Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and
international perspectives in research for
agricultural development in Africa
T...
Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and
international perspectives in research for
agricultural development in Africa
T...
The Anthropocene
“We’ve now entered a unique century, the
first in the 45 million centuries of Earth’s
history, in which o...
UN MDG Summit 20-22 September 2010
"It is clear that improvements in the lives of
the poor have been unacceptably slow,
an...
Millennium Development Goals
The number of undernourished
people is increasing, while we
are constrained by:
Nine
Planetar...
Trends in World Hunger
Rockström & Karlberg (Ambio 2010)
Human growth
20/80 dilemma
Ecosystems
60 % loss dilemma
Climate
550/450/350
dilemma
Surp...
The Big Disconnect
Development and global change
have been addressed, researched,
and funded as unrelated issues
A Question of Scale
Sachs et al. Nature 2010
28 September 2010 Agri4D
... and geographic diffrences
Differences
Brazil Afr...
Global
IntegratedSiloed
Local
Business
As Usual
Development
Research
Business
As Usual
Global
Change
D4GΔ
Development
for ...
A Multifunctional Perspective of Agriculture
International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Developme...
A Changing Focus over Time
Smallholder Farmers in Africa
African Agriculture
• No other continent has been so closely
connected to smallholder farming
• Smallholders account for m...
Main Elements of Food Systems
FOOD
UTILISATION
FOOD
ACCESS
• Affordability
• Allocation
• Preference
• Nutritional Value
•...
DRIVER
Interactions
Socioeconomic
DRIVERS
Changes in:
Demographics, Economics,
Socio-political context,
Cultural context
S...
Ecosystem Change for Human
Well-being
Tools Needed
1. Ecology:
“what’s where?”
2. Economics:
“what’s it worth?”
3. Policy & finance:
“who pays and how?”
Chan, e...
19
Tools Needed
1. Ecology:
“what’s where?”
2. Economics:
“what’s it worth?”
3. Policy & finance:
“who pays and how?”
Net ...
Tools Needed
1. Ecology:
“what’s where?”
2. Economics:
“what’s it worth?”
3. Policy & finance:
“who pays and how?”
The Climate Change Challenge
• Climate change will worsen the living conditions
of farmers, fishers and forest-dependent p...
Projected Impacts of Climate Change
Stern Review (2008)
The CGIAR Approach
Trends in Rainfall Variability; Sahel
WMO (2006)
What are the adaptation options?
We are asking for a
wide range of
agricultural sector
actors to change their
behavior, to
innovate, under
conditions of
in...
Greenhouse Gas Production from Different
Sectors in 2008
UN FCCC (2008)
What are the mitigation options?
Poverty Alleviation through Mitigation
Payments for GHG services
GHG Measuring and
monitoring system
Trade-offs and Synergies: Food
and Carbon (FAO 2009)
Failings in Decision Support
• Being driven by science alone (i.e., no
clear users)
• Targeting the wrong decision-makers ...
Research shows four key factors related
to escape of poverty:
Cellphones
Education of girls
and women
Access to mass
media...
Conceptual Framework
Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation
DFID, NERC, ESRC, LWEC (2010)
Per Olsson, SRC, 2009
What Next?
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Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa

  1. 1. Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa Thomas Rosswall, Chair CCAFS ABSTRACT The Millennium Development Goal 1, Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger, will not be met by 2015. In addition, we face a number of environmental challenges (MDG7). For example, climate change will worsen the conditions of African farmers, who are already vulnerable and food insecure. Scientific research must provide knowledge for the development of alternative pathways to reach sustainable development by jointly addressing MDG1 and 7. This necessitates a change in both what we do research on and how we conduct the research. Development and global change have been addressed, researched and funded as unrelated issues. We must develop a multifunctional perspective of agriculture to lead this development looking at how we can further strengthen the resilience of the farming systems, while ensuring increased productivity without major expansion of land. Farmers must also have access to markets and the rural community needs different livelihood options with focus on the smallholder farmers. It is also necessary with a food systems approach to address the scientific basis for food security. Agriculture should be analyzed in the context of ecosystem services looking at the ecological, economic and social basis for human well-being. Efficient decision support systems and general access to information are crucial components in order to escape poverty. By using a conceptual framework for research on ecosystem services for poverty alleviation will it be possible to bend the curves and change the direction.
  2. 2. Need for integrated, multidisciplinary and international perspectives in research for agricultural development in Africa Thomas Rosswall, Chair CCAFS
  3. 3. The Anthropocene “We’ve now entered a unique century, the first in the 45 million centuries of Earth’s history, in which one species – ours – could determine, for good or ill, the entire planet’s future”. Lord Rees of Ludlow President, the Royal Society of London Editorial in Science, 25 June 2010
  4. 4. UN MDG Summit 20-22 September 2010 "It is clear that improvements in the lives of the poor have been unacceptably slow, and some hard-won gains are being eroded by the climate, food and economic crises," UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says in the foreword to the Millennium Development Goals Report
  5. 5. Millennium Development Goals The number of undernourished people is increasing, while we are constrained by: Nine Planetary Boundaries Rockström et al., Nature, 461 472-475 (2009)
  6. 6. Trends in World Hunger
  7. 7. Rockström & Karlberg (Ambio 2010) Human growth 20/80 dilemma Ecosystems 60 % loss dilemma Climate 550/450/350 dilemma Surprise 99/1 dilemma ”The Quadruple Squeeze”
  8. 8. The Big Disconnect Development and global change have been addressed, researched, and funded as unrelated issues
  9. 9. A Question of Scale Sachs et al. Nature 2010 28 September 2010 Agri4D ... and geographic diffrences Differences Brazil Africa 9
  10. 10. Global IntegratedSiloed Local Business As Usual Development Research Business As Usual Global Change D4GΔ Development for Global Change Adapted from Sara Farley, The World Bank The Opportunity
  11. 11. A Multifunctional Perspective of Agriculture International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD, 2009)
  12. 12. A Changing Focus over Time
  13. 13. Smallholder Farmers in Africa
  14. 14. African Agriculture • No other continent has been so closely connected to smallholder farming • Smallholders account for more than 90% of production • More than 400 million farms of less than 2 ha operated mainly as family farms • 25% have more than 2 ha, 50% have 0.5-2 ha and 25% have ½ ha or less • Agriculture employs more than 60% of the working population and contributes more than 35% of GDP in most African countries Assefa Adamassie (2010)
  15. 15. Main Elements of Food Systems FOOD UTILISATION FOOD ACCESS • Affordability • Allocation • Preference • Nutritional Value • Social Value • Food Safety FOOD AVAILABILITY • Production • Distribution • Exchange GECAFS conceptual diagram
  16. 16. DRIVER Interactions Socioeconomic DRIVERS Changes in: Demographics, Economics, Socio-political context, Cultural context Science & Technology GEC DRIVERS Changes in: Land cover & soils, Atmospheric Comp., Climate variability & means, Water availability & quality, Nutrient availability & cycling, Biodiversity, Sea currents & salinity, Sea level ‘Natural’ DRIVERS e.g. Volcanoes Solar cycles Environmental feedbacks e.g. water quality, GHGs Socioeconomic feedbacks e.g. livelihoods, social cohesion Food System ACTIVITIES Producing food Processing & Packaging food Distributing & Retailing food Consuming food Food System OUTCOMES Contributing to: Social Welfare Environ Welfare Food Utilisation Food Access Food Availability Food Security Analysing Food Systems From GECAFS
  17. 17. Ecosystem Change for Human Well-being
  18. 18. Tools Needed 1. Ecology: “what’s where?” 2. Economics: “what’s it worth?” 3. Policy & finance: “who pays and how?” Chan, et al. 2006. PLoS Biology
  19. 19. 19 Tools Needed 1. Ecology: “what’s where?” 2. Economics: “what’s it worth?” 3. Policy & finance: “who pays and how?” Net Present Value ($ / ha) Mbaracayu, Paraguay Five services • Carbon storage • Sust. hunting • Sust. timber • Pharmaceuticals • Existence Naidoo and Ricketts. 2006. PLoS Biology $/ha NPV
  20. 20. Tools Needed 1. Ecology: “what’s where?” 2. Economics: “what’s it worth?” 3. Policy & finance: “who pays and how?”
  21. 21. The Climate Change Challenge • Climate change will worsen the living conditions of farmers, fishers and forest-dependent people who are already vulnerable and food insecure • Rural communities ... face an immediate and ever-growing risk of increased crop failure, loss of livestock, loss of fisheries ...... • Hunger and malnutrition will increase FAO 2009
  22. 22. Projected Impacts of Climate Change Stern Review (2008)
  23. 23. The CGIAR Approach
  24. 24. Trends in Rainfall Variability; Sahel WMO (2006) What are the adaptation options?
  25. 25. We are asking for a wide range of agricultural sector actors to change their behavior, to innovate, under conditions of incomplete and un- integrated markets, assymetric information & missing insurance and credit markets The Challenge
  26. 26. Greenhouse Gas Production from Different Sectors in 2008 UN FCCC (2008) What are the mitigation options?
  27. 27. Poverty Alleviation through Mitigation Payments for GHG services GHG Measuring and monitoring system
  28. 28. Trade-offs and Synergies: Food and Carbon (FAO 2009)
  29. 29. Failings in Decision Support • Being driven by science alone (i.e., no clear users) • Targeting the wrong decision-makers as users, or the right ones in the wrong way • Failing to work across scales, given much source work in local case studies • Omitting to identify and use the modes of engagement and leverage points Mark Stafford-Smith (2010)
  30. 30. Research shows four key factors related to escape of poverty: Cellphones Education of girls and women Access to mass media Improved physical access to towns P. Kristjanson (2010)
  31. 31. Conceptual Framework Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation DFID, NERC, ESRC, LWEC (2010)
  32. 32. Per Olsson, SRC, 2009 What Next?

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