Women’s Agency and Child Rights in the 12th Plan (2012 - 2017)
Women’s Agency and Child Rights 12th Five Year Plan
“Gender inequality is another important aspect whichdeserves special attention. Women and girls representhalf the population and our society has not been fair tothis half. Their socio-economic status is improving, butgaps persist….The emergence of women in publicspaces, which is an absolutely essential part of socialemancipation, is accompanied by growing threats to theirsafety and security…… the issue of safety and securityof women is of the highest concern to our Government.There can be no meaningful development without theactive participation of half the population and thisparticipation simply cannot take place if their security isnot assured” - Prime Minister , 57th NationalDevelopment Council Meeting, New Delhi
State of Women and ChildrenWomen and Children constitute 70 per cent of India’s population. According to 2011census, women (including girls )account for 48.5 % and children about 35.% of thepopulationHigh prevalence of anaemia among women 55 % ( in 15-49 age group)Overall sex ratio is 940 , Child Sex Ratio (0 to 6 years) of 914Gender differential in under 5 child mortality- 64 for girls against 55 for boysInfant Mortality Rate is 47 and under 5 child mortality is 59/1000 in 2010High levels of undernutrition : 40.4 per cent children under three are underweight,44.9 per cent stunted and 22.9 percent wasted in 2005-07 ( NFHS-3)Women victims of crimes Domestic violence, sexual abuse and assault, traffickingA large portion of women and children are in difficult circumstances or vulnerableincluding children in poor households without family income, children on streets,children affected by substance abuse etc.
12th Plan Monitorable Targets• Reduce IMR to 25 and MMR to 1 per 1000 live Births• Improve Child Sex Ratio (0–6 years) to 950 by the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan• Reduce undernutrition among children aged 0–3 years to half of the NFHS-3 levels by the end of Twelfth Five Year Plan• Ensure that all children receive a protective environment
12th Plan Strategy• The twelfth Plan envisages engendering development planning and making it child-centric• Calls for structural transformation- not only in the direct policy and programme interventions for women and children but also in the policies and programes of different sectors that impact upon women and children• The key strategies for women identified are; 1- Economic Empowerment 2- Social and Physical Infrastructure 3- Enabling legislations 4- Women’s Participation in Governance 5- Inclusiveness of all categories of vulnerable women and 6- Engendering National Policies/Programmes• The key strategy for children is to fulfill the rights of children to survival, protection, participation and development.
Economic Empowerment• Increase women’s employability in the formal sector and focus on women’s work participation• Employment generation with equity in work conditions by strengthening the implementation of the Equal Remuneration Act and the Maternity Benefit Act• Skill development of women to enable them to move from traditional skills to emerging skills to help women to break the gender stereotypes• Promotion of enterprises of home-based workers and small producers• Self Help Groups (SHGs) to be classified as priority sector and given loans at concessional rates.• Technology transfers to women in all aspects of farming, farm management, animal husbandry, forestry, sustainable natural resource management.• Joint land titles in all government land transfers. Women will be helped to purchase land in groups for group cultivation, incentives to women farmers/SHGs for group farming• Special emphasis on skill development of women belonging to marginalized sections
Social and Physical Infrastructure• Education : Enabling work conditions for women teachers including transportation facilities and housing• Transport Design Improvement : Lower height of entry steps, installation of handrails, ramps in transportation, dedicated exclusive services such as ladies special buses and trains , increase services for women travelling during off-peak hour or services on less-travelled routes and creation of night shelters and toilets for women at Bus stations• Sanitation : Provision of toilets in schools, anganwadis and involvement of women in determining location of sanitation facilities
Enabling Legislation• Protection of Women from Sexual Harassment at Workplace Act, Improve implementation of Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act and Dowry Prohibition Act• Provision for Protection Officers to implement the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act• Review of PC-PNDT Act to make sex selection practices effectively punishable• Review of the Maternity Benefit Act to increase the length of leave for women employed in factories, mines , plantations, shops etc.
Interventions envisaged for safety and protection of women in 12th Plan1- Restorative Justice for the Victims of Rape2- Helpline for Women3- Protection Officers for the implementation of Prevention of Women from Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA)4- Swadhar Greh5- One-Stop Crisis Centre
Women’s Participation in Governance• Effective participation of women in institutions of governance, pre- election preparation of women candidates and voters, intensive training of elected Panchayat women representatives• Increase in the role of Panchayats in enforcing registration of births, marriages and migration to address the issues of trafficking and child marriage• Equip elected women representatives to ensure the efficient delivery of public services under different programmes and elimination of violence against women and girls and achieve universal education• Gender focal point in urban local bodies, citizen report cards with focus on meeting women’s needs in services such as water and sanitation, widow’s pensions
Inclusion of vulnerable women• Special attention to the needs of vulnerable women including the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, OBCs, Minorities, differently- abled women, single women especially widows, elderly women, women affected with HIV/AIDS, Migrant Workers, women in disturbed areas, trafficked women, women in prison and transgendered communities• Better implementation of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes ( Prevention of Atrocities Act), 1989• Good quality house sites in the joint names of both the wife and husband, PDS outlets in SC bastis• Support for education for girls belonging to minority community including collective transport facilities
Engendering of Development Planning• Engendering flagship programmes to ensure the programmes benefit both men and women• Strengthening of Gender Budgeting , extension to all Ministries / Departments• Gender audit and gender impact assessment of the schemes to be carried• Reflecting gender concerns in Results Framework Document (RFD) of Ministries• Mandatory collection of sex disaggregated data
Care and Protection of the Girl Child1- Child Sex Ratio a Monitorable Target2- Girl Child Incentive Scheme- Dhanalaxmi3- Empowerment of Girls through SABLA scheme4- Girl Child Specific District Plan of Action5- Quality Education for Girls
CHILDRENChild Survival & Child Protection and Development Child Rights
Child Survival and Development• Restructured ICDS programme with revision of cost norms , strengthening civil society partnership, repositioning Anganwadi as “ Bal Vikas Kendra” , focus on under 3, strengthening early childhood care and education, 5 % Anganwadis-cum- creches, provision for additional Anganwadi Worker in 200 high burden districts, innovative component of “ Sneha Shivirs”• Formulation of National Policy on Early Childhood Care and Education with curriculum framework and standards• Revision of National Policy for Children
Protection and Child Rights• Focused interventions to improve the Child Sex Ratio• Development and implementation of National, State and District Plan of Actions for children• Harmonization of child related legislative provisions and child-sensitive jurisprudence• Ending all forms of child labour• Addressing emerging needs of vulnerable children and children of excluded socio religious community groups
Interventions• Implementation of ICDS in Mission Mode• Redesign the Rajiv Gandhi National Crèche Scheme• Strengthening and expansion of SABLA- scheme for empowerment of adolescent girls and linkage with education and skill development• Consolidation of Integrated Child Protection Programme• Expansion of Childline services• Design of new child participation interventions like Baal Panchayats• Strengthening institutional mechanisms for the Protection of Child Rights• Ending discrimination against the girl child through institutional arrangements and interventions on promoting quality education for girls, prohibiting dowry and child marriages, incentive schemes for the girl child• Institutionalizing child budgeting
Promotion of Nutrition Security• The decisions of Prime Minister’s National Council on India’s Nutrition Challenges are the guiding principles in the 12th Plan in ensuring nutrition security. The decisions are;• Strengthened and Restructured Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) with special focus on pregnant and lactating mothers and children under three years• Multi-sectoral programme to address maternal and child malnutrition in 200 high-burden districts• Nation-wide information , education and communication campaign• Bringing strong nutrition focus in the Ministries /Departments dealing with Health, Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, School Education Agriculture, and Food and Public Distribution
Interventions• Updation of National Plan of Action for Nutrition• Bringing strong nutrition focus to sectoral programmes• Strengthening/reactivating Institutional arrangements at National, State, District, village and habitation level to address the nutrition challenges• Addressing the dual burden of malnutrition• Nutrition capacity development of Nutrition resources within key national institutions such as National Institute of Health & Family Welfare, National Health System Resource Centre, National Institute of Rural Development, Food and Nutrition Board and National Institute of Public Cooperation & Child Development and networking with Nutrition Resource Units in Agricultural Universities, Medical Colleges and Home Science Colleges• National Nutrition Monitoring and Surveillance Systems
• Nutrition Resource Platform to strengthen the knowledge base on nutrition education at national, regional and state levels• Integration of nutrition education in school education curriculum framework and nutrition component in medical colleges, nursing colleges and councils• Improving the nutrition status of girls through Mid-Day Meal, health care, IFA supplementation and deworming interventions• Community mobilization and nutrition orientation for grassroots workers• Promoting optimal Maternal, Infant and Young Child Care and Feeding Practices and a national policy on Infant and Young Child Feeding and skilled nutrition counselling• Strengthening the implementation of Village Health Nutrition and Sanitation Day• Convergent action on nutrition would make the defining difference to the lives of children and women