Greece amd the Arts

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Covers the art historical diension of classical Greece

Covers the art historical diension of classical Greece

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  • 1. Greece and the Arts Two-Dimensional Art, Sculpture, and Architecture
  • 2. Principles Underlying Greek Art
    • Catchword: Man is the Measure of All Things
    • Even the Gods were anthropomorphic (shaped like humans)
    • Evolved from stylization of Egyptians to Naturalism
    • Emphasis is on balance, ideal forms, and the Golden Mean
  • 3. Pottery
    • Pottery was made of terra cotta (earthenware material) which may or may not be glazed
    • Black-figure pottery was popular.
    • Figures were painted in black
    • Details were incised with a sharp tool, exposing the orange clay below
    • Vase was fired to turn the painted figures black and the surface areas orange
    • Red-figure vases involved reversal of this process
    • Details: box on p. 145
  • 4. Archaic Period: Form Followed Function
    • P. 145 shows the forms
    • Hydria: water jug with 3 handles
    • Lekythos: flask for pouring oil
    • Krater: bowl for mixing wine and water
    • Amphora: vessel for storing olive oil, wine, honey, or water
    • Kylix: drinking cup
    • Oenachoe: jug for pouring wine
  • 5. Examples of Black-Figure Pottery
    • Achilles and Ajax playing board game (p. 145)
    • Achilles killing the Amazon warrior Penthesilea, an ally of the Trojans (left; detail from p. 246)
    • In this scene, Achilles tragically falls in love with her as she dies from her wound
  • 6. Black Figure Pottery: Olympic Races
    • This amphora depicts a race among contestants at the earliest Olympic games
    • All contestants competed in the nude—a good way to avoid cheating
    • The games were held at Olympia in honor of the gods
  • 7. Mosaics
    • Mosaics do not appear until the Hellenistic period, when Alexander the Great conquered Persia, then Central Asia
    • This scene depicts the decisive battle of Issus (Issos) in which Alexander defeats Darius; see p. 149
  • 8. Sculpture, Classical Greece: Influences
    • Lions of Delos “guarded” structures in belief that lions sleep with their eyes open (p. 150)
    • The lions reflect orientalistic influence
    • Archaic Greek statues reflect the proportionality of Egyptian sculpture (left)
    • Statue Kouros show one foot forward, hands to side in clenched fists
    • Nudity that characterizes much Greek sculpture first appears here
    • Female figures, such as Hera (p. 152) and Peplos Kore (p. 153) remain clothed
    • The latter is also known for its “archaic smile”
  • 9. Sculpture: Early Classical
    • Kritos Boy shows greater naturalism; flesh covers more bone and muscle and is less stylized (p. 153)
    • Bronze is introduced, reflecting the lost wax technique
    • P. 154 shows how the lost wax process works
    • A classical example appears on p. 155 in the form of Zeus or Poseidon
  • 10. Theme of Poseidon/Zeus
    • Whether this is the top god Zeus or the sea god Poseidon (Neptune to the Romans)
    • Depends on inference and interpretation
    • Clearly reflects growing Greek interest in athletics
    • Most like, a spear is missing from this image
    • Focus of his aim, tensing of body, and other details emphasize intensity of purpose (pp.156-156
  • 11. Theme of Athleticism
    • Discus Thrower (p. 156, left)
    • Warriors from Race (p. 157, right)
    • Some of the sculptors visited the gymnasium for models of their work
    • Athletic or not, the subjects were depicted as well proportioned, a canon of Greek sculpture
  • 12. Sculpture, Late Classic
    • Toward the late classic, the sculptor Praxiteles adopted an S-shaped curve in the human form
    • Female nudes were added to the repertoire
    • Aphrodite of Knidos (left) reflected the new trend
    • Right hand modestly hides her genitalia, while left hand hold her garments (p. 180)
    • Lysippos specialized in portraits and was court sculptor for Alexander the Great (p. 180)
  • 13. Architecture
    • To the Greeks, as elsewhere, temples were thought to be houses for the gods
    • Called megarons (rectangular structures with columns, they included a portico, or front porch
    • The cult statue of the god or goddess was located in the center.
    • They usually had a decorated pediment, or roof façade, portraying gods or other themes
  • 14. Parts of a Temple: The Doric Order as Example
    • The main column is known as a shaft, with 20 flutes running lengthwise
    • The foot is known as the stylobate
    • The top part of the column is called the neck
    • For other terms, expand this slide to Slide Show mode
    • Look also at P. 152
  • 15. The Three Orders of Columns
  • 16. Comparing the Three Orders
    • The three orders are summarized on pp. 162-163
    • The Doric is the simplest, with no decoration at the top
    • The Ionic contains volutes (scroll shapes) that replace the echinus (the bulge above the necking) of the Doric
    • The Corinthian has a flowery capital just above the necking
  • 17. The Cult Figure of the Temple
    • The cult figure occupies the temple center
    • Temple of Zeus: the head god himself in Olympia
    • Acropolis: Hilltop containing the temples in Athens
    • Parthenon: Temple dedicated to Athena
    • Nike Temple: to the goddess of war and victory
    • Erechtheneum: to Athena Pallas as patron of Athens
  • 18. The Parthenon
    • The temple was dedicated to Athena (upper left)
    • It is surrounded by Doric columns
    • The statue of Athena stood at the center (lower left)
    • “ Parthenon” is derived from the term “virgin,” which myth says she was
    • The temple is embellished by friezes on the inner part of the temple and by others in the pediments; see pp. 170-6
  • 19. The Pediments
    • Pediments are the triangles on either ene of a gabled roof, usually with decoration
    • The left side of the east pediment depicts Athena’s birth from the forehead of Zeus
    • They also depict three goddesses: Persephone, Demeter, and either Hebe or Iris
    • The right side of the east pediment depict horses marking the rise of the sun
    • They also depict a reclining male nude, possibly Herakles (Hercules) or Dionysos
  • 20. Inside (Ionic) Frieze
    • The inside frieze depicts a procession of gods, humans, and beasts
    • Horses are depicted as small relative to the riders.
    • All the heads of the procession are set at the same level
    • Shading of the frieze creates the illusion of movement
  • 21. Inside (Ionic) Frieze: Details
    • Left: Detail from the east pediment of the Parthenon
    • Right: Details from the procession depicted in the Ionic Frieze, with seated gods and goddesses witnessing the event
  • 22. Hellenistic Greek Themes
    • The Hellenistic Styles anticipate what one will find for Rome
    • The architecture emphasizes the value of size
    • The arts are extensions of the canons begun in Classical Greece
    • Portraits assume a greater importance
    • Much Hellenic and Hellenistic art is copied by Romans
  • 23. Architecture: Altar of Zeus
    • Given to larger, monumental forms than that of Classical Greece.
    • The Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, Asia Minor, commemorating a battle with the invading Gauls
  • 24. Statuary Realism
    • Themes of statue are victory of intellect over barbarism, Olympian gods over Titans
    • Athena triumphs over Male, son of the Earth Mother
    • Laco őn and sons captured by sea serpent sent by Athena (lower left)
    • This is in revenge for his warning the Trojans of an impeding attack
    • The Hellenic ideal form is displaced by realism that also portray children and the aging
    • This anticipates Roman sculpture
  • 25. Other Sculpture: Nike and Aphrodite
    • The Winged Victory gives a sense of movement as the wind whips against Nike’s garment
    • Nike descends from the heavens on the prow of a ship to celebrate a naval victory
    • Aphrodite de Melos (aka Venus de Milo ) continues the trend toward a fleshier style than classic proportions
    • The same trend emphasizes the sensuality begun by Praxitcles Aphrodite of Knidos (pp. 184-185)
  • 26. Conclusion
    • This sample illustrates the following trends
    • From formalism to naturalism in sculpture and the two-dimensional arts
    • Importance of male nudity, followed much later by female nudity
    • The emergence of three distinct columns: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
    • The emergence of temples dedicated to particular gods: Zeus, Athena, Nike
    • The emergence of portrait and realism in the Hellenistic period