– Second half Menstrual cycle(luteal phase)
If a woman's prolactin level is elevated the first time it is tested,
a second sample should be checked when she is fasting and
• * A craniopharyngioma is a benign tumor that
develops near the pituitary gland inhibits PIF
(dopamine) secretion or access to pituitary.
• Emty sella syndrome
*Organic lesion: trauma, infection, tumors
• * Psychological disturbance.
Diagrammatic representation of empty sella syndrome.
A, Normal anatomic relationship.
B, C, and D, Progression in development of empty sella syndrome.
Note thinning of floor and symmetric enlargement of sella turcica.
Empty sella sydrome
3. Primary hypothyroidism
• ↑ TRH → stimulates lactotrophs to ↑
Liver cell failure- Chronic renal failure.
Chest wall disease: burn- scar- Herpes
Ectopic secretion:Hypernephroma of
kidney. * Oat cell carcinoma of lung
hyperestrogenic states e.g PCO
• 1- Galactorrhea: Only in 30- 60 % of cases
• 2- Infertility: due to:- Anovulation luteal phase
• 3- Oligohypomenorrhea , even amenorrhea
• 4- Hirsutism due to decreased SHBG.
• 5 -Decreased libido &osteoporosis