3.  There were 8 representatives for the whole class in the experiment to conduct the experiment. From the 8 subjects two group was formed, one for athletic group and the other is for the non-athletic gr. Sixteen students monitored the vital sign of the subjects. Two was assigned to monitor the blood pressure, another two for the pulse rate and last two for recording the vital signs. Four athletic and non-athletic subjects were randomly assigned to the different assigned regimen. In a regimen there was one athletic and non-athletic subject performed the exercise that was assigned. For Regimen A, there was a 5 mins of warm up, 10mins of treadmill at 5-7mph ad 5 mins of cool down. For Regime B, there was no warm up, 10 mins of treadmill ant 5-7mph. For Regimen C, there was a 5 mins of warm up, 10 mins of 5-7mph, and no cool down. For regimen D, there was no warm up, 10mins of treadmill at 5-7mph and no cool down.
4.  Human error in monitoring and recording the data/improper technique Improper pacing during warming-up and cooling down Inability of the subjects to keep cycling above 100 revolutions per minute (rpm) Self-proclaimed athletes.
5. 200180160140120 Athletic A100 Athletic B 80 Athletic C Athletic D 60 40 20 0 At Rest After 5 min After 1 min of After 5 min of After 10 min After 5 min At Rest exercise exercise of exercise
6. 180160140120100 Non - Athletic A Non - Athletic B 80 Non - Athletic C 60 Non - Athletic D 40 20 0 At Rest After 5 min After 1 min of After 5 min of After 10 min After 5 min At Rest exercise exercise of exercise
7. 180160140120100 Systole A Systole NA 80 Diastole A 60 Diastole NA 40 20 0 At Rest After 5 min After 1 min of After 5 min of After 10 min After 5 min At Rest Exercise Exercise of Exercise
8. 160140120100 Systole A 80 Systole NA Diastole A 60 Diastole NA 40 20 0 At Rest After 5 min After 1 min of After 5 min of After 10 min After 5 min At Rest Exercise Exercise of Exercise
9. 250200150 Systole A Systole NA100 Diastole A Diastole NA 50 0 At Rest After 5 min After 1 min of After 5 min of After 10 min After 5 min At Rest Exercise Exercise of Exercise
10. 180160140120100 Systole A Systole NA 80 Diastole A 60 Diastole NA 40 20 0 At Rest After 5 min After 1 min of After 5 min of After 10 min After 5 min At Rest Exercise Exercise of Exercise
11.  Aerobic exercise- OXYGEN SYSTEMS: These are the heart, vascular (blood vessels) and respiratory systems.
12.  The heart is a double pump – two separate pumps that work side by side The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs The left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body
13.  The heart consists of four chambers –two upper atria and two lower ventricles The atrio- ventricular valves separate the atria and ventricles The semi-lunar valves are found in the pulmonary artery and aorta.
14.  STROKE VOLUME- volume of blood ejected from the heart when the ventricles contract (at rest = 70 cm3) HEART RATE – the number of (ventricle) contractions in one minute (at rest = 72bpm) STROKE VOLUME – (Q) volume of blood ejected from the heart in one minute (at rest = 5Litres)Q = HR X SV
15.  Resting Heart Rate Anticipatory Rise Rapid Increase of Heart Rate Continued but slower increase of Heart Rate Slight Fall/ Steady Plateau Continued rise in HR Rapid fall in HR Slower Fall in HR toward resting levels
16.  There are three main groups of blood vessels. Arteries and arterioles- transport oxygenated blood away from the heart. Capillaries – bring blood to the tissues where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. Veins and venules – transport deoxygenated blood back towards the heart.
17.  Blood vessels have three layers except capillaries which are single walled. Arteries and arterioles have middle layer of smooth muscle which allows them to vasodilate (widen) and vasoconstrict (narrow). Arterioles have precapillary sphincters at the entry to the capillary. These control blood flow.
18.  Capillaries are one cell thick to allow efficient gaseous exchange. Venules and veins have thinner muscular walls. The can vasodilate and vasoconstrict. They also have valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
19.  Starlings Law of the Heart states that stroke volume is dependent on venous return. At rest the amount of blood returning to the heart (venous return) is enough to supply the demands of the body. On exercise this is not enough so venous return must be increased. This happens in the following ways.
20.  Controlled by Vasomotor Control Center – Medulla Oblongata Redistribution of Blood Skeletal Muscles, Organs, Skin, Brain Vasodilate – Skeletal Muscles Vasoconstrict - organs
21.  Primary indicator of the functional capacity of the circulation to meet the demands of physical activity Cardiac Output = Heart rate x Stroke Volume
22.  At Rest ◦ Individual Variation ◦ On average, entire blood volume of approx. 5 liters is pumped from the left ventricle each minute ◦ Aforementioned value is similar for both trained and untrained subjects
23.  Untrained ◦ 5 liter cardiac output ◦ 70 beats per minute (average) ◦ 71ml per beat ◦ Stroke volumes for females usually average 25% below male values and are 50 to 70 ml per beat at rest ◦ ―Gender difference‖ due to average body size
24.  Endurance Athletes ◦ Sinus node under greater influence of acetylcholine ◦ Normally about 40-50 beats per minute at rest ◦ 5 liters per minute, 100ml per beat
25.  Endurance Athletes ◦ Endurance Training increases vagal tone that slows heart ◦ Heart muscle strengthened through training is capable of a more forceful stroke with each contraction
26.  During exercise ◦ Blood flow increases in proportion to intensity of the exercise ◦ Cardiac output has a rapid increase until a plateau is reached  Sedentary – 20-22L/min, 195bpm  Endurance – 35-40L/min, <195bpm
27.  Training effects ◦ Larger stroke volume during rest and exercise compared to untrained ◦ Greatest increase in stroke volume occurs in transition from rest to moderate exercise ◦ Max. stroke volume is reached at 40-50% of the max. oxygen consumption, usually represents heart rate of 110-120bpm ◦ For athletes, small inc. in stroke vol. in transition from rest to exercise with major inc. in cardiac output (stroke vol. 50-60% above resting values)
28.  Blood flow to specific tissue is generally proportional to their metabolic activity
29.  At Rest ◦ 5 L cardiac output is distributed and one-fifth of cardiac output is distributed to muscle tissue whereas major portion goes to other organs. ◦ 4-7ml/min of blood for every 100g of muscle
30.  During Exercise ◦ Major portion of cardiac output is diverted to working muscles. ◦ 50-75ml per 100g of muscle tissue
31.  Redistribution of Blood ◦ Blood is redistributed and directed through working muscles from areas that can temporarily tolerate a reduction in normal blood flow. Shunting of blood from specific tissues occurs primarily during maximum exercise.
32.  ―The Athlete’s Heart‖ Fundamental biologic adaptation of muscle to an increased workload. Individual myofibrils thicken Number of contractile filaments within the muscle fiber increases
33.  Used to measure the work capacity of an individual Represents the maximum oxygen consumption The total aerobic capacity provides a measure of increasing metabolic work of peripheral skeletal muscle.
35.  Increases with work Increases primarily through an increase in ventricular rate 2 determinants of cardiac output -heart rate -stroke volume
36. Cardiac output Oxygen consumption
37.  Limited with persons age Decrease in maximum HR with age. Estimated by: 220-(age in years)
38. Age determined maximumHeart rate Oxygen consumption
39.  Represents the quantity of blood with each heartbeat. Major determinant is diastolic filling volume which is inversely related to the Heartrate. Stroke volume Oxygen consumption
40.  The actual oxygen consumption of the heart Limited in anginal threshold. -anginal threshold is defined as the point where the myocardial oxygen demand exceeds the ability of the coronary circulation to meet the demand.  anginal chest pain
42.  Women are more likely to report themselves as exercising more than men if asked who exercises more (Strelan & Hargreaves, 2005). Women are traditionally viewed as more concerned about their appearance (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999).
43.  Men are less likely than women to exercise for appearance related reasons (Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000). Women attempt to meet sociocultural expectations of the thin ideal, through exercise (Strelan & Hargreaves, 2005).
44.  Performance differences between men and women likely result from biological differences as well as social and cultural restrictions placed on females during development Historically, fewer women have competed in athletic events than men.
45.  Major differences between boys and girls do not occur until puberty. Puberty in girls—estrogen causes pelvis broadening, breast development, fat deposition in hips and thighs, increased bone growth, and faster closure of growth plates Puberty in boys—testosterone causes increased bone formation and muscle mass
46.  Testosterone leads to –  Bone formation, larger bones –  Protein synthesis, larger muscles –  EPO secretion,  red blood cell production Estrogen leads to –  Fat deposition (lipoprotein lipase) ◦ Faster, more brief bone growth ◦ Shorter stature, lower total body mass –  Fat mass, percent body fat
47.  After puberty, girls’ average relative body fat is about 10% greater than boys. Men not only have more muscle mass, but also carry a higher percentage of their muscle mass in the upper body compared to women
48.  Innate qualities of muscle and motor control are similar For the same amount of muscle, strength is similar Muscle fiber cross-sectional areas are smaller and muscle mass is less in women
49.  More muscle mass is proportionately distributed below the waist in women Upper-body strength expressed relative to body weight or fat-free mass is less in women (but differences between genders are less)
50.  WOMEN have Higher HR response at rest and for same absolute levels of submaximal exercise (about the same Q as men) Same HRmax but lower Qmax in WOMEN because of lower SVmax WOMEN have Lower SV at rest and at all exercise intensities due to smaller heart size and smaller BV WOMEN have Less potential for increasing a- vO2 diff because of lower arterial O2 content
51.  WOMEN: Differences in response compared to men are mostly due to smaller body size WOMEN have Higher respiratory rate at given ventilatory rate WOMEN have Smaller tidal volume at given ventilatory rate WOMEN have Smaller ventilatory volume during maximal exercise due to smaller lungs  Resulting in lower maximal pulmonary ventilation
52.  Muscle strength differs between sexes ◦ Upper body: women 40 to 60% weaker ◦ Lower body: women 25 to 30% weaker ◦ Due to total muscle mass difference, not difference in innate muscle mechanisms No sex strength disparity when expressed per unit of muscle cross-sectional area
53.  Causes of upper-body strength disparity ◦ Women have more muscle mass in lower body ◦ Women utilize lower body strength more Research indicates women more fatigue resistant
54.  Cardiovascular function differs greatly For same absolute submaximal workload ◦ Same cardiac output ◦ Women: lower stroke volume, higher HR (compensatory) ◦ Smaller hearts, lower blood volume For same relative submaximal workload ◦ Women: HR slightly , SV , cardiac output  ◦ Leads to  O2 consumption
55.  Sex differences in respiratory function ◦ Due to difference in lung volume, body size ◦ Similar breathing frequency at same relative workload ◦ Women  frequency at same absolute workload
56.  Body composition changes ◦ Same in men and women –  Total body mass, fat mass, percent body fat –  FFM (more with strength vs. endurance training) Weight-bearing exercise maintains bone mineral density Connective tissue injury not related to sex
57.  Strength gains in women versus men ◦ Less hypertrophy in women versus men, though some studies show similar gains with training ◦ Neural mechanisms more important for women
58.  Men outperform women by all objective standards of competition ◦ Most noticeable in upper-body events Women’s performance drastically improved over last 30 to 40 years ◦ Leveling off now ◦ Due to harder training
59. Females MalesInnate qualities of muscle and motor control Same SameStrength Same, for same amount of muscle Same, for same amount of muscleMuscle fiber in cross sectional areas Smaller LargerMuscle mass More muscle mass in lower body More muscle mass in upper bodyFat free mass < >Heart rate at rest ↑ ↓Maximum heart rate Same SameCardiac output Same SameMaximum cardiac output ↓ ↑Maximum stroke volume ↓ ↑Heart size smaller largerBody size smaller largerRespiratory rate ↑ ↓Tidal volume smaller LargerVentilator volume Smaller LargerLungs size Smaller Larger
60. No reliable data indicate altered athletic performance across menstrual phasesNo physiological differences in exercise responses across menstrual phasesWorld records set by women during every menstrual phase
61. Seen more in lean-physique sports Eumenorrhea: normal Oligomenorrhea: irregular Amenorrhea (primary, secondary): absent Can affect 5 to 66% of athletes***Menstrual dysfunction ≠ infertility
62.  Allows body to adjust to the cardiovascular demands of exercise. Increase blood supply in skeletal muscles. Must have 5-10 min. of warm up before actual exercise.
63. a.) increasing blood flow to active skeletal musclesb.) increasing blood flow to the myocardiumc.) increasing the dissociation of oxyhemoglobind.) it leads to earlier sweating thus regulates the temperaturee.) in reducing the incidence of abnormal heart rhythms in heart conduction
64. a.) increase in blood flow which brings more oxygen to working musclesb.) an increase in temperature which produces 1.) an increase in the rate transport of enzymes needed for the energy systems 2.) a decrease in the viscosity of the blood which improves blood flow 3.) an increase in oxygen dissociating from oxyhaemoglobinc.) delays the onset of blood lactic acid
65.  gradual increase in muscle temperature and peripheral blood flow energy metabolism and increased tissue elasticity improve neuromuscular function maintain acid-base balance reduce oxygen deficit during vigorous exercise it reduces risk of neuromuscular injuries
66.  Follows after exercise prevents venous pooling thus reducing the risks of fainting keeps respiratory and muscle pumps working which prevents blood pooling in the veins and maintains venous return capillaries remain dilated
67.  prevention of post exercise hypotension and dizziness promotes more rapid removal of lactic acid facilitates heat dissipation reduces the risk for ventricular dysrhythmias (patients with heart disease) cardiac death are reduced
68.  This experiment is focus on the cardiovascular system’s response to exercise. From the experiment, it is evident that the heart of the athletic participant is much stronger than that of the other. Referring to the heart rates of both participants, the non-athletic subject shows a far higher heart rate as compared to the athlete and this on the other hand is due to the lack of training but with respect to both subjects, there have been gradual increases and decreases of the heart rates due to the phases of warming-up and cooling-down, respectively. Gender differences is a factor in sports and exercise though of lower significance. Females have smaller heart, lung and body (in general) compared to men but he maximum heart rate, the innate qualities of muscle and motor control are the same for both genders.
69.  Plowman, S., Smith, D.(2008). Exercise Physiology for health fitness and performance. Philadelphia. Lippincott Wilkins & Wolter Kluwer business. Robergs, Robert. (1997).Exercise Physiology Exercise Performance and clinical application. United States of America. Von Hoffman Press Inc. Power, S., & Howley, E.(2009).Exercise Physiology Theory and Application to fitness and Performance. New York. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.