Reading strategies flipchart

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  • 1. The following strategies are useful for multiple genres of literature. The examples and descriptions provided are based on use with expository text. By: Kristin Rutkowski
  • 2. Reading Strategies Before These strategies will help the reader activate prior knowledge and prepare him/her for the passage presented. During These strategies will help the student understand what he/she is reading while they are reading it. After These strategies will help the student to comprehend what they have read and to reinforce the knowledge they obtained from the passage.
  • 3. Pre-Teach Vocabulary • Look over the new vocabulary words presented by the passage. • Define the words, so that when you encounter them you will know what they mean. • This can be done as a group or individually. When beginning a new chapter in Science class there are many new words to learn. Most books will provide a list of the new vocabulary words at the beginning of the chapter. All of the vocabulary words will be defined in the glossary at the end of the book. Before reading, students are encouraged to create a vocabulary list with the new words and their definitions so that they understand the new material that is being presented to them. If, and when, the student encounters one of the new words they should already know the word, and if they don’t they can always refer back to the list. EXAMPLE
  • 4. Preview the Text • Skim the passage looking for headings, bold, underlined, or italic words, pictures or graphs, or anything that seems to stand out. Before reading a chapter in a Science book students are encouraged to preview the text. Unfortunately, textbooks do not come with previews like movies do, but students can still get a preview of what the chapter may include without actually reading the whole chapter. Simply flip through the pages and look at any headings, bold, underlined, or italic words, pictures, graphs, charts, text boxes, or anything not written in normal text. The author is trying to get the reader’s attention for a reason, the information is important and meant to stand out. By looking at these bits of information the reader can get an idea of what he/she will be reading about and what the author sees as important. In this sample the author has bold and highlighted words within the text, colored headings and subheadings, pictures and side notes. EXAMPLE
  • 5. Establish a Purpose • Why are you reading this? • For fun? • For specific information?– What information are you looking for? EXAMPLE Sometimes we read for specific reasons. You might need to find out how tall a T-Rex is. Or what kind of food it ate. Or what time period it lived in. Or how fast it could run.
  • 6. Use Background Knowledge • Ask yourself “What do I already know about this topic?” • Make a list about what you already know or discuss it with others EXAMPLE One very common way to display information you already know is to use a KWL chart. It provides sections for you to write information you know, want to know, and learned. Before reading, you should only fill out the know and want to know sections.
  • 7. Consider the Text Structure • What kind of passage is this? • Cause and effect • Descriptive • Sequence/procedural • Problem/solution • Comparison/contrast • enumerative EXAMPLE Identifying how the text is organized can set the stage for how a reader approaches reading. If you know it is descriptive, you can be prepared for descriptive words. If you know it is compare/contrast, you know that there are at least two main ideas with details to be aware of.
  • 8. Think-Aloud • Describe your thought process while you read. It will help you recognize key parts and important information. EXAMPLE <iframe width="560" height="315" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/PKvaEPbOO9g" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe> Watch this short video of a student modeling her thought process while reading a short passage.
  • 9. Monitor Comprehension • Fix-Up Strategies • Sound out unknown words • Look up words in a dictionary or use context clues to define them • Reflect or make a connection to the text EXAMPLE Make sure you understand what you are reading while you are reading it. If you start out confused, you will continue being confused unless you do something about it. Use a fix-up strategy such as sounding out a word, defining it, or making a connection to the text.
  • 10. Stop-And-Jot • Use sticky notes or write in a notebook to document what you think about a part you just read. Make note of anything you find interesting, confusing, or important. EXAMPLE
  • 11. Make Inferences • Even if information is not directly included in the text, it can still be important. EXAMPLE Information is not always plainly written in the text. Sometime you have to “read between the lines” to get some information. To make inferences you use prior knowledge and information found in the text to make an educated guess.
  • 12. Visualize • Make a mental picture about what you are reading • If you have to draw an actual picture
  • 13. Ask Questions • Think about what you read, is there something that you did not understand even after reading the whole passage? • Make your own question to ask your friends or the teacher EXAMPLE It is ok to ask questions! They help you understand specific details and other information found in the text.
  • 14. Create a Graphic Organizer • Make a t-chart, an outline, concept map or other visual aid to help you organize the information so you can understand it better EXAMPLE Graphic organizers can help you organize the information in a clear and easy to understand way.
  • 15. Summarize • Restate the main idea and important details of the passage By summarizing the text, you show that understood the main ideas of the passage.
  • 16. Answer Questions • Look in the back of the book for chapter questions. • Have your friends ask you questions about the text. There are four types of questions that you should be able to answer after reading a passage. These questions will help you with the comprehension of the passage. They are called QAR’s. Each one can help you with a different level of comprehension.
  • 17. Reread • It sometimes helps to go back and reread a part of, or the whole passage. EXAMPLE If you find that a passage was confusing, go back and reread it. The chances are that the first time you read it you had some kind of difficulty. Rereading it can help because, since you read it once, you should already know the words and can now focus on the information in the text instead of reading it fluently.
  • 18. Works Cited • Bursuck, W. D., & Damer, M. (2011). Comprehension. In Teaching reading to students who are at risk or have disabilities: A multi-tier approach (pp. 272-322). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson • Monaco, J. (2013, November 7). Reading Strategies with a Think Aloud Part 1 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKvaEPbOO9g • Tangient LLC (2013). NBJEnglish - NONFICTION READING. Retrieved April 4, 2014, from http://nbjenglish.wikispaces.com/NONFICTION+READING • Images taken from Google Images