notably eco- tourism. © Aditya Ranjan
  11. 11. Chronological growth of tourism Africa Tourism has existed in Africa for many centuries. The Greeks and Romans visited the sights of Egypt. Outbound tourism from some parts of Africa over the centuries particularly in terms of business tourism and religious tourism could be seen; During the first half of the twentieth century, the British played a major role in opening up Africa as a tourist destination, particularly in the countries which were thenstill part of the British Empire. © Aditya Ranjan
  12. 12. Chronological growth of tourism (Africa) In the 1920s and 1930s the two main regions which attracted foreign visitors, apart from Egypt, were: Kenya, where the appeal was big game hunting Morocco, which was a popular winter sun destination, After gaining their independence, many African countries sought to attract tourists to help develop their economies; Business and leisure tourism became the major tourism of Africa. © Aditya Ranjan
  13. 13. Chronological growth of tourism The Middle East  The countries of the Middle East have a long history of involvement in the tourism industry, most notably in terms of religious tourism.  This region is the most important pilgrimage destination in the world for three major religions:  Muslims for whom both Mecca and Jerusalem are very sacred places; The tourist flow to Mecca is probably the largest single annual movement of tourists in the world  The cities of Nazareth, Bethlehem, Jerusalem and Jericho, which are the most important religious cities for Christians  Jerusalem which is the holiest city for Jews. © Aditya Ranjan
  14. 14. Chronological growth of tourism Asia 1. Asia is a large continent which encompasses a wide variety of national tourism markets with very different characteristics; 2. In India, there is a strong tradition of domestic tourism of two types: 3. trips to hill stations during the hot summer months 4. visits to religious festivals. 5. Inbound tourism and package tours; 6. Across the region, special interest and beach-based tourism are taking over from the ‘travelers' of yesterday. Finally, the ‘jet-age’ has created important ‘stopover markets’. © Aditya Ranjan
  15. 15. Chronological growth of tourism Across the world 1. The nature of tourism in different countries has been influenced by a myriad of factors including, for example: 2. climate 3. geographical location 4. history 5. language 6. the development of transport systems 7. levels of economic development 8. the quality of landscapes and townscapes 9. government policies towards tourism 10. the degree of economic and political stability. © Aditya Ranjan
  16. 16. Different types of Tourism 1. Visiting friends and relatives 2. Business tourism 3. Religious tourism 4. Health tourism 5. Social tourism 6. Educational tourism 7. Cultural tourism 8. Scenic tourism 9. Hedonistic tourism 10. Activity tourism 11. Special interest tourism, etc. © Aditya Ranjan
  17. 17. Consumer Behaviour Models © Aditya Ranjan
  18. 18. Andreason Model • The model recognizes the importance of information in the consumer decision-making process. • It also emphasizes the importance of consumer attitudes although it fails to consider attitudes in relation to repeat purchase behaviour. © Aditya Ranjan
  19. 19. Andreason Model © Aditya Ranjan
  20. 20. Nicosia (1966) • The model concentrates on the four different fields. • Field One (Two Features) • organization’s attempts to communicate with the consumer, and the consumers’ predisposition to act in a certain way. • Field Two • Involves the consumer in a search evaluation process which is influenced by attitudes. • Field Three • The actual purchase process. • Field Four • the post purchase feedback process. © Aditya Ranjan
  21. 21. Nicosia (1966) © Aditya Ranjan
  22. 22. The Howard–Sheth Model of buyer behaviour • It highlights the importance of inputs to the consumer buying process and suggests ways in which the consumer orders these inputs before making a final decision. © Aditya Ranjan
  23. 23. The Howard–Sheth Model of buyer behaviour © Aditya Ranjan
  24. 24. Stimulus-response model • Middleton and Clark (2001) • based on four interactive components, with the central component identified as ‘buyer characteristics and decision process’. • separates out motivators and determinants in the consumer buying behaviour. • emphasises the important effects that an organization can have on the consumer buying process by the use of communication channels. © Aditya Ranjan
  25. 25. Stimulus-response model © Aditya Ranjan
  26. 26. consumer decision-making model • Gilbert (1991) • Suggests two levels of factors which have an effect on the consumer. • The first level of influences is close to the person and include psychological influences such as perception and learning. • The second level of influences includes those which have been developed during the socialization process and include reference groups and family influences. © Aditya Ranjan
  27. 27. consumer decision-making model © Aditya Ranjan
  28. 28. Conclusions  Most consumer behaviour models in tourism seem to be linear and rather simplistic when compared to general consumer behaviour models.  consumer behaviour in tourism will inevitably be very complex. © Aditya Ranjan
  29. 29. Refrences : • John Swarbrooke and Susan Horner (1999). Elsevier Ltd. 2nd ediition. • Tourism Management (2009). Consumer Behaviour. © Aditya Ranjan
  30. 30. © Aditya Ranjan Thank you Everyone