Ministry of the Environment Pesticide Classification Guideline for Ontario: Toxicity, persistence, concentration, container size.- By target organism.- Chemical structure.- Physical state.- The source.
Health effects• Human health. affect the nervous system.• It may irritate the skin or eyes.• Some pesticides may be carcinogens.• Others may affect the hormone or endocrine system in the body.• Birth defects.• Fetal death.
Environmental effects• Target beneficial insects.• Toxicity - non-target plants and animals .• Pollution water (surface and ground water) - break down .• long-term contamination of soil and air.• Biodiversity.• Nitrogen fixation.• Destroys habitat .
Pesticide alternatives generally involve:1- Biological control (Bio-Pesticides).2- Cultural control.3- Mechanical Control.4- Natural Pest Control Products
Biological control is defined as the action of natural enemies: 1 - Natural biological control. 2 - Applied biological control.
Microbial pesticides : - The organisms themselves - OR the metabolites they produce.
(entomopathogen, 400 species )
PFigure 1. Generalizedlife-cycle of insect viruses.Figure credit: JimMcNeil, Department ofEntomology, enn StateUniversity.
- High specificity- Slow speed of action- Variable efficacy due to the influences of various Biotic and abiotic factors- Increase the resistance- It is difficult and expensive to develop and supply.
- Pest-resistant plants.- Polycultur.- Planting crops in areas where the pests that damage them do not live.- Timing planting.- Crop rotation.- Trap crop.- Release of other organisms.- Manage soil fertility, watering, and.- drainage
UV Bug Zapper- Remove insects on plants by hand-crushing- Soil steaming.- Cloth crop covers- Avoid watering garden in the evening- Fly paper and sticky boards- Electronic bug killers
Natural substances.- Garlic, onions .- Hot peppers.- Use a 50/50 mixture of milk and water and thoroughly spray plants every 3 to 4 days at first sign of mildew, or use weekly as a preventative measure.- Crush leaves from a tomato- white fly.
Things Youll Need: - A Measuring cup - 1 Tablespoon of Baking Soda - 1 Cup of water - 1 Cup of White vinegar - 20 drops or grapefruit seed extract - 1 Spray Bottle 1 ) Mix ingredients together in a bowl or cup. 2 ) Pour mixed ingredients in spray bottle. 3 ) Spray on clean vegetables and fruits