PHARMACOGENOMICS BY, Ajoy Aloysius &  Nidhish Thampi
PHARMACOGENOMICS (PHARMACOLGY+GENOMICS) <ul><li>Pharmacogenomics is the study of how individual’s genetic inheritance affe...
HISTORY <ul><li>First observation of genetic variation in drug response dates back to 1950s,  involving the muscle relaxan...
<ul><li>“ ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL” </li></ul>
A NEW APPROACH
PHARMACOGENOMIC TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Genotyping(DNA sequencing,SNPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>...
Is Pharmacogenomics in use today? <ul><li>The  cytochrome P450(CYP) :family of liver enzyme responsible for breaking 30 di...
APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOGENOMICS <ul><li>More powerful medicines. </li></ul><ul><li>Better, safer drugs the first time.  <...
 
 
BARRIERS TO PHARMACOGENOMIC PROGRESS <ul><li>Complexity of finding gene variations that affect drug response. </li></ul><u...
PHARMACOGENOMICS IN FUTURE  (COMPUTERISED MEDICATION) <ul><li>Imagine a computerised machine replacing the doctors role in...
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Pharmacology

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Pharmacology

  1. 1. PHARMACOGENOMICS BY, Ajoy Aloysius & Nidhish Thampi
  2. 2. PHARMACOGENOMICS (PHARMACOLGY+GENOMICS) <ul><li>Pharmacogenomics is the study of how individual’s genetic inheritance affects the body’s response to drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an application of genomic tool in traditional pharmacology. </li></ul><ul><li>It will give predictive medicine & personalised medication. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a promissing field in futuristic medication. </li></ul>
  3. 3. HISTORY <ul><li>First observation of genetic variation in drug response dates back to 1950s, involving the muscle relaxant suxamethonium chloride and drug metabolised by N-acetyl transferase . </li></ul><ul><li>About 106,000 deaths &2.2 million serious events due to the adverse drug reactions (ADRs). </li></ul><ul><li>ADRs are responsible for 5-7% of hospital admissions in Europe and US. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL” </li></ul>
  5. 5. A NEW APPROACH
  6. 6. PHARMACOGENOMIC TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Genotyping(DNA sequencing,SNPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Functional phenotyping </li></ul><ul><li>RFLP,DNA micro arrays,SSCP </li></ul><ul><li>Mass spectrometry </li></ul>
  7. 7. Is Pharmacogenomics in use today? <ul><li>The cytochrome P450(CYP) :family of liver enzyme responsible for breaking 30 different drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Today clinical researchers use genetic test for variation of CYP450. </li></ul><ul><li>Thiopurine methyltransferase (TMPT): important role in chemotherapy treatment of leukemia (Breaking of Thiopurines ) </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors can use genetic test to monitor TMPT activity to determine Thiopurine level. </li></ul>
  8. 8. APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOGENOMICS <ul><li>More powerful medicines. </li></ul><ul><li>Better, safer drugs the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>More accurate methods of determining appropriate drug dosages. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced screening for diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in the drug discovery and approval process. </li></ul><ul><li>Better vaccines. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in overall cost of health care. </li></ul>
  9. 11. BARRIERS TO PHARMACOGENOMIC PROGRESS <ul><li>Complexity of finding gene variations that affect drug response. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited drug alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Disincentives for drug companies to make multiple pharmacogenomic products. </li></ul><ul><li>Educating health care providers. </li></ul>
  10. 12. PHARMACOGENOMICS IN FUTURE (COMPUTERISED MEDICATION) <ul><li>Imagine a computerised machine replacing the doctors role in medication. </li></ul><ul><li>The patient is provided with a genotype card containing his/her genotypic data. </li></ul><ul><li>The patient inserts the card in to the machine and later on the machine scans and identifies the disease which is compared with his/her genotype. </li></ul><ul><li>There by prescribing the apt and safest drug and its dosage. </li></ul>
  11. 13. THANK YOU

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