Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Greece amd the Arts
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Greece amd the Arts


Published on

Covers the art historical diension of classical Greece

Covers the art historical diension of classical Greece

Published in: Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Greece and the Arts Two-Dimensional Art, Sculpture, and Architecture
  • 2. Principles Underlying Greek Art
    • Catchword: Man is the Measure of All Things
    • Even the Gods were anthropomorphic (shaped like humans)
    • Evolved from stylization of Egyptians to Naturalism
    • Emphasis is on balance, ideal forms, and the Golden Mean
  • 3. Pottery
    • Pottery was made of terra cotta (earthenware material) which may or may not be glazed
    • Black-figure pottery was popular.
    • Figures were painted in black
    • Details were incised with a sharp tool, exposing the orange clay below
    • Vase was fired to turn the painted figures black and the surface areas orange
    • Red-figure vases involved reversal of this process
    • Details: box on p. 145
  • 4. Archaic Period: Form Followed Function
    • P. 145 shows the forms
    • Hydria: water jug with 3 handles
    • Lekythos: flask for pouring oil
    • Krater: bowl for mixing wine and water
    • Amphora: vessel for storing olive oil, wine, honey, or water
    • Kylix: drinking cup
    • Oenachoe: jug for pouring wine
  • 5. Examples of Black-Figure Pottery
    • Achilles and Ajax playing board game (p. 145)
    • Achilles killing the Amazon warrior Penthesilea, an ally of the Trojans (left; detail from p. 246)
    • In this scene, Achilles tragically falls in love with her as she dies from her wound
  • 6. Black Figure Pottery: Olympic Races
    • This amphora depicts a race among contestants at the earliest Olympic games
    • All contestants competed in the nude—a good way to avoid cheating
    • The games were held at Olympia in honor of the gods
  • 7. Mosaics
    • Mosaics do not appear until the Hellenistic period, when Alexander the Great conquered Persia, then Central Asia
    • This scene depicts the decisive battle of Issus (Issos) in which Alexander defeats Darius; see p. 149
  • 8. Sculpture, Classical Greece: Influences
    • Lions of Delos “guarded” structures in belief that lions sleep with their eyes open (p. 150)
    • The lions reflect orientalistic influence
    • Archaic Greek statues reflect the proportionality of Egyptian sculpture (left)
    • Statue Kouros show one foot forward, hands to side in clenched fists
    • Nudity that characterizes much Greek sculpture first appears here
    • Female figures, such as Hera (p. 152) and Peplos Kore (p. 153) remain clothed
    • The latter is also known for its “archaic smile”
  • 9. Sculpture: Early Classical
    • Kritos Boy shows greater naturalism; flesh covers more bone and muscle and is less stylized (p. 153)
    • Bronze is introduced, reflecting the lost wax technique
    • P. 154 shows how the lost wax process works
    • A classical example appears on p. 155 in the form of Zeus or Poseidon
  • 10. Theme of Poseidon/Zeus
    • Whether this is the top god Zeus or the sea god Poseidon (Neptune to the Romans)
    • Depends on inference and interpretation
    • Clearly reflects growing Greek interest in athletics
    • Most like, a spear is missing from this image
    • Focus of his aim, tensing of body, and other details emphasize intensity of purpose (pp.156-156
  • 11. Theme of Athleticism
    • Discus Thrower (p. 156, left)
    • Warriors from Race (p. 157, right)
    • Some of the sculptors visited the gymnasium for models of their work
    • Athletic or not, the subjects were depicted as well proportioned, a canon of Greek sculpture
  • 12. Sculpture, Late Classic
    • Toward the late classic, the sculptor Praxiteles adopted an S-shaped curve in the human form
    • Female nudes were added to the repertoire
    • Aphrodite of Knidos (left) reflected the new trend
    • Right hand modestly hides her genitalia, while left hand hold her garments (p. 180)
    • Lysippos specialized in portraits and was court sculptor for Alexander the Great (p. 180)
  • 13. Architecture
    • To the Greeks, as elsewhere, temples were thought to be houses for the gods
    • Called megarons (rectangular structures with columns, they included a portico, or front porch
    • The cult statue of the god or goddess was located in the center.
    • They usually had a decorated pediment, or roof façade, portraying gods or other themes
  • 14. Parts of a Temple: The Doric Order as Example
    • The main column is known as a shaft, with 20 flutes running lengthwise
    • The foot is known as the stylobate
    • The top part of the column is called the neck
    • For other terms, expand this slide to Slide Show mode
    • Look also at P. 152
  • 15. The Three Orders of Columns
  • 16. Comparing the Three Orders
    • The three orders are summarized on pp. 162-163
    • The Doric is the simplest, with no decoration at the top
    • The Ionic contains volutes (scroll shapes) that replace the echinus (the bulge above the necking) of the Doric
    • The Corinthian has a flowery capital just above the necking
  • 17. The Cult Figure of the Temple
    • The cult figure occupies the temple center
    • Temple of Zeus: the head god himself in Olympia
    • Acropolis: Hilltop containing the temples in Athens
    • Parthenon: Temple dedicated to Athena
    • Nike Temple: to the goddess of war and victory
    • Erechtheneum: to Athena Pallas as patron of Athens
  • 18. The Parthenon
    • The temple was dedicated to Athena (upper left)
    • It is surrounded by Doric columns
    • The statue of Athena stood at the center (lower left)
    • “ Parthenon” is derived from the term “virgin,” which myth says she was
    • The temple is embellished by friezes on the inner part of the temple and by others in the pediments; see pp. 170-6
  • 19. The Pediments
    • Pediments are the triangles on either ene of a gabled roof, usually with decoration
    • The left side of the east pediment depicts Athena’s birth from the forehead of Zeus
    • They also depict three goddesses: Persephone, Demeter, and either Hebe or Iris
    • The right side of the east pediment depict horses marking the rise of the sun
    • They also depict a reclining male nude, possibly Herakles (Hercules) or Dionysos
  • 20. Inside (Ionic) Frieze
    • The inside frieze depicts a procession of gods, humans, and beasts
    • Horses are depicted as small relative to the riders.
    • All the heads of the procession are set at the same level
    • Shading of the frieze creates the illusion of movement
  • 21. Inside (Ionic) Frieze: Details
    • Left: Detail from the east pediment of the Parthenon
    • Right: Details from the procession depicted in the Ionic Frieze, with seated gods and goddesses witnessing the event
  • 22. Hellenistic Greek Themes
    • The Hellenistic Styles anticipate what one will find for Rome
    • The architecture emphasizes the value of size
    • The arts are extensions of the canons begun in Classical Greece
    • Portraits assume a greater importance
    • Much Hellenic and Hellenistic art is copied by Romans
  • 23. Architecture: Altar of Zeus
    • Given to larger, monumental forms than that of Classical Greece.
    • The Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, Asia Minor, commemorating a battle with the invading Gauls
  • 24. Statuary Realism
    • Themes of statue are victory of intellect over barbarism, Olympian gods over Titans
    • Athena triumphs over Male, son of the Earth Mother
    • Laco őn and sons captured by sea serpent sent by Athena (lower left)
    • This is in revenge for his warning the Trojans of an impeding attack
    • The Hellenic ideal form is displaced by realism that also portray children and the aging
    • This anticipates Roman sculpture
  • 25. Other Sculpture: Nike and Aphrodite
    • The Winged Victory gives a sense of movement as the wind whips against Nike’s garment
    • Nike descends from the heavens on the prow of a ship to celebrate a naval victory
    • Aphrodite de Melos (aka Venus de Milo ) continues the trend toward a fleshier style than classic proportions
    • The same trend emphasizes the sensuality begun by Praxitcles Aphrodite of Knidos (pp. 184-185)
  • 26. Conclusion
    • This sample illustrates the following trends
    • From formalism to naturalism in sculpture and the two-dimensional arts
    • Importance of male nudity, followed much later by female nudity
    • The emergence of three distinct columns: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
    • The emergence of temples dedicated to particular gods: Zeus, Athena, Nike
    • The emergence of portrait and realism in the Hellenistic period