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Dr. Cornel Adler, Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin: Stored Product Protection Research in Germany with a Focus on Tropical Agriculture and Cooperation
 

Dr. Cornel Adler, Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin: Stored Product Protection Research in Germany with a Focus on Tropical Agriculture and Cooperation

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Presented at the Agri4D 2013 conference at the session on Pre/Post-harvest Losses – Including Post-harvest Handling and Storage.

Presented at the Agri4D 2013 conference at the session on Pre/Post-harvest Losses – Including Post-harvest Handling and Storage.

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  • The upper line represents the EAD signal of a female P. interpunctella The lower line depicts the MS-TIC

Dr. Cornel Adler, Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin: Stored Product Protection Research in Germany with a Focus on Tropical Agriculture and Cooperation Dr. Cornel Adler, Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin: Stored Product Protection Research in Germany with a Focus on Tropical Agriculture and Cooperation Presentation Transcript

  • 1 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Agri 4D, SLU, 25 Sept. 2013 Stored product protection research in Germany with focus on tropical agriculture and cooperation • Introduction • Insect-proof storage • Phytochemicals • Diatomaceous earths • Conclusions Cornel Adler Julius Kühn-Institut Berlin www.jki.bund.de
  • 2 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de What are stored product pests? Insects Beetles (approx. 60 species) Moth (approx. 20 species) Dustlice (approx. 10 species) Mites (approx. 10 species) Rodents Mice Rats Birds Microorganisms, microbial deterioration (mycotoxins!) Hygiene pests Cockroaches Flies Ants
  • 3 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de FAO-Study „Save Food!“ 5/2011 Losses in food world-wide: 1/3
  • 4 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Losses & Costs But infested grain is also damaged, moist, warm (additional losses due to pest cotrol measures, quality loss, risk for further pest attack (e.g. mites or fungi) Germany Grain harvest 2009: almost 50 mio. t If losses estimated to 4 % (FAO) by weight 4 % = 2.000.000 t at 250,- Euro/t = 500 mio. Euro
  • 5 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Integrated Stored Product Protection Pest prevention Early pest detection Pest control physical chemical biological Biotechnical e.g. DE Structural design Cooling Drying Sanitation Packaging Visual inspection Check: temperature moisture movement product density bioacoustics traps Inspection sampling
  • 6 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Phytochemicals: Attractants What do insects smell? Identify attractive volatiles Oils for traps better than food baits (no development) • Which combination? • Which pure compounds? • Fruity volatiles most attractive to Plodia interpuntctella (Adler et al. 2000) Preliminary test with food- grade aromas:
  • 7 Response of P. interpunctella to apricot volatiles Results [1] 3-Methyl-1-butanol acetate [2 ] 1-Butanol [3 ] 3-Methyl-1-butanol [4 ] 1-Pentanol [5 ] 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone [6 ] 1-Hexanol [7 ] 2,6,11-Trimethyl pyrazine [8 ] Acetic acid [9] Ethyl benzoate [10] Benzyl alcohol (Ndomo et al. 2012) Now: • dose-response-test • behavioural test (eg. flight chamber)
  • 8 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Neem to protect maize Influence of sun drying and shelling In Northern Cameroon on contents of Azadirachtin and efficacy (PhD K. Tofel)
  • 9 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Diatomaceous earths (DE) dried, milled, sifted
  • 10 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Diatomaceous earths (DE) Registered: 10g/m2 (structures) 1-2kg/t (grain) Foto: Biofa (Brazil)
  • 11 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Comparison of DEs (SEE ERA NET Project 2008) SilicoSec, GR Begora, Lower SR. GR Kriti, Vranje3/12/07 Slob., GR Elas., SR Vranje, SRKol.518,Kol.517, Kol.516, GER-SR, Control Efficacy much higher at 30°C than at 20°C Now tests in Cameroon (Ngaoundere Univ., E. Nukenine) Athanassiou et al. (2011)
  • 12 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Conclusions • Prevention is better than control - store dry, cool, hermetically, as short as possible • Monitoring for early detection - traps with food or pheromone lures, thermometers, acoustics, etc. • Stored product pests are competitors to man - infestation is indicator for inefficient protection • Pest control with most suitable method - low-risk methods gain importance, solutions require knowledge, the best way to aquire knowledge is cooperation!
  • 13 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Identified plants plant parts used protected stored products Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) leafy branches maize, beans Cypressus sempervivens (Cypr.) leafy branches maize, beans, cowpea Capsicum frutescens (Solanac.) fruits beans, cowpea Chenopodium ambros. (Chenop.) leaves maize, beans, potato Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) leaves maize, beans, cowpea Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) leaves beans, potato Plant parts as traditional insecticides Survey in Western Highlands of Cameroon (Tapondjou et al. 2000)
  • 14 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Temperature (°C) and insect development Lethal > 50 Death in minutes >45 Death in hours Suboptimum >35 Development stops Optimum 25-33 Max. development Suboptimum < 25 Slow development < 13 Development stops Letal < 6 Movement stops, unadapted indiv. die < -5 Adapted indiv. die < -15 Death in minutes Fields (1992)
  • 15 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Etheric oils in Clausena anisata, identified by retention time (RT) (60 m DB wax fused silica caplillar column) Component RT GC- surface (%) leaves seeds Alpha Pinene 5,9 - 0,4 Sabinene 7,5 0,5 3,1 Myrcene 8,2 0,7 28,9 Limonene 9,1 - 0,4 Cis Ocimene 9,7 - 0,7 Gamma –Terpinene 10,2 1,8 4,9 p-Cymene (Cymol) 10,8 - 6,3 4-Terpineole 19,5 - 0,4 Germacrene D 22,2 1,0 - Trans Anethole 24,9 80,8 32,9 p-Anisaldehyde 29,5 - 15,4 Trans Isoeugenol Methylether 32,4 11,5 2,6
  • 16 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Efficacy of pure compounds Dosage: 0-60µl/ml or 0-400 mg/ml Acetone 0,5 ml on filterpaper, 20 T. confusum adults added compound LD50 LD95 Mortality (%) 4-Allyl-anisole (µl/cm2 ) 24 h 0.05 0.11 43.35±9.40 48 h 0.05 0.10 49.65±9.12 Linaloole(µl/cm2 ) 24 h 0.21 NA 15.75±2.50 48 h 0.19 NA 15.75±2.50 Terpineole (µl/cm2 ) 24 h 0.29 NA 22.95±6.57 48 h 0.14 0.42 26.85±7.42 Thymole (mg/cm2 ) 24 h 1.46 1.98 27.20±8.27 48 h 1.32 1.44 32.05±9.09 Zimtaldehyde(µl/cm2 ) 24 h 0.04 0.05 80.35±7.15 48 h 0.04 0.04 81.10±7.12 Values are means of 3 replicates. NA = Not applicable Ojjimelukwe et al. 2001
  • 17 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Reasons for greatest losses • weather extremes (warm, humid) • loss of social structures and structural design (poverty) • political instability/ war • lack of motivation of storage manager (no incentive, low value) • new storage goods, new pests, new storage method • regionally scattered • mykotoxins cause health hazards
  • 18 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Heat for structural treatments www.thermonox.de www.biotech.at
  • 19 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de Results - heat 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 4800 Time (min) Temperature(°C) Old mill cellar room above lift dead alive Tropics: Solar heat + vent for fast treatment at 60°C?
  • 20 cornel.adler@jki.bund.de In brackets the most tolerant stage, E = eggs; L = larvae; P = pupae; A = adults Lab data on the efficacy of heat Exposure times needed for complete control: Tierart 45°C 50°C 55°C E. kuehniella 660 min (11h) (E) 27 min (P) 7 min (P) S. granarius 540 min (9h) (L) 40 min (L) 30 min (L) S.zeamais 660 min (11h) (L) 45 min (A) 30 min (A) C. pusillus 1200 min (20h) (L) 65 min (L) 20 min (L) T. castaneum 1800 min (30h) (L) 35 min (L) 20 min (L) L. serricorne 2400 min (40h) (L) 370 min (E) 45 min (E) R. dominica 6000 min (100h) (L) 370 min (L) 45 min (L) Adler (2006, 2007, 2008)