ABOUT THE COMPANYORGANISATION NAME – RICO AUTO INDUSTRIES INDIA LTD.RICO GROUP OF INDUSTRIES:1. RICO AUTO INDUSTRIES LTD.(RAIL)2. RICO (LDH)3. RICO (US)4. RICO (U.K)LOCATION:69 K.M STONE , DELHI – JAIPUR HIGHWAY,DHARUHERA (HARYANA)CERTIFICATION:ISO9000 – 1994QS- 1998ISO1401- 2002OHSAS18001 – 2002RICO AUTO INDUSTRIES LTD : It is a cast auto part manufacturing company. It makes aluminium components and assemblies focussed on automotive sector. It mainly makes ADC-12 & ADC-14 alloy products using HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING process. The parts are further machined in CNC’S. CAPACITY : Over 16 million high pressure die cast components are produced per annum. FUTURE PLANS OF THE FIRM : Reduce dependency on other industrial sector. Searching for new customers Expansion of the firm. Investment in the other profitable industrial sectors.
PRODUCTS OF RICO :PRODUCTS CUSTOMERClutch assembly Hero -HondaWheel hub assembly Hero- HondaBrake panel assembly Hero- HondaCUSTOMER :Hero- Honda is one of the leading star in motorcycle manufacturing. The other major customers besideof Hero -Honda are : Maruti Suzuki G.M motors Scooter india Ford motor company Jaguar Volvo Cummins engine company5-S OF THE COMPANY : SEIRI (SORTING) SEITON (SYSTEMATISING) SEISO (SHINING) SEIKETSU (STANDARISATION) SHITSAKE(SELF DISCIPLINE)WASTAGES DURING PRODUCTION : over production rejection idle time unnecessary transportationMAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT :Maintenance practices the preventive maintenance and check outs for any possible breakdowns andprevent them beforehand.For this specific check list are given to each operator for his machine to ensure any unlikely occurrence.Complete plant check up is done during Sunday.
UTILITY :This department is responsible for the management and supply of electricity and compressed air todifferent section of firm.Power comes from HVPNL (HARYANA VIDYUT PARISHADH NIGAM LTD.) 1,30,000 Kw-h / day Generated voltage – 11 KV 3.5 Lacs per month rent costCompressor : 2200 CFM Screw type compressor used.RICO DIES PRODUCTION SHOP :RICO dies unit moulds the dies required in the HPDC Shop. It involves from manufacturing of newdies to the maintenance of old once.CAD/CAM DIVISION :This unit works on the activities like product design , tool design etc.AUTOCAD is the software used by the department.To make dies , processes are decided on CAM. These codes are then transferred to CNC machinesthrough LAN system.
FOUNDRY SHOP :The foundry department handles the following operations :- MELTING: The ADC-12 & ADC-14 alloys are melted in a furnace at 650-800 degree Celsius. The returns including rejections like runners, risers and casting and machining rejections are also send for melting. They are loaded in the trolley’s using an electromagnet of 5 ton capacity. A charging vibrator is used to transfer this material into the induction furnace. SAND PREPARATION: ( sand + water + bentonite clay + carbonaceous material) . this mixture is heated and then passed on a conveyor where a mixer thoroughly mixes it. SAND MOULD : 1. The mixer sand is transferred to sand moulding machine which applies a pressure of 15 kg/cm^2 to make the sand moulds. 2. It operates at a fixed cycle time. 3. These sand moulds are passed onto a moving belt and the melted material is poured in them by a pressure funnel ( which has heater arrangement to keep the molten material at fixed temp.). 4. The molten metal is kept in pouring furnaces connected funnel. 5. The temp. of pouring – 1380 to 1450 degree Celsius depending upon the component to be made. CASTING LINE : 1. The casting are then moved on a vibrator on which sand moulds breaks. 2. The casting are passed through rotating drum having holes to remove sand from the casting . 3. The casting then undergoes SHOT BLASTING operation .( ball of specific material are projected at high velocities on casting) to move the sand particles from casting. 4. The components for casting rejections ( shrinkage , blow holes ,flow marks, flash etc) are check after shot blasting. 5. The O.K component are passed for breaking of runner and riser. CORE & PATTERN SHOP : 1. The foundry shop has in house facility of core making. The resin coated sand is replicated to make core for cavities of CWI, exhaust manifold etc. 2. It is heated so that all the moisture in the sand is lost making the core to reach the desired strength. 3. The final gating and pouring basin for the pattern are made here attaching wooden pieces to the finished pattern obtained from the department.
SAND MOULDS PREPARING CASTS A/C TO CUSTOMERS SPECIFICATIONS
RICO DIE PRODUCTION SHOP ( HPDCUNIT) : EJECTOR DIE HALF COVER DIE HALF There are 18 high pressure die casting machines in the HPDC SHOP. In HPDC machine two dies are used : 1. Fixed die ( cover die) 2. Movable die (ejector pins) HPDC machines are hydraulic based machines. These machines have different locking force like 660 ton , 560 T , 400 T, 250 T, 200 T ,160 T, 135 T. Dycote is used for cooling of the die. The die is also cooled by water for efficient cooling of the casting. This increase dies life. HPDC machine is controlled by three factors : 1. Accumulator pressure 2. Nitrogen pressure 3. Die opening time Nitrogen pressure is produced with the help of nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas pushes the piston accumulator and thus accumulator pressure is produced. The time between closing the die for casting to the opening it , is called die opening time. PROCESS : 1. Spray the mould with lubricant and close it. This helps to maintain the inside temp. of the die and also allows easy removal of cast product. 2. The nitrogen gas increases the accumulator pressure and the molten metal is injected into the shot sleeve. 3. The metal is injected at very high pressure which ensures the precise shape of cast object. 4. After the mould fills completely , it is allowed to cool under high pressure. 5. Open the die and cast product is removed with the help of ejector pins.
COMPONENTS MADE IN HPDC SHOP : Outer clutch Centre clutch Friction disc Lifter plate Pressure plate Front & rear hub Front & rear brake panelTYPES OF COOLING IN HPDC SHOP : 1. SPOT COOLING: The cooling is done at particular spots only. 2. LINE COOLING : Continuous cooling is done. An entire region is cooled by this.CASTING DEFECTS : Internal Defects External Defects To see these defects, the casting must be broken open These defects can be seen on the surface or the edges or dissected and polished, then magnified, or X- of the casting. Use a microscope to see the fine details. rayed. Category Defect Name Gas Related Blisters Category Defect Name Exploded Blisters Gas Related Gas Porosity Collapsed Blisters Lubricant Entrapment Shrinkage Related Sinks Hydrogen Porosity Cold Flow Filling Related Shrinkage Related Shrinkage Porosity Short Fill Leakers Joints Interdendritic Shrinkage Laminations Layer Porosity Flakes Inclusions Cold Flow Die Lube Marks Filling Related Laminations Surface Deposits Joints Gate Breakout Flakes Cracks Inclusions Thermal-Mechanical Contamination Hot Tearing Gate Breakout Soldering Die Related Thermal Cracks Heat Checking Contraction Hot Tearing Die Erosion Ejection Marks Corrosion of die Excess Material Flash Out of Tolerance Warpage & Deformation
FUNCTION OF DYCOTE :( Filler + bonding agent + water ) The principal functions required of a coating for die casting are: • Control of the metal flow to ensure that it reaches all parts of the die at a sufficient temperature to prevent the formation of seams, cold laps, etc. • Control of heat transfer to obtain better solidification and ensure that the castings are properly fed. • Easy release: since castings are extracted at just below the solidification temperature, easy release ensures that castings do not come out deformed. • Good surfaces, and therefore a reduction in finishing costs. • Longer die life, therefore increased productivity and reduced maintenance and cost.FACT : The layer of DYCOTE with a coarse surface, the contact between molten metal and DYCOTE is significantly reduced, because the metal, due to its surface tension, is first in contact with only the “peaks“ of the layer, and only after a time, though this is extremely short, does it penetrate into the "valleys", after which the air escapes through the channels in the permeable coating. The result of this phenomenon is to reduce heat loss to a minimum in the molten metal, which thus maintains its fluidity at the critical moment to fill the die completely.
SELECTION OF DYCOTE COATING : The section thickness of the casting. One of the main properties of a coating is its ability to aid the filling of the die. When the casting concerned has a thin section then a coarse DYCOTE with high insulation properties should be considered. The surface finish requirement of a casting is very important but coatings which give very good surface finish make it more difficult to fill the die because of the smooth surface of the coating and because the insulation is not as good as with a coarser coating. The balance of surface finish and insulation will therefore be a compromise. FETTLING PROCESS : 1. First take O.K casting and start fettling. 2. Remove all outer flase. 3. After that face of parting line is cleaned with the help of rough file. 4. Clean of flase of ejection pin. 5. Clean slot hole. 6. After that check the casting and put it in trolley. PROCEDURE OF REPAIRING THE DIE : 1. Reference shot sample of die are checked visually. 2. Collect the feedback from log book. 3. All the inserts and parts of the die washed , cleaned , polished and assembled. 4. Check the cooling system , rubber pipe , mounting’s like ejector pin , ejector plate etc. 5. Polishing of inserts or parts perpendicular to parting line. 6. Lubrication of all moving die parts and centring with the proper lubricant.
MACHINING SHOP :Different types of machine used in machine shop are : COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE ( CNC) : There are 15 CNC machines in the machine shop. These machines are used to perform different machining operations. The CNC works a/c to the program written by the operator. CNC have two or more programmable directions of motion called axis. An axis can be linear or rotary. Common linear axis names are X ,Y and Z. Common rotary axis are A , B & C. The axis of any CNC machine is required for the purpose of causing the motion needed for the manufacturing process. LATHE MACHINE : There are five lathe machines in the tool room shop. These all have self centred chucks. GRINDING MACHINE : Cylindrical grinding machines are used for surface finishing.
ELECTRO DISCHARGE MACHING : Electric discharge machining provides an effective manufacturing technique that enables the production of parts made of special materials with complicated geometry which is difficult to produce by conventional machining processes. Controlling the process parameters to achieve the required dimensional accuracy and finish placed this machining operation in a prominent position. From that reason, electric discharge machining has found broad applications in industry. The absorbing interest for electric discharge machines has resulted great improvements in EDM
technology. Nowadays, sophisticated electric discharge machines are available for most of machine shop applications Basically Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a process for eroding and removing material by transient action of electric sparks on electrically conductive materials. This process is achieved by applying consecutive spark discharges between charged workpiece and electrode immersed in a dielectric liquid and separated by a small gap. Usually, localized breakdown of the dielectric liquid occurs where the local electrical field is highest. Each spark melts and even evaporates a small amount of material from both electrode and workpiece. Part of this material is removed by the dielectric fluid and the remaining part resolidifies rapidly on the surfaces of the electrodes. The net result is that each discharge leaves a small crater on both workpiece and electrode. Application of consecutive pulses with high frequencies together with the forward movement of the tool electrode towards the workpiece, results with a form of a complementary shape of the electrode on the workpiece..PAINT SHOP : 1. The component is passed into degreasing tank. It is addition of pagancleanal-124 (200gm) and water (100 ltr). Temperature of the tank is 55-65 degree Celsius. It removes oil , dust from the component. 2. Then it is rinsed in cold water tank to remove oil and dust. 3. It is then passed into achromatizing tank. Achrom chemical is coated on the component. 4. Passed into oven at 100-110 degree Celsius. 5. Second coat of paint is done on paint booth followed by the first. 6. After that clear coat (leather coat) is done on third paint booth. 7. Then it is passed into baking room at 140-150 degree celcius.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORTRICO INDUSTRIES INDIA LIMITED Department of Mechanical Engineering VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SUBMITTED BY : MOHIT SHARMA 09BME101
AcknowledgementI deeply appreciate the help of all those people who helped me in this venture, and who made thecompletion of this project possible.First of all, I would like to thank RICO INDUSTRIES INDIA LIMITED for giving me a chance tounderstand an industry better.I would also like to thank Mr. Unnikrishanan.P, Dy Manager, for giving me various projects andbring them to some conclusion. I am thankful to him for believing in me and helping me in headingtowards the right direction.I extend my heartfelt thanks to Mr.Rajendra choudhary, my another project mentor, for assigningme remaining projects according to my capabilities and interest. I am grateful to him for adding tomy knowledge and assisting me whenever I was in doubt. His patience and interest in my workmade this possible.Last, but not the least, I am thankful to my parents and the God for giving me strength andmotivation throughout.Mohit sharma
ASSEMBLY SECTION :In assembly section , assembly of clutch and brake panel are done .CLUTCH ASSEMBLY :CENTER CLUTCHFRICTION DISC (4)CLUTCH PLATESPRESSURE PLATE SPRINGS LIFTER PLATEBOLTED ( 140 kg/cm^2)OUTER CLUTCH DAMPERS(6) GEAR SIDE PLATE RIVETS
QUALITY CONTROL :Quality control in the production field is defined as the systematic control of various factor thataffect the quality of the product. It depends upon the raw material, tools, type of labor, workingcondition , measuring instruments etc.INSPECTION : 1. INCOMING INSPECTION : Dimensional inspection Surface inspection Material inspection 2. IN PROCESS INSPECTION : RPM of the machine Tool change frequency Finished good inspection Process flow diagram of product 3. FINAL INSPECTION : The number of pieces of the products are checked on CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) and then filled in the pre delivered inspection report.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN QUALITY CONTROL & INSPECTION :Inspection means checking the material , product or component at various stages with reference tosome pre determined defects and thus sorting out the faulty once.Quality control is a broad term , it means inspection at particular stages only.Adjusting the calliper to the inside dia of hub and outside dia of brake shoe gives exact clearance.
BASIC LAYOUT : RAW MATERIAL STORAGE RAW MATERIAL STORAGE FOUNDARY SHOP FURNACE (MELTING) PAINT SHOP FURNACE (MELTING) HPDC SHOP ( HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING ) MACHING ROWS (TURNING, BROACHING FACING, DRILLING Etc) ASSEMBLY ROWS1. WHEEL HUB ASSEMBLY2. BRAKE PANEL ASSEMBLY3. CLUTCH ASSEMBLY QUALITY UNIT ADMINISTRATION BLOCKFINAL PRODUCTSTORAGE