PRESNTED BY RAGHWENDRA KUSHWAHA B.TECH (ECE) F.I.T ENGG. COLLEGE MERRUT
ABOUT BELBharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1954 as a public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence.It manufactures advanced electronic products for the defense.BEL was among the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970s.It has total employee strength of about 12000 people spread across 9 manufacturing units, and few regional offices.
PRODUCT RANGES RADAR SYSTEMS 3-Dimensional High Power Static and Mobile Radar for the Air Force. Low Flying Detection Radar for both the Army and the Air force. Tactical Control Radar System for the Army. Battlefield Surveillance Rader for the Army. IFF Mk-X Radar systems for the Defence and export. ASR/MSSR systems for Civil Aviation. Radar & allied systems Data Processing Systems.
COMMUNICATIONS Digital Static Tropo scatters Communication Systems for the Air Force. Digital Mobile Tropo scatters communication System for the Air Force and Army. VHF, UHF & Microwave Communication Equipment. Bulk Encryption Equipment. Turnkey communication Systems Projects for Defence & civil users. Static and Mobile Satellite Communication Systems for Defence. Telemetry /Tele-control Systems.
ANTENNA Antennae for Radar, Terrestrial & Satellite Communication Systems. Antennae for TV Satellite Receive and Broadcast applications. Antennae for Line-of-sight Microwave Communication Systems.MICROWAVE COMPONENT Active Microwave components like LNAs, Synthesizer, and Receivers etc. Passive Microwave components like Double Balanced Mixers, etc.
SERVICES OF BHARAT ELECTRONICSLIMITED (BEL):-DEFENCE PRODUCTS:- Naval System Military Communication Equipment Radars Tele Communication & Broadcasting Services Opto Electronics Electronic Warfare Tank Electronics
NON-DEFENCE PRODUCTS:- Electronic Voting Machine Solar Products Simputer DTH
ROTATION PROGRAM Under this students are introduced to the company by putting them under a rotationprogram to various departments. The several departments where I had gone under myrotational program are:1. Test Equipment and Automation2. P.C.B. Fabrication3. Quality Control Works-Radar4. Work Assembly- Communication5. Magnetics6. Microwave lab Rotation period was to give us a brief insight of the company’s functioning and knowledge of the various departments. A brief idea of the jobs done at the particular departments was given. The cooperative staff at the various departments made the learning process very interesting , which allowed me to know about the company in a very short time.
RADAR The term RADAR was coined in 1941 as an acronym forRadio Detection and Ranging. This acronym of Americanorigin replaced the previously used British abbreviation RDF(Radio Direction Finding).
BASIC PRINCIPLE Echo and Doppler ShiftEcho is something you experience all the time. If you shout into awell or a canyon, the echo comes back a moment later. The echooccurs because some of the sound waves in your shout reflect off ofa surface (either the water at the bottom of the well or the canyonwall on the far side) and travel back to your ears.Doppler shift is also common. You probably experience it daily(often without realizing it). Doppler shift occurs when sound isgenerated by, or reflected off of, a moving object. Doppler shiftin the extreme creates sonic booms
Basic Radar System :
RADAR EQUATIONThe amount of power Pr returning to the receiving antenna isgiven by the radar equation:- where Pt = transmitter power Gt = gain of the transmitting antenna Ar = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna σ = radar cross section, or scattering coefficient, of the target F = pattern propagation factor Rt = distance from the transmitter to the target Rr = distance from the target to the receiver.
RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSINGDistance measurementTransit time
RADAR TRANSMITTERThe radar transmitter produces the short duration high-power ofpulses of energy that are radiated into space by the antenna. Theradar transmitter is required to have the following technical andoperating characteristics: The transmitter must have the ability to generate the required mean RF power and the required peak power The transmitter must have a suitable RF bandwidth. The transmitter must have a high RF stability to meet signal processing requirements The transmitter must be easily modulated to meet waveform design requirements. The transmitter must be efficient, reliable and easy to maintain and the life expectancy and cost of the output device must be acceptable.
An easy block diagram of a fullycoherent radar
RADAR APPLICATIONS Air traffic control uses radar to track planes both on the ground and in the air, and also to guide planes in for smooth landings. Police use radar to detect the speed of passing motorists. NASA uses radar to map the Earth and other planets, to track satellites and space debris and to help with things like docking and maneuvering. The military uses it to detect the enemy and to guide weapons.