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language learning strategies language learning strategies Document Transcript

  • Second language learning Strategies PGD, TEFL Research Report By Shoaib Muhammad Supervisor Mr. Muhammad Javed Iqbal This research report is submitted in requirement of the degree of Post graduate diploma TEFL The Department of English Language and applied linguistics Allama Iqbal Open University islamabad 2013
  • Abstract This study is about how learning strategies that are not specificallytaught used for learning a second language. There are different language learning strategies. To check which strategies are frequently used by second language learners of Pakistan?For this purpose a structured interview is conducted. Analysis of collected data shows that most frequent popular language learning strategy among second language learners is practice. This study would help language teachers as well as language learners and it would convince syllabus designers to include more practice activities in language syllabus.
  • Introduction The most efficient way to heighten languagelearning process is to arm the students with thelanguage learning strategies which have been proved effective for non-native speakers of that language. This research report focuses upon different strategies used by non- native speakers of English in learning English like Pakistani speakers of English language. Students of foreign language are being encouraged to learn and use a broad range of language learning strategies that can be tapped throughout the learning process. This research report is based on the belief that learning will be facilitated by making students aware of the range of strategies from which they can choose during language learning and use. Learning Strategies People do not understand everything when they are born, but have to learn everything so that they are able to understand. Take learning English for example; not everyone can understand it, but some non-native speakers can use the language very well. This is not only the case with English, but also other subjects. However, what exactly is meant by the term “learning strategy”? As Wenden(1987a:7-8) says “Learning strategies are the various operations that learners use in order to make sense of their learning”. Also, Williams& Burden (1997) indicated that when students are involved in a learning task, they have several resources which they use in different ways to finish or solve the task, so this can be termed process of learning strategy. In short, language learning strategies are applied by language learners as a meansto acquireand to useinformation that learners have acquired, stored or recalled, andcan also promote autonomous learning
  • Classification of language learning strategies There are many types of language learning strategies a few eminent of them are given below 1. Strategies that directly affect leaning Clarification/ verification Monitoring Memorization Guessing/ inductive inference Deductive reasoning Practice 2. Processes that contribute indirectly to learning Creates opportunities for practice Production tricks 1. Cognitive strategies (1982) 2. Metacognitive strategies 3. Social-affective strategies 1. Cognitive strategies 2. Metacognitive strategies 3. Social-affective strategies Direct strategies: Rubin (1981) Brown & Palinscar O`Malley et al. (1985) Oxford (1990) 1. Memory strategies 2. Cognitive strategies 3. Compensation strategies Indirect strategies: 1. Metacognitive strategies 2. Affective strategies 3. Social strategies Strategies can be also categorized as either language learning or language use strategies. Language learning strategiesare conscious thoughts and behaviors used by learners with the
  • explicit goal of improving their knowledge and understanding of a target language. They include cognitive strategies for memorizing and manipulating target language structures. The limitations of the study The present research would be limited only to the strategies that directly affect language learning. This study is limited only to the use of the following learning strategies Memorization, Deductive reasoning and guessing/ inductive inference and Practice Statement of the problem Pakistani students are facing many problems in English language proficiency, and they are less equipped with the language learning strategies Hypothesis “Pakistani learners learn English by the use of single strategy that is memorization”
  • Methodology Sampling The first step of my research was to collect data from Pakistan speakers of English language.It was impossible to collect data from all Pakistani English language speaker about their language learning strategies because of limited resources and short period of time. I narrowed down my research only to the English speakers,both male and female, who were enrolled in master level program in English language and literature department at Government college university Faisalabadsince 2012. Instrumentation To collect data for this study I adopted interview as instrument for data collection. It was structured, face to face interview. Results Result is given below in the form of table which is derived from the analysis of the data collected by conducting interview of language learners. Language skills Language strategies Memorization Deductive reasoning Practice and Guessing Listening 2% 3% 95% Speaking 89% 1% 10% Reading 8% 23% 69% Writing 38% 13% 49% Vocabulary 45% 23% 32%
  • Use of learning strategies for language skills 95 100 90 80 69 70 60 53 49 45 50 38 40 30 34 2 3 8 guessing practice 23 20 10 memorization 45 21 13 2 0 litening speaking reading writing vocabulary Discussion Many researchers have given different order of utilization to theses learning strategies. But the result of this research is distinctive one which shows that practice is the most frequently used strategy for learning all language skills. Rather this research rejects my hypothesis. Thisresearch will prove helpful for language teachers as well as for language learners.
  • References Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. New York: Longman Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies Wilkins, D.A., Linguistics in Language Teaching, Edward Arnold, London, 1974., (p.168169) Adams, J.A. (1967) Human Memory. New York: McGraw - Hill. Allport, G.(1937) Pictorial-Verbal and Analytic-Holistic learning strategies in science learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 358 - 368. Anastasi, A.(1958) Differential Psychology, 3rd edition. New York: Macmillan nzai, Y. & Simon, H. (1979) The theory of learning by doing. Psychological Review, 86, Ausubel, D. P.(1963) The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York: Grune & Stretton. Griffiths, C., & Parr, J. M. (2001). Language-learning strategies: theory and perception. ELT Journal, 55(3), 247-254.