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Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa
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Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa

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  • 1. Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa Thomas Rosswall, Chair CCAFS ABSTRACT The Millennium Development Goal 1, Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger, will not be met by 2015. In addition, we face a number of environmental challenges (MDG7). For example, climate change will worsen the conditions of African farmers, who are already vulnerable and food insecure. Scientific research must provide knowledge for the development of alternative pathways to reach sustainable development by jointly addressing MDG1 and 7. This necessitates a change in both what we do research on and how we conduct the research. Development and global change have been addressed, researched and funded as unrelated issues. We must develop a multifunctional perspective of agriculture to lead this development looking at how we can further strengthen the resilience of the farming systems, while ensuring increased productivity without major expansion of land. Farmers must also have access to markets and the rural community needs different livelihood options with focus on the smallholder farmers. It is also necessary with a food systems approach to address the scientific basis for food security. Agriculture should be analyzed in the context of ecosystem services looking at the ecological, economic and social basis for human well-being. Efficient decision support systems and general access to information are crucial components in order to escape poverty. By using a conceptual framework for research on ecosystem services for poverty alleviation will it be possible to bend the curves and change the direction.
  • 2. Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa Thomas Rosswall, Chair CCAFS
  • 3. The Anthropocene “We’ve now entered a unique century, the first in the 45 million centuries of Earth’s history, in which one species – ours – could determine, for good or ill, the entire planet’s future”. Lord Rees of Ludlow President, the Royal Society of London Editorial in Science, 25 June 2010
  • 4. UN MDG Summit 20-22 September 2010 "It is clear that improvements in the lives of the poor have been unacceptably slow, and some hard-won gains are being eroded by the climate, food and economic crises," UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says in the foreword to the Millennium Development Goals Report
  • 5. Millennium Development Goals The number of undernourished people is increasing, while we are constrained by: Nine Planetary Boundaries Rockström et al., Nature, 461 472-475 (2009)
  • 6. Trends in World Hunger
  • 7. Rockström & Karlberg (Ambio 2010) Human growth 20/80 dilemma Ecosystems 60 % loss dilemma Climate 550/450/350 dilemma Surprise 99/1 dilemma ”The Quadruple Squeeze”
  • 8. The Big Disconnect Development and global change have been addressed, researched, and funded as unrelated issues
  • 9. A Question of Scale Sachs et al. Nature 2010 28 September 2010 Agri4D ... and geographic diffrences Differences Brazil Africa 9
  • 10. Global IntegratedSiloed Local Business As Usual Development Research Business As Usual Global Change D4GΔ Development for Global Change Adapted from Sara Farley, The World Bank The Opportunity
  • 11. A Multifunctional Perspective of Agriculture International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD, 2009)
  • 12. A Changing Focus over Time
  • 13. Smallholder Farmers in Africa
  • 14. African Agriculture • No other continent has been so closely connected to smallholder farming • Smallholders account for more than 90% of production • More than 400 million farms of less than 2 ha operated mainly as family farms • 25% have more than 2 ha, 50% have 0.5-2 ha and 25% have ½ ha or less • Agriculture employs more than 60% of the working population and contributes more than 35% of GDP in most African countries Assefa Adamassie (2010)
  • 15. Main Elements of Food Systems FOOD UTILISATION FOOD ACCESS • Affordability • Allocation • Preference • Nutritional Value • Social Value • Food Safety FOOD AVAILABILITY • Production • Distribution • Exchange GECAFS conceptual diagram
  • 16. DRIVER Interactions Socioeconomic DRIVERS Changes in: Demographics, Economics, Socio-political context, Cultural context Science & Technology GEC DRIVERS Changes in: Land cover & soils, Atmospheric Comp., Climate variability & means, Water availability & quality, Nutrient availability & cycling, Biodiversity, Sea currents & salinity, Sea level ‘Natural’ DRIVERS e.g. Volcanoes Solar cycles Environmental feedbacks e.g. water quality, GHGs Socioeconomic feedbacks e.g. livelihoods, social cohesion Food System ACTIVITIES Producing food Processing & Packaging food Distributing & Retailing food Consuming food Food System OUTCOMES Contributing to: Social Welfare Environ Welfare Food Utilisation Food Access Food Availability Food Security Analysing Food Systems From GECAFS
  • 17. Ecosystem Change for Human Well-being
  • 18. Tools Needed 1. Ecology: “what’s where?” 2. Economics: “what’s it worth?” 3. Policy & finance: “who pays and how?” Chan, et al. 2006. PLoS Biology
  • 19. 19 Tools Needed 1. Ecology: “what’s where?” 2. Economics: “what’s it worth?” 3. Policy & finance: “who pays and how?” Net Present Value ($ / ha) Mbaracayu, Paraguay Five services • Carbon storage • Sust. hunting • Sust. timber • Pharmaceuticals • Existence Naidoo and Ricketts. 2006. PLoS Biology $/ha NPV
  • 20. Tools Needed 1. Ecology: “what’s where?” 2. Economics: “what’s it worth?” 3. Policy & finance: “who pays and how?”
  • 21. The Climate Change Challenge • Climate change will worsen the living conditions of farmers, fishers and forest-dependent people who are already vulnerable and food insecure • Rural communities ... face an immediate and ever-growing risk of increased crop failure, loss of livestock, loss of fisheries ...... • Hunger and malnutrition will increase FAO 2009
  • 22. Projected Impacts of Climate Change Stern Review (2008)
  • 23. The CGIAR Approach
  • 24. Trends in Rainfall Variability; Sahel WMO (2006) What are the adaptation options?
  • 25. We are asking for a wide range of agricultural sector actors to change their behavior, to innovate, under conditions of incomplete and un- integrated markets, assymetric information & missing insurance and credit markets The Challenge
  • 26. Greenhouse Gas Production from Different Sectors in 2008 UN FCCC (2008) What are the mitigation options?
  • 27. Poverty Alleviation through Mitigation Payments for GHG services GHG Measuring and monitoring system
  • 28. Trade-offs and Synergies: Food and Carbon (FAO 2009)
  • 29. Failings in Decision Support • Being driven by science alone (i.e., no clear users) • Targeting the wrong decision-makers as users, or the right ones in the wrong way • Failing to work across scales, given much source work in local case studies • Omitting to identify and use the modes of engagement and leverage points Mark Stafford-Smith (2010)
  • 30. Research shows four key factors related to escape of poverty: Cellphones Education of girls and women Access to mass media Improved physical access to towns P. Kristjanson (2010)
  • 31. Conceptual Framework Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation DFID, NERC, ESRC, LWEC (2010)
  • 32. Per Olsson, SRC, 2009 What Next?

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