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Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
Ss drugs reg
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Ss drugs reg

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  • 1-4 Survey by Harvard School of Public Health 1. 81%; 2. 44%; 3. 75%; 4. 48%
    5-8 National advisory counsel on Alcohol Abuse 5. 1400, 6. 70,000, 7. 100,000 8. 25%
  • Depressants such as alcohol, the barbiturates, and the opiates act by reducing neural activity and slowing body functions. Each offers its own pleasures, but at the cost of impaired memory and self-awareness or other physical consequences. Alcohol is a disinhibitor and thus increases the likelihood that we will act on both helpful and harmful impulses. It also impairs judgment, reduces self-awareness, and disrupts memory processes by suppressing REM sleep. Research indicates that when people believe that alcohol affects social behavior in specific ways, and believe that they have been drinking alcohol, they will behave accordingly. Studies find drinking and risky sex to be highly correlated. Barbiturates, or tranquilizers, mimic the effects of alcohol. In combination with alcohol, they can be lethal. The opiates also depress neural functioning and can cause the brain to stop producing its own opiates, the endorphins.
  • Stimulants, such as caffeine, nicotine, and the amphetamines and the even more powerful cocaine, Ecstasy, and methamphetamines, excite neural activity and arouse body functions. As with nearly all psychoactive drugs, they act at the synapses by influencing the brain’s neurotransmitters, and their effects depend on dosage and the user’s personality and expectations. Methamphetamine is highly addictive; over time, it appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels. Nicotine triggers the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which in turn diminish appetite and boost alertness and mental efficiency. Cocaine produces a euphoric rush that lasts 15 to 30 minutes and depletes the brain’s supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. A crash of agitat- ed depression follows as the drug’s effects wear off. Regular users become addicted and may expe- rience emotional disturbance, suspiciousness, convulsions, cardiac arrest, or respiratory failure. Ecstasy (MDMA) is both a stimulant and a mild hallucinogen. By releasing serotonin and block- ing its reuptake, it produces euphoria and feelings of intimacy. Its repeated use may suppress the immune system, destroy serotonin-producing neurons, and permanently damage mood.
  • Stimulants are drugs that increase the activity of the nervous system, particularly the sympathetic division and the central nervous system.
    Amphetamines are synthetic drugs such as Benzedrine or Dexedrine. They help people stay awake and reduce appetite but are highly physically addictive.
    Cocaine is highly addictive and can cause convulsions and death in some first-time users.
    Nicotine is a mild stimulant and is very physically addictive.
    Caffeine is the most commonly used stimulant, found in coffee, tea, chocolate, and many sodas.
  • Hallucinogens distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. LSD and other powerful hallucinogens are chemically similar to (and therefore block the actions of) a subtype of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Common components of the LSD experience are hallucinations and emotions ranging from euphoria to panic. A person’s current mood and expectations affect the drug’s effects.
    The sensations produced by LSD are strikingly similar to the near-death experience, an altered state of consciousness reported by about one-third of those who survive a brush with death. Near- death experiences are marked by out-of-body sensations, visions of tunnels and bright lights, and intense feelings of joy, love, and peace. The hallucinations of such experiences also closely parallel the hallucinations produced by loss of oxygen or extreme sensory deprivation.
    Marijuana’s main active ingredient, THC, produces a variety of effects, including disinhibition, a euphoric high, feelings of relaxation, relief from pain, and intense sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, and smells. It may also increase anxiety or depression, impair motor coordination and reac- tion time, and disrupt memory formation. Because THC lingers in the body for a month or more, regular users may achieve a high with smaller amounts of the drug than do occasional users.
  • Hallucinogens distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. LSD and other powerful hallucinogens are chemically similar to (and therefore block the actions of) a subtype of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Common components of the LSD experience are hallucinations and emotions ranging from euphoria to panic. A person’s current mood and expectations affect the drug’s effects.
    The sensations produced by LSD are strikingly similar to the near-death experience, an altered state of consciousness reported by about one-third of those who survive a brush with death. Near- death experiences are marked by out-of-body sensations, visions of tunnels and bright lights, and intense feelings of joy, love, and peace. The hallucinations of such experiences also closely parallel the hallucinations produced by loss of oxygen or extreme sensory deprivation.
    Marijuana’s main active ingredient, THC, produces a variety of effects, including disinhibition, a euphoric high, feelings of relaxation, relief from pain, and intense sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, and smells. It may also increase anxiety or depression, impair motor coordination and reac- tion time, and disrupt memory formation. Because THC lingers in the body for a month or more, regular users may achieve a high with smaller amounts of the drug than do occasional users.
  • 1- T, 2- F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-F, 6-T, 7-T, 8-F,
  • 1- T, 2- F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-F, 6-T, 7-T, 8-F,
  • Transcript

    • 1. Drugs and Consciousness Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are tolerance, dependence and addiction, and what are some common misconceptions about addiction? 2. What are the differences between depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens? 1 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 2. Drugs and Consciousness 2 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 3. Take A Guess 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ____ % of college students report drinking alcohol in the last year. ____ % of college student binge drink (more than 4-5 beers in less than one hour). ____ % of students living in Greek housing are binge drinkers. ____ % of non-binge drinkers of college age report having to take care of a drunken student. ______ # of students die annually from alcohol related incidents. ______ # of rape victims where alcohol was involved annually ______ # of college students who report being too intoxicated to know if they had consented to sex. _____ % of college students who report academic problems due to drinking 3 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 4. 10.3 What are the major categories of psychoactive drugs? Drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory sychoactive drugs Physical and Psychological Dependence Can lead to a lifelong pattern of abuse. Conscious Sleep Risk of Stages REM Disorders Legal taking increasingly larger doses. Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 5. Major Drug Categories Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 6. Drugs are either…. • Agonists-drug that can combine w/ receptor on a cell to produce a physiological response. Antagonists-drug that counteracts the effects of another drug • Reuptake inhibitors-blocks release of serotonin If a drug is used often, tolerance is created for the drug. Thus you need more of the drug to feel the same effect. If you stop using a drug you can develop withdrawal symptoms. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 7. Drugs: Depressants • Alcohol effects • • • • • • • • motor skills judgment memory increases aggressiveness reduced self awareness Represses REM. Barbiturates Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Date Rape Drugs Opiates (Narcotics) Opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. They are highly addictive. Mimic Endorphins 7 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 8. Figure 10.1 How Drinks Affect Behavior Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 9. Drugs: Stimulants • Caffeine and nicotine increase heart and breathing rates and other autonomic functions to provide energy. Speeds up metabolism • Amphetamines stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes, with devastating effects. • Ecstasy or Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. – It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotonin-producing neurons, which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory. – Big Problem with dehydration • Cocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash & depression. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected. Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics 9 Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 10. Ecstasy Therapy Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 11. Caffeine in Common Beverages Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 12. Cocaine Production Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 13. Case Study: Cocaine & Neurons • By binding to the sites that normally reabsorb neurotransmitter molecules, cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. • The extra neurotransmitter molecules therefore remain in the synapse, intensifying their normal mood altering effects and producing a euphoric rush. 13 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 14. Cocaine in the Brain 14 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 15. Drugs: Hallucinogens • Hallucinations – Sensory experiences without sensory stimulus • • LSD – (lysergic acid diethylamide) powerful psychodelic drug (ergot fungus) that is also known as acid. – Likely to produce flashbacks MARIJUANA (Cannabis) – THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)is the major active ingredient in marijuana (hemp plant) that triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations – Affects of marijuana are usually reversible after one month – "Chronic Use" does lead to memory loss & cognitive impairment – "Regular Users" can experience a high with less of the product 15 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 16. Soldiers on LSD Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 17. Drugs and Consciousness Reflect on Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are tolerance, dependence and addiction, and what are some common misconceptions about addiction? 2. What are the differences between depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens? Good Good Understanding Understanding Fair Fair Understanding Understanding Little Little Understanding Understanding Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics 17 Dreams Hallucinogens
    • 18. Which is True or False? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Alcohol is classified as a depressant, even in small amounts. The discomfort when off of a drug is called tolerance. LSD is considered a powerful hallucinogen. Smoking marijuana can distort time, hence it is classified as a stimulant The main ingredient in ecstasy is THC Heroin is classified as a depressant. Cocaine has short-lasting effects because it prevents reuptake of certain neurotransmitters. Because nicotine produces a relaxing effect it is classified as a depressant Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens 18
    • 19. Faces of Meth 19 Conscious Sleep Stages REM Disorders Legal Hypnosis Facts Psychoactive Stimulants Depressants Narcotics Dreams Hallucinogens

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