1. final differentiated instruction workshop ncss 2010


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Differentiating Instruction to Advance LiteracyL Utilizing the Past to Perfect the future

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  • Do scenarios of:Shoe stores now selling only one size shoeGoing to dr’s office with a variety of illnesses and only one medicine
  • Often, we think only of summative rather than formative assessment.
  • We’ve selected eight areas that we want to discuss with you. There are certainly other strategies. We’ve tried to make these broad enough to include lots of examples, but specific enough so that you can think of how you might use them. Please chime in and let us know any that you have tried.
  • Can differentiate virtually anything through agendas-materials subjects, topics within subjects, teacher support, pacing. Allow students to work on long term products in class where teacher can monitor and coach their planning, research, production.Can alwo allow for differentiation by readiness or student interest.
  • Sometimes teachers correlate the activities to grades of A,B, C but that’s really not the basic idea
  • Example
  • 1. final differentiated instruction workshop ncss 2010

    1. 1. Differentiating Instruction to Advance Literacy: Utilizing the Past to Perfect the Future NCSS 2010 Dr. Susan Santoli Dr. Paige Baggett Dr. Susan Ferguson University of South Alabama Mobile, AL
    2. 2. Session Overview • Experiences in Differentiation? • What is Differentiation? • Differentiation Strategies • Tips for Implementing Differentiation • Differentiation Practice • Differentiating for ELL Students • Differentiation Practice • Resources
    3. 3. Imagine these scenarios…
    4. 4. Not all students are alike! • Varying background knowledge • Readiness • Language • Preferences in learning • Interests • Motivation
    5. 5. When you hear “differentiated instruction,” what comes to mind??
    6. 6. What Differentiated Instruction IS • Having a vision of success for students • Realizing that not all students learn the same way • Allowing students some choice in their routes to learning • Providing opportunities for students to demonstrate knowledge they know and move forward • Offering lessons of varying degrees of difficulty to meet the same standard • Combining whole class instruction with individual and/or group work
    7. 7. What Differentiated Instruction IS NOT • A different lesson plan for each student each day • Assuming that all students learn by listening and writing • Assigning more work to students who have demonstrated mastery • Only for students who need acceleration • Giving all students the same work/assignments all of the time
    8. 8. Elements of Differentiation • The teacher focuses on the essentials • The teacher attends to student differences • Assessment and instruction are inseparable • The teacher adapts content, process and/or products • All students participate in respectful work • Collaboration between teacher and student
    9. 9. • The teacher balances group and individual norms. • Teacher and students work together flexibly.
    10. 10. All differentiation begins with assessment!
    11. 11. Assessment • Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction • Think of assessment for learning vs. assessment of learning • Assessment should always have more to do with helping students grow, than cataloging their mistakes From Carol Ann Tomlinson
    12. 12. The What… 1. Content 2. Process 3. Product
    13. 13. The How… 1. Readiness 2. Interest 3. Learning Profile
    14. 14. Content Process Product According to Students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Teachers Can Differentiate The Access Center. Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)
    15. 15. Instructional Strategies that Support Differentiation • Anchor Activities • Centers/Stations • Layered Curriculum • Tiered Lessons • Entry Points • Use of the Arts • Academic Contracts • Compacting
    16. 16. What do you do when… – Students finish work early and correctly – Students finish tests or in class assignments at different rates – You need to work with certain students on specific information/skills
    17. 17. Anchor Activity • Student activities that are designed to extend and review already learned skills • Self directed • Can free up classroom teacher to work with small groups or individual students • Can be used to begin the day, when students complete an assignment, when students are stuck and waiting for help (Tomlinson, 2001)
    18. 18. Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups Teach the whole class to work independently and quietly on the anchor activity. Half the class works on anchor activity. Other half works on a different activity. Flip-Flop 1/3 works on anchor activity. 1/3 works on a different activity. 1/3 works with teacher---direct instruction. 1 2 3 www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enriched/giftedprograms/docs/anchor.ppt
    19. 19. Examples of Anchor Activities • Journals or learning logs • Supplementary readings • Learning packets • Learning/Interest Centers • Investigations • Research projects • Think-tac-toe (example to follow) • Learning Contracts (example to follow) • Webquests or web activities • Silent reading
    20. 20. Examples of Anchor Activities Examples of Specific Anchor Activities Enrichment Activities sites from sources such as readwritethink from the International Reading Association (http://www.readwritethink.org) Others might include: • Content related crossword puzzles • A listening center • A video center • Learning packets on specific information or a specific skill ABC Books
    21. 21. ABC Books: ABCs for Baby Patriots http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?m=hd1J&i=108500
    22. 22. Student ABC Book on World War I
    23. 23. What are some anchor activities that you have used or might use?
    24. 24. – Teacher creates an agenda that will last 2-3 weeks – A particular time is set aside as agenda time (each day, each week) – Students generally determine the order in which they’ll complete agenda items – This could also be a choice of projects or assignments Agendas-personalized list of tasks that a student must complete in a specified time
    25. 25. Examples of Think Tac Toe Projects • East Asia • 2008 Presidential Election • American Presidents • Industrial Revolution
    26. 26. Centers/Stations • Spots for concentrated work on particular skills or assignments or areas that students move through that contain different assignments • Holocaust Centers • Environmental Center
    27. 27. Layered Curriculum • Students have a variety of activities from which to choose • Choices are presented in layers, where each represents a different type of thinking or depth of understanding • C represents Core Concepts • B represents Application • A represents Critical Thinking
    28. 28. Layered Examples • Geography • Egypt • Economics • Kathy Nunnley site
    29. 29. • Tiered Activities-used when a teacher wants to make sure that students with different learning needs work with the same essential ideas and use the same study skills Examples from ss textbook resources
    30. 30. • Great Depression Tiered Lesson Plan- Library of Congress http://web.archive.org/web/20070316174958/http://www. primarysourcelearning.org/teach/best_practices/diff_inst ruct_bulletin_sec.pdf • Standard for lesson plan: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by identifying the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal.
    31. 31. Same content information, different LEARNING PROCESS
    32. 32. • Everyone will answer these questions: 1. Describe what you see in the photograph. Include as much detail as possible. 2. Compare and contrast your home to the home you see in the photograph. What is similar and what is different? 3. In addition to the first two questions, student pairs will each receive one of the following questions based on academic readiness level.
    33. 33. • Tier 1: If we could hear the people talking about their life, what would they be saying? • Tier 2: From what you see in the photograph, explain how you think this room might be used by the family and why. • Tier 3: Assess the Great Depression’s social and economic impact on this family from the evidence in the photo.
    34. 34. Same content information, same analysis process, different PRODUCTS
    35. 35. • Tier 1: Create a timeline of the Dust Bowl and Great Depression era. Include the following 10 events with accompanying visuals and written description. • Tier 2: Create a scrapbook depicting the life of a child affected by the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. Include information about where the child lives, his/her family’s economic and social situation, recreation, education, and prospects for the future. • Tier 3: In the role of a political candidate, create a persuasive speech proposing actions to address the concerns of the Dust Bowl farmers during the Great Depression. Incorporate information about the farmers’ economic, social and political problems and propose how the government can and cannot assist them. Support your plan with evidence from both primary and secondary sources.
    36. 36. Same task, 3 different SOURCES OF INFORMATION Choose one of the primary sources below. Examine both the information about the item and the item itself. Take notes of important details that will help you answer the following question: WHAT WERE SOME OF THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION ON PEOPLE?
    37. 37. Tier 1: Dorothea Lange Photograph of the Migrant Mother, 1936
    38. 38. Tier 2: Mrs. Mary Sullivan-August, 1940 A Traveler’s Line
    39. 39. Tier 3: American Life Histories, Manuscript from the Federal Writer’s Project, North Carolina, 1938 Nina Boone-North Carolina
    40. 40. Reflection
    41. 41. Academic/Learning Contracts Grapes of Wrath •Written agreements between students and teachers •What students will learn •How they will learn it •Time period for learning experience •How they will be evaluated •Usually opportunity for student choice •Could be tiered activities •Could be an anchor activity
    42. 42. Entry Points • Middle Ages • Immigration • Industrial Revolution
    43. 43. Fandex Masters of Western Art: Painters Content Springboard for Academic/Learning Contract • Written agreements between students and teachers • What students will learn • How they will learn it • Time period for learning experience • How they will be evaluated • Usually opportunity for student choice • Could be tiered activities • Could be an anchor activity
    44. 44. • Entry points-based on Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences – Begin topic with overview for whole class – Allow students to select entry points for investigation Source: http://connect.in.com/gardner-multiple-intelligence/photos-1-1-1-1501aebf4e77af79d3a75ba0a40e8173.html
    45. 45. Multiple Intelligences & The Arts • Write and perform a song to teach concepts • Creating charts, posters, graphs, or diagrams • Creating a Web page or PowerPoint project • Making a videotape or film • Creating pie charts, bar graphs, etc. • Making a photo album • Creating a collage • Designing a mindmap • Making a map • Using color and shape • Developing or using Guided Imagery • Understanding Color Schemes Multiple Intelligences & Social Studies
    46. 46. Geography American History Symbolism Descriptive Words Language Visual Literacy Consumerism Pop Art, Collage & Recycling Your ideas
    47. 47. Compacting • Requires pre-assessment before beginning unit of study or development of a skill • Students who do well on the pre-assessment should not have to continue work on what they already know • A plan for meaningful and challenging use of student time will be developed • Can also be used in giving homework assignments
    48. 48. http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enriched/ giftedprograms/docs/ppts/compactingfixed.ppt
    49. 49. General Compacting Example The Crusades Web Quests Students complete an online quest Think Quests Students create an online quest or complete one posted by other students
    50. 50. Getting Started…. • Start small – Start with your favorite unit/lesson plan – Begin by teaching all students an anchor activity- meaningful work done individually and silently – Early on, you may want to ask some students to work with anchor activity and others to work on a different task which also requires no conversation or collaboration – Try a differentiated tasks for only a small block of time – Grow slowly, but grow
    51. 51. – Assess students before you begin to teach a skill or topic – Try creating one differentiated lesson per unit – Differentiate one product per semester – Find multiple resources for a couple of key parts of your curriculum – Give students more choices about how to work, how to express learning or which homework assignments to do – Develop and use a two day learning contract, then a 4 day, etc.
    52. 52. You cannot differentiate everything for everyone every day! Differentiation is an organized yet flexible way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to meet kids where they are and help them to achieve maximum growth as learners.
    53. 53. Differentiated Instruction and ELL Students • Differentiation benefits all students and is especially effective for ELL students who may have difficulty with – Understanding the material they are hearing or reading – Communicating their knowledge of the material
    54. 54. Social Studies can present special challenges for ELLs • Use of higher level thinking skills required for reading and writing • Lack of familiarity with historical terms, government processes, and vocabulary • Amount of text covered and ELL’s inability to tell what is important in the text and what is not
    55. 55. • Difficulty understanding what is said by the teacher and being able to take notes • Differences in educational system • Lack of experience in expressing personal opinions in class • Concepts that do not exist at all in some cultures Haynes (2005) in Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners by Cruz and Thorton
    56. 56. Strategies • Books on CD • Open book quizzes • Alternative projects • Fill in the blank before essay • Essays that relate to the students • Accessing prior knowledge
    57. 57. Making Content Comprehensible • Use illustrations/pictures • Act it out • Enlist the help of a bilingual dictionary or word for word translator • Use scaffolding to build up to new concepts • Check for prior knowledge
    58. 58. Inviting ELLs to Achieve • Plans some lessons/activities that are relevant to the lives of ELL students • Provide hands-on lessons with activities that will allow for early success for ELLs • Communicate individually with ELLs as much as possible • Give students sufficient wait time
    59. 59. More classroom tips • Avoid forcing students to speak • Emphasize key words and concepts • Use lots of repetitions • Check often for understanding • Provide graphic organizers to aid in study • Set reasonable study goals • Help them find key concepts
    60. 60. Questioning Strategies • “Point to the answer” strategy • “Yes-no” with visual aid • Break complex questions or tasks into steps • Ask simple “how” and “where” questions
    61. 61. Drama • Charades/pantomime • Readers’ Theatre • Act as I read • Create a Character • Set Designing • Puppets
    62. 62. Advance Preparation • What vocabulary will be difficult • What connections can I make to other knowledge? • What strategies does my ELL need to develop? • What assessment will realistically test the knowledge of my ELL without penalizing his/her level of learning?
    63. 63. • Clearly defined and written objectives • Organizers, outlines, labels and pictures • Supplementary materials • Make it relevant • Links to past experience and potential experience
    64. 64. Resources Social Studies Activities and Handouts Including English Language Learners in Social Studies (ppt) presented by Cruz and Thorton at NCSS 2008 To access this ppt, go to: http://www.coedu.usf.edu/main/ Departments/seced/Faculty/Thorton.html
    65. 65. • Making Social Studies Meaningful for ELL Students: Content and Pedagogy in Mainstream Secondary School Classrooms http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol162006/ahmad.pdf • Teaching the English Language Learner in the Social Studies Classroom http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/teaching_ell.ph tml • Resources to Help ELL Students http://www.mcsk12.net/SCHOOLS/peabody.es/ell.htm • Teaching Social Studies to ESL Students http://www.suite101.com/content/teaching-social-studies-to-esl- students-a129303 • Passport to Learning: Teaching Social Studies to ESL Students by Barbara’ Cruz, Joyce Nutta, and Jason O’Brian. NCSS: 2003. • Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners by Barbara’Cruz and Stephen Thorton, NY: Routledge, 2009.
    66. 66. Understanding the WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards: A Resource Guide, 2007 Edition http://www.wida.us/standards/Resource_Guide_web.pdf
    67. 67. Questions or Comments? Dr. Susan Santoli ssantoli@usouthal.edu Dr. Paige V. Baggett pbaggett@usouthal.edu Dr. Susan Ferguson ferguson@usouthal.edu