Text structure for young readers

177,061 views

Published on

This presentation introduces young readers to several important text structures. Through examples, pictures, and practice, students will learn how to identify and use the text structures of sequence, description, compare and contrast, cause and effect, and problem and solution.

For a study guide and ready-to-use classroom texts, purchase my unit at http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Introduction-to-Text-Structure-451417

Published in: Education
11 Comments
118 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
177,061
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
30,301
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3,717
Comments
11
Likes
118
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Northside Park is in Ocean City, Maryland
  • Text structure for young readers

    1. 1. Text Structure A key to understanding nonfiction text
    2. 2. Reading to learn <ul><li>We read nonfiction to learn about the world </li></ul><ul><li>What have you learned from reading? </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is text structure? <ul><li>Authors don’t just write their ideas in any order </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, authors organize ideas in a way that helps the reader to understand them </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is text structure? <ul><li>The way a text is organized is called its text structure </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why learn about text structure? <ul><li>If you understand text structure, it will be easier for you to read and understand nonfiction text </li></ul>
    6. 6. Text Structures <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Problem and solution </li></ul>
    7. 7. Text Structures <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Problem and solution </li></ul>
    8. 8. Description <ul><li>Sometimes, an author wants to describe something for readers </li></ul>
    9. 9. Description The playground at Northside Park is built for fun. There are plenty of ways to get to the top—a ladder, a stairway, and even a rock wall! Once at the top, kids can find plenty of things to play with, like a curved tube, two different steering wheels, and even a tic-tac-toe board. And two curved sliding boards make the perfect way to return to the ground.
    10. 10. Description The playground at Northside Park is built for fun. There are plenty of ways to get to the top—a ladder, a stairway, and even a rock wall! Once at the top, kids can find plenty of things to play with, like a curved tube, two different steering wheels, and even a tic-tac-toe board. And two curved sliding boards make the perfect way to return to the ground. What is this paragraph describing?
    11. 11. Description The playground at Northside Park is built for fun. There are plenty of ways to get to the top—a ladder, a stairway, and even a rock wall! Once at the top, kids can find plenty of things to play with, like a curved tube, two different steering wheels, and even a tic-tac-toe board. And two curved sliding boards make the perfect way to return to the ground. This paragraph is describing the playground!
    12. 12. Description The playground at Northside Park is built for fun. There are plenty of ways to get to the top—a ladder, a stairway, and even a rock wall! Once at the top, kids can find plenty of things to play with, like a curved tube, two different steering wheels, and even a tic-tac-toe board. And two curved sliding boards make the perfect way to return to the ground. Description paragraphs are written to put a picture in a reader’s mind.
    13. 13. Description <ul><li>Here’s another paragraph written with the text structure of description. What is it describing? </li></ul>A tiny hiding place was nestled under the green vines. Inside the nook sat two benches and a small table. The table was set up to play checkers with butterflies and ladybugs. It looked like the perfect place to relax on a hot summer day.
    14. 14. Description <ul><li>Here’s another paragraph written with the text structure of description. What is it describing? </li></ul>A tiny hiding place was nestled under the green vines. Inside the nook sat two benches and a small table. The table was set up to play checkers with butterflies and ladybugs. It looked like the perfect place to relax on a hot summer day.
    15. 15. Description <ul><li>How did the text structure help you to picture the scene? </li></ul>A tiny hiding place was nestled under the green vines. Inside the nook sat two benches and a small table. The table was ready to play checkers with butterflies and ladybugs. It looked like the perfect place to relax on a hot summer day.
    16. 16. Another text structure But sometimes authors don’t just want to describe. An author might want to tell about how to do something, or tell about how things change over time.
    17. 17. Text Structures <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Problem and solution </li></ul>
    18. 18. Sequence <ul><li>The text structure of sequence, or chronological order , tells events in order </li></ul><ul><li>Authors show us that a text is written in sequence by using words like first , next , then , later , or finally </li></ul>
    19. 19. Sequence In the spring, toads lay their eggs in ponds, lakes, and puddles. Then, tiny tadpoles come out of the eggs. The tadpoles live in the water for several weeks. Next, the tadpoles start to develop back legs, and then front legs. Finally the tadpoles lose their tails. They are ready to come out of the water—as tiny, tiny toads!
    20. 20. Sequence In the spring, toads lay their eggs in ponds, lakes, and puddles. Then, tiny tadpoles come out of the eggs. The tadpoles live in the water for several weeks. Next, the tadpoles start to develop back legs, and then front legs. Finally the tadpoles lose their tails. They are ready to come out of the water—as tiny, tiny toads! Notice that this paragraph shows how toads grow up. What words does the author use to connect the ideas?
    21. 21. Sequence In the spring, toads lay their eggs in ponds, lakes, and puddles. Then , tiny tadpoles come out of the eggs. The tadpoles live in the water for several weeks. Next , the tadpoles start to develop back legs, and then front legs. Finally the tadpoles lose their tails. They are ready to come out of the water—as tiny, tiny toads! Notice that this paragraph shows how toads grow up. What words does the author use to connect the ideas?
    22. 22. Review <ul><li>Which text structure is used to show how events happen in order? </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Which text structure helps readers to create pictures in their minds? </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul>
    23. 23. Another structure Suppose that an author wanted to explain how these two swimming pools are similar and different .
    24. 24. Another structure The author would use the text structure of compare and contrast .
    25. 25. Text Structures <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Problem and solution </li></ul>
    26. 26. Compare and Contrast This structure helps a reader to understand similarities and differences.
    27. 27. Compare and Contrast The two backyard pools were very different. Yes, they both held water. And both could be refreshing on a hot day. But the small inflatable pool was only six inches deep. The rectangular pool was much deeper. It was a better place for floating and relaxing.
    28. 28. Clue words The two backyard pools were very different. Yes, they both held water. And both could be refreshing on a hot day. But the small inflatable pool was only six inches deep. The rectangular pool was much deeper. It was a better place for floating and relaxing. Which words help the reader to see the similarities and differences?
    29. 29. Clue words The two backyard pools were very different. Yes, they both held water. And both could be refreshing on a hot day. But the small inflatable pool was only six inches deep. The rectangular pool was much deeper. It was a better place for floating and relaxing. Which words help the reader to see the similarities and differences?
    30. 30. Compare and Contrast <ul><li>Sometimes, a compare and contrast paragraph can explain how a place changes over time </li></ul>
    31. 31. Compare and Contrast <ul><li>Have you ever visited the beach in the evening? It becomes a very different place. Instead of colorful umbrellas, crackling campfires dot the beach. The lifeguard chairs are not busy and bustling, like during the day, but quiet and empty. The crowds of the afternoon are gone, leaving only their footprints behind. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Compare and Contrast <ul><li>Have you ever visited the beach in the evening? It becomes a very different place. Instead of colorful umbrellas, crackling campfires dot the beach. The lifeguard chairs are not busy and bustling, like during the day, but quiet and empty. The crowds of the afternoon are gone, leaving only their footprints behind. </li></ul>Notice that this paragraph compares the beach in the evening to the beach in the daytime
    33. 33. Compare and Contrast <ul><li>Have you ever visited the beach in the evening? It becomes a very different place. Instead of colorful umbrellas, crackling campfires dot the beach. The lifeguard chairs are not busy and bustling, like during the day, but quiet and empty. The crowds of the afternoon are gone, leaving only their footprints behind. </li></ul>How is the beach in the evening different from the beach during the day?
    34. 34. Cause and effect <ul><li>Sometimes, authors want to explain how one event causes something else to happen. This text structure is called cause and effect . </li></ul>
    35. 35. Text Structures <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Problem and solution </li></ul>
    36. 36. Cause and effect Sand castles do not last long on an ocean beach. The water levels change with the tide. When the tide is low, the waves don’t come all the way up the beach. When the tide “comes in”, at high tide, the water comes farther up the beach. As a result, sand castles get destroyed by the strong waves.
    37. 37. Cause and effect Sand castles do not last long on an ocean beach. The water levels change with the tide. When the tide is low, the waves don’t come all the way up the beach. When the tide “comes in”, at high tide, the water comes farther up the beach. As a result, sand castles get destroyed by the strong waves. Can you find the cause ? What is the effect ?
    38. 38. Cause and effect Sand castles do not last long on an ocean beach. The water levels change with the tide. When the tide is low, the waves don’t come all the way up the beach. When the tide “comes in”, at high tide, the water comes farther up the beach . As a result, sand castles get destroyed by the strong waves. Can you find the cause ? What is the effect ?
    39. 39. Cause and effect Sand castles do not last long on an ocean beach. The water levels change with the tide. When the tide is low, the waves don’t come all the way up the beach. When the tide “comes in”, at high tide, the water comes farther up the beach . As a result, sand castles get destroyed by the strong waves. Can you find the cause ? What is the effect ?
    40. 40. Cause and effect Sometimes, one cause can have multiple effects.
    41. 41. Cause and effect When a building is abandoned, nature takes over. Animals such as mice, snakes, and bats move in. Vines grow on the outside. Snow and rain cause wood to rot and beams to break. When the roof finally collapses, trees and weeds can grow inside the building.
    42. 42. Cause and effect When a building is abandoned, nature takes over. Animals such as mice, snakes, and bats move in. Vines grow on the outside. Snow and rain cause wood to rot and beams to break. When the roof finally collapses, trees and weeds can grow inside the building. What is the main cause in this paragraph?
    43. 43. Cause and effect When a building is abandoned , nature takes over. Animals such as mice, snakes, and bats move in. Vines grow on the outside. Snow and rain cause wood to rot and beams to break. When the roof finally collapses, trees and weeds can grow inside the building. What is the main cause in this paragraph?
    44. 44. Cause and effect When a building is abandoned, nature takes over. Animals such as mice, snakes, and bats move in. Vines grow on the outside. Snow and rain cause wood to rot and beams to break. When the roof finally collapses, trees and weeds can grow inside the building. What are some effects?
    45. 45. Cause and effect When a building is abandoned, nature takes over. Animals such as mice, snakes, and bats move in . Vines grow on the outside. Snow and rain cause wood to rot and beams to break. When the roof finally collapses, trees and weeds can grow inside the building. Notice that, in this paragraph, one cause leads to many effects!
    46. 46. Review <ul><li>Which text structure shows similarities and differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Which text structure describes a series of events? </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul>
    47. 47. Problem and solution <ul><li>A text that explains a problem and shows how it is solved uses the text structure of problem and solution </li></ul>
    48. 48. Text Structures <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Problem and solution </li></ul>
    49. 49. Understanding problems and solutions <ul><li>Authors often use the words “problem” and “solution” in a problem and solution paragraph </li></ul>
    50. 50. Understanding problems and solutions <ul><li>Sometimes, hawks and owls are badly injured by cars. These birds face a huge problem, because they can no longer hunt for food. One solution is to keep the birds at special rehabilitation centers. People can visit the centers to learn more about hawks and owls. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Understanding problems and solutions <ul><li>Sometimes, hawks and owls are badly injured by cars. These birds face a huge problem, because they can no longer hunt for food. One solution is to keep the birds at special rehabilitation centers. People can visit the centers to learn more about hawks and owls. The birds can receive the special care they need. </li></ul>What is the problem in this paragraph?
    52. 52. Understanding problems and solutions <ul><li>Sometimes, hawks and owls are badly injured by cars. These birds face a huge problem , because they can no longer hunt for food . One solution is to keep the birds at special rehabilitation centers. People can visit the centers to learn more about hawks and owls. The birds can receive the special care they need. </li></ul>Notice that the author uses the word “problem” to show the problem
    53. 53. Understanding problems and solutions <ul><li>Sometimes, hawks and owls are badly injured by cars. These birds face a huge problem, because they can no longer hunt for food. One solution is to keep the birds at special rehabilitation centers. People can visit the centers to learn more about hawks and owls. The birds can receive the special care they need. </li></ul>What is the solution?
    54. 54. Understanding problems and solutions <ul><li>Sometimes, hawks and owls are badly injured by cars. These birds face a huge problem, because they can no longer hunt for food. One solution is to keep the birds at special rehabilitation centers. People can visit the centers to learn more about hawks and owls. The birds can receive the special care they need. </li></ul>Notice that the author uses the word “solution”
    55. 55. Problem and solution <ul><li>But some problem and solution paragraphs are not so easy. The author does not use the words “problem” and “solution” </li></ul>
    56. 56. Problem and solution <ul><li>In northern areas, the weather is too cold to grow crops all year long. But some farmers have found a way to grow food all year. A greenhouse is a special building that stays warm in the winter. Crops like lettuce and basil can grow well in the greenhouse, even when the weather is cold! </li></ul>
    57. 57. Problem and solution <ul><li>In northern areas, the weather is too cold to grow crops all year long. But some farmers have found a way to grow food all year. A greenhouse is a special building that stays warm in the winter. Crops like lettuce and basil can grow well in the greenhouse, even when the weather is cold! </li></ul>What is the problem in this paragraph?
    58. 58. Problem and solution <ul><li>In northern areas, the weather is too cold to grow crops all year long . But some farmers have found a way to grow food all year. A greenhouse is a special building that stays warm in the winter. Crops like lettuce and basil can grow well in the greenhouse, even when the weather is cold! </li></ul>What is the problem in this paragraph?
    59. 59. Problem and solution <ul><li>In northern areas, the weather is too cold to grow crops all year long. But some farmers have found a way to grow food all year. A greenhouse is a special building that stays warm in the winter. Crops like lettuce and basil can grow well in the greenhouse, even when the weather is cold! </li></ul>What is the solution to the problem?
    60. 60. Problem and solution <ul><li>In northern areas, the weather is too cold to grow crops all year long. But some farmers have found a way to grow food all year. A greenhouse is a special building that stays warm in the winter . Crops like lettuce and basil can grow well in the greenhouse, even when the weather is cold! </li></ul>What is the solution to the problem?
    61. 61. What have you learned? <ul><li>What have you learned about text structure? Share your ideas with a partner. </li></ul>
    62. 62. What have you learned? <ul><li>What have you learned from the paragraphs you have read? </li></ul>
    63. 63. Review <ul><li>Read the paragraphs on the next slides. Use what you have learned to figure out the text structure. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Can you find the text structure? <ul><li>We had a great time on the Raft Ride! The ride begins with a walk up a double flight of stairs. Then, riders wait until a raft comes up the conveyor belt. A lifeguard helps people onto the raft. Once the green light comes on, all it takes is a push to get the raft sliding into the deep, dark tunnel. After sliding through a few twists and turns, the raft emerges back into the light and riders find themselves in a small pool—and ready to go again! </li></ul>
    65. 65. Look at the clue words <ul><li>We had a great time on the Raft Ride! The ride begins with a walk up a double flight of stairs. Then , riders wait until a raft comes up the conveyor belt. A lifeguard helps people onto the raft. Once the green light comes on, all it takes is a push to get the raft sliding into the deep, dark tunnel. After sliding through a few twists and turns, the raft emerges back into the light and riders find themselves in a small pool—and ready to go again! </li></ul>
    66. 66. Sequence <ul><li>We had a great time on the Raft Ride! The ride begins with a walk up a double flight of stairs. Then , riders wait until a raft comes up the conveyor belt. A lifeguard helps people onto the raft. Once the green light comes on, all it takes is a push to get the raft sliding into the deep, dark tunnel. After sliding through a few twists and turns, the raft emerges back into the light and riders find themselves in a small pool—and ready to go again! </li></ul>
    67. 67. Can you find the text structure? <ul><li>The apple orchard was beautiful on the spring morning. Tiny white blossoms dotted the trees. The green grass sparkled with dew. Mist drifted against the faraway mountains. </li></ul>
    68. 68. Description <ul><li>The apple orchard was beautiful on the spring morning. Tiny white blossoms dotted the trees. The green grass sparkled with dew. Mist drifted against the faraway mountains. </li></ul>
    69. 69. Description <ul><li>The apple orchard was beautiful on the spring morning. Tiny white blossoms dotted the trees. The green grass sparkled with dew. Mist drifted against the faraway mountains. </li></ul>What is this paragraph describing?
    70. 70. Description <ul><li>The apple orchard was beautiful on the spring morning. Tiny white blossoms dotted the trees. The green grass sparkled with dew. Mist drifted against the faraway mountains. </li></ul>An apple orchard in springtime
    71. 71. Can you find the text structure? <ul><li>A beech tree has very smooth bark. Unfortunately, this can cause a problem for the tree. Sometimes people decide that they want to write their names in the bark. When they do this, they can harm the tree. Diseases can attack the tree through the cuts in the bark. Trees can die because of these diseases. </li></ul>
    72. 72. This one is tricky! Look at all of the clues <ul><li>A beech tree has very smooth bark. Unfortunately, this can cause a problem for the tree. Sometimes people decide that they want to write their names in the bark. When they do this, they can harm the tree. Diseases can attack the tree through the cuts in the bark. Trees can die because of these diseases. </li></ul>
    73. 73. This one is tricky! Look at all of the clues <ul><li>A beech tree has very smooth bark. Unfortunately , this can cause a problem for the tree. Sometimes people decide that they want to write their names in the bark. When they do this, they can harm the tree. Diseases can attack the tree through the cuts in the bark. Trees can die because of these diseases. </li></ul>
    74. 74. Cause and effect <ul><li>A beech tree has very smooth bark. Unfortunately , this can cause a problem for the tree. Sometimes people decide that they want to write their names in the bark. When they do this, they can harm the tree. Diseases can attack the tree through the cuts in the bark. Trees can die because of these diseases. </li></ul>
    75. 75. Cause and effect <ul><li>A beech tree has very smooth bark. Unfortunately , this can cause a problem for the tree. Sometimes people decide that they want to write their names in the bark. When they do this, they can harm the tree. Diseases can attack the tree through the cuts in the bark. Trees can die because of these diseases. </li></ul>What is the cause? What is the effect?
    76. 76. Cause and effect <ul><li>A beech tree has very smooth bark. Unfortunately , this can cause a problem for the tree. Sometimes people decide that they want to write their names in the bark. When they do this, they can harm the tree. Diseases can attack the tree through the cuts in the bark. Trees can die because of these diseases. </li></ul>Why is this not problem and solution?
    77. 77. Can you find the text structure? <ul><li>Run-off can be a big problem for streams. When heavy rains come, the water washes oil, pollutants, and soil into streams. This can harm fish and other living creatures. But the problem of run-off can be solved by planting trees and bushes along streams. These plants form buffer zones that protect the water from pollution. </li></ul>
    78. 78. Can you find the text structure? <ul><li>Run-off can be a big problem for streams. When heavy rains come, the water washes oil, pollutants, and soil into streams. This can harm fish and other living creatures. But the problem of run-off can be solved by planting trees and bushes along streams. These plants form buffer zones that protect the water from pollution. </li></ul>
    79. 79. Problem and Solution <ul><li>Run-off can be a big problem for streams. When heavy rains come, the water washes oil, pollutants, and soil into streams. This can harm fish and other living creatures. But the problem of run-off can be solved by planting trees and bushes along streams. These plants form buffer zones that protect the water from pollution. </li></ul>
    80. 80. Problem and Solution <ul><li>Run-off can be a big problem for streams. When heavy rains come, the water washes oil, pollutants, and soil into streams. This can harm fish and other living creatures. But the problem of run-off can be solved by planting trees and bushes along streams. These plants form buffer zones that protect the water from pollution. </li></ul>What is the problem? What is the solution?
    81. 81. What have you learned? <ul><li>How will you use text structure to help you understand what you read? </li></ul>
    82. 82. The End
    83. 83. <ul><li>Emily Kissner </li></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Permission granted for classroom and non-commercial use only </li></ul><ul><li>Texts may be transferred into other formats; however, please cite the source </li></ul>

    ×