• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Automakers become social for the long drive
 

Automakers become social for the long drive

on

  • 309 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
309
Views on SlideShare
309
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Automakers become social for the long drive Automakers become social for the long drive Document Transcript

    • Academic Supervisor: Professor Wahyd Vannoni Hult International Business School 46-47 Russell Square - Bloomsbury London WC 1B 4JP United Kingdom +44 (0) 207 636 5667 General Motors and Ford CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISING
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 2 This is an independent study conducted during the period 19th of June 2012 until 23rd of July 2012 for MGT 493, as an independent course under the supervision of Professor Wahyd Vannoni of Hult International Business School. In this report, I will explore how the automobile industry have embraced the social media marketing. Two distinct automobile makers will be included in this process where the nature of their marketing activities /operations will be explored, particularly the difference of their marketing strategy within online platforms. General Motors and Ford of the United States of America will be studied and compared to their competitors in the American market. Scope: I will engage companies' financial reports, social media platforms, outreach measure such as Klout and Facebook statistics, financial institutions' report for automobile industry trends, motor shows and comments from various newspapers. Limitations: Observation will be limited by a five week period only, from 18th of June, 2012 until 23rd of July, 2012. Time constraint implicate limited data collection and comparison with carmakers' published sales. (Quarterly reports) Another limitation is the question of brand awareness through online platforms; whether the awareness created has an impact on overall sales. Objective
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … “Advertisers are still coming to grips with how to use these more interactive platforms, analysts say, and are reluctant to commit to Facebook and Twitter while there is no established metric for measuring success.”(FT, 31.05.12) The automobile industry is an assembling, technology-, knowledge and capital intensive, with a relatively high capital-to-labour ratio and is being dominated by General Motors of United States of America, Volkswagen Group of Germany and Toyota of Japan by total sales. ( Reuters, 2012) According to OECD report, economic activity in the automobile industry usually moves in line with the overall business cycle, where they studied the correlation between two variables in the Unites States, Germany and Japan. A correlation is found between car sales and private consumption, which might be a huge factor determining the total sales of the industry. This study shows how huge the industry for vehicles is, considering that it a necessity for our development. In our current economic environment where consumers are more conscious of their spending, looking for more value for money, carmakers face greater challenge in convincing customers to buy their products in addition to the more fierce competition between manufacturers. Last year 2011, 58.89 million vehicles were sold worldwide compared to 56.82 million in the previous year 2010. (Scotiabank, 2012) According to some research, one from Borrell Associates, carmakers will spend 11.6bn USD of their total 30.9bn USD advertising budgets online in 2012, which is up 39 per cent from 2011. This is a shift of branding from TV advertisements to online media and smartphone applications. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 3 Introduction
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Social Media is an umbrella term that defines the various activities that integrate technology, social interaction and the construction of words, pictures, videos and audio.(M.Kagan,2008) This definition perhaps summarizes the global picture of the social media fever, which has been a significant element in changing our behavior and the way businesses operate today. Therefore, five key elements are being captured; participation, openness, conversation, community and connectedness. Tools empowering the five elements: Facts: # Social networking sites are officially more popular than porn sites. (Time, Oct.2007) # Wikipedia boasts almost 4,000,000 articles. # 65,000 new videos being uploaded in Youtube daily. # 901,000,000 Facebook users globally as of March 2012. # 140,000,000 Twitter users in May 2012. # Only 14% trust advertisements while 78% trust recommendations of other consumers. (Nielsen 2007) Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 4 Social Media
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … This January 2012, General Motors (GM) was the world's top selling automaker, Volkswagen in second place provided that Toyota lags behind spotting the third rank. In the year ended December 31, 2010, General Motors' advertising and sales promotion expenses amounted $3.4 billion to support media campaigns for its products and selling, - and marketing expenses reached $0.6 billion real ted to dealerships. The total amount of advertising and marketing is ca $4 billion, in generating $149 billion revenue. Total of $12 billion was spent for selling, administrative and other expenses, where marketing falls under as a category. Ford Motor Company (F) is also an American automaker, founded by Henry Ford, headquartered in Detroit. Ford is ts the second-largest U.S-based automaker after GM, and one of the USA's Big Three together with GM and Chrysler. In matching GM's $12 billion, Ford spent $0.5 billion less, $11.5 billion for selling, administrative and other expense, in generating $136 billion revenue. Indirect costs include research and development, corporate operations, dealer support, and marketing and are difficult to estimate because many indirect costs are difficult to allocate to specific production activities or are not affected by levels of production. There are three levels of complexity: low, medium, and high. Low-complexity activities would have a smaller impact on manufacturers’ operations than high-complexity activities. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 5 Traditional Marketing
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … The key factor that affects marketing is whether consumers notice the difference. In the short run for low-complexity activities, consumers are not expected to notice any change. For medium- and high-complexity activities, consumers are expected to need additional information, with a greater marketing effort for high-complexity activities than for medium. In the long run, consumers are expected to have adapted to any changes, and no additional incremental increase in marketing is expected. We are talking about activities such as new technologies carried by the vehicles being sold by the automakers. For instance, a different kind of leather used in upholstery is of low- complexity, while a a new feature of “driver capability” is of high-complexity. Driver capability is a system that evaluates driver aptitude and shuts down vehicle when incompetence is detected. This system is not yet fully developed but the closest technology there is in the market is Mercedes- Benz E-Class, where the driver's normal behavior is being recorded and established as driver's baseline profile. This is where marketing in the automobile industry arises. How can social media market assist the industry, which platforms offer the outmost utilizations and in what will be the impact??? Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 6 Expenses allocation
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Founded in 2004, Facebook's mission is to give people the power to share and make the world more open and connected. Over 4 billion viewers every day which is a 50% increase since 2010 and more than 400 million views per day on mobile devices, tripling in the past year. SIMPLY POST A VIDEO! From Youtube Channels where viewers can watch, enjoy and engage emotionally with your brand to Analytics where you as a company can measure how well your viewers like your videos and learn how to improve your results. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 7 Platforms
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … For businesses and brands, Twitter conversations provide a powerful canvas and context in which to connect messages and their brand to what people are talking about right now. It’s a canvas for telling engaging stories, for participating in cultural events, for broadcasting content, for connecting directly with consumers, and for driving transactions. Businesses can influence and participate in real-time conversations on Twitter to drive consumer action with integrated paid, earned and owned campaigns, delivering results throughout the marketing funnel. Twitter also serve as a data base where companies can listen and gather market intelligence and insights. Having chosen these three platforms: Facebook, Youtube and Twitter are parts of the term “social media” and are grounds for the new market place where consumers and sellers meet. We are increasingly moving into a new age where transactions and interactions take place digitally, together with innovative mobile devices providing humanity extraordinary mobility. How does General Motors and Ford utilize these three platforms and can it be said a success for their operations? This we will look deeper into by exploring each company's accounts, responses from the audience and news articles. Furthermore, we will position social media within the nature of this industry, producing a SWOT analysis. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 8 Platforms
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … The main website of General Motors, www.gm.com , features the three platforms marked with a red square. Positioning the three icons in the mid bottom page gives a hint of GM's effort in social media usage. http://www.facebook.com/generalmotors GM has 396,665 likes and 5,920 outreach as of July 2012. The page includes the four main brands of GM; Chevrolet, GMC, Chevrolet and Buick (from top left to bottom right) and an icon for GM's Twitter account. Shown above is the engagement by both enthusiasts and haters of the brand, creating a community within the site. Take note of the 851 likes and 70 shares. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 9 LIKE GM and FORD
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Unlike GM where you can immediately spot the icons for social media once entering the main site, Ford has a different approach. Ford has created “Ford Social”, http://social.ford.com/, which is a page of its own after you enter the main website. The site is purely dedicated for social media leaving the audience same choices as GM (Facebook, Twitter) and Blogs with the exception of Youtube. In addition there is a Share This button which allows the audience to share the site through; Pinterest, Google+, Fashiolista, Fark. Compared to GM, Ford has significantly more likes and wider outreach. The difference between their figures must show that Ford is more popular in social media than GM. However, their total revenue, shows a different picture, where GM had $149B, while $139B for Ford. On the other hand, Ford spent $0.5B less for or selling, administrative and other expenses than GM. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 10 LIKE GM and FORD
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 11 TWEET AND WATCH
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … As shown, both GM and Ford achieved to engage thousands of audiences in all three platforms. Obviously, Ford got the lead with higher outreach than GM. The table shows a survey conducted by Base 22, a software and IT consulting firm with offices in the US, Canada and Mexico. The table produced also shows the same results, where Ford is taking the lead. “Leading, engaged and aware”, depict where car manufacturers stand in each platform. The table only shows the results in North America. After collecting screenshots of our chosen companies, GM and Ford. It is proper to state that both entities have completed the chart provided by PCG Digital Marketing for Automotive Advertising Strategies. PCG Digital Marketing specialize in automotive marketing concentrations including digital advertising. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 12 VERDICT
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … It is too early to say that GM's and Ford's usage is a success based on the social platforms they utilize and their interaction with the audience. There has not been any research produced showing a correlation between social media and car sales. Yet again..it is too early to judge. According to a research conducted by Capgemini in 2011, where they conducted a research with more than 8,000 in-market consumers in the mature markets of France, Germany, United Kingdom and the United States, and the developing markets of Brazil, China, India and Russia – social media sites falls in the bottom of the table. However “family and friends” can be considered under the umbrella of social media, since they somehow interact on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. Red tabs represent top information sources, providing evidence that car dealers still dominate information feed to customers, with the only exception of China. Chinese consumers score 43% on web forums and blogs and 32% on social media site, making the Chinese market dominate in social media platforms participation. It is worth noting though, that the Chinese government conduct extensive screening and has a good grip of control on what is on the internet sites within the boarders of China. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 13 VERDICT
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Provided the table produced by Capgemini, a Triad can be drawn based on different sources that influence consumers behavior. GM and Ford stand as the umbrella and the primary source of information related their former, current and future products. For the secondary source are the dealers under the umbrella of GM and Ford. Although these dealers are independent in their operations, the information they feed to current and potential clients are in line with the primary source, dependent on what has been published by the primary source. Information are considered to be bias as most dealers only concentrate on one brand. A dealer of GM, deals with GM vehicles and the same applies to a Ford dealer. On the tertiary source are websites and bloggers covering the automobile industry. Tertiary sources have the freedom of comparing car brands, thus have more independence from the primary and secondary sources. Also, tertiary sources offer more flexibility and extensive comparison betwwen car brands in the market. Information from these sources may flow in different directions, where the processed information reaches the tertiary source as the last stop before the consumers. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 14 TRIAD THEORY
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … As we are only covering GM and Ford, their market would be USA. Thus, referring to the table – car dealers, manufacturers' - and dealers' websites dominate with significant percentages. Having covered manufacturer's websites and platforms, below are previews of car dealers online account in the US, which gained good reputation among its customers and sustained loyalty from current clients. First out is GM with James Wood Motors, being actively on Twitter with thousands of tweets and followers. Recently, James Wood Motors was featured on the Faces of GM blog as a car dealership who knows how to effectively use social media to engage with customers. Notice the retweets and responses... “A Dallas based dealership, James Wood uses their online presence to talk with current and potential customers without using sales pressure. Their goal is to participate in conversations about vehicles they sell; not to say “hey, come buy a car here.” Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 15 TRIAD – Secondary source
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Unlike GM, Ford is its secondary source as being the primary source. One recent instance is the Fusion campaign, where the three celebrities Micucci, Seacrest and McHale, must dole out 100 Fusion sedans. Ford's top marketing executive stated that, “ the celebrities were chosen on the strength of their online popularity.” “All three of them were important because they already have very large social grasps.” “We're not starting from scratch.” Collectively, the three have more than 10 million followers on Twitter, with Seacrest accounting for more than 7.3 million. This dwarfs the 141,000 that track Ford's main Twitter account. According to Klout, a company that uses Twitter and Facebook to measure influence online, Seacrest, McHale and Micucci are in the 95th percentile of influence. (Reuters 2012) Ford shows a different approach than GM, a more aggressive marketing than putting the dealers as secondary source. Perhaps, the fact that Ford being the second-largest in the USA after GM can soon be challenged with Ford's campaigns online and with the positive responses attained form the audience. Too early to say that... Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 16 TRIAD – Secondary Source
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … A tertiary source possess freedom in conducting reviews of not just one brand but often of several brands. In the automotive industry, the most famous, is Autoblog - at www.autoblog.com. The company describes itself by, “ Autoblog obsessively covers the auto industry with news, reviews, podcasts, high-quality photography and commentary about automobiles and the automotive industry.” Autoblog obtains 61% and +K of 10; equivalent to influencing 10 000 people, retweets and mentions. Majority of Autoblog's audience are at the age bracket of 30's upwards which correlates with the website contents and ambience. Amid the popularity of Autoblog, carmakers might consider blogs such as this one, a threat where an issue of “favoritism” can occur. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 17 TRIAD – Tertiary Source
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Another tertiary source platform is Car Throttle which caters the younger audience of the automotive industry. Car Throttle is a media brand focused on providing car reviews, news & interviews aimed at the youth market. Started as a hobby for the young car enthusiast Adnan Ebrahim, but also having the entrepreneur spirit in him, inputs were only published under his personal account. As his idea was embraced by an audience and car manufacturers, Car Throttle has been registered as a company, successful and profitable. Evidence shows that CarThrottle is still a young company compared to Autoblog. Kloud figure shows the difference with the score and influences. Note however, that despite of the influences differential of 9k (10k - 1k), overall score difference of 61 and 47 is not that wide. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 18 TRIAD – Tertiary Source
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Based on Capgemini's research which has been mentioned earlier, the data sample of 8,000 in-market consumers shows the significance of Internet as a research tool. The chart shows the percentage of consumers saying that they use the Internet as an information source during the vehicle buying process. “Price and product information continue to be the primary web features consumers look for when they research vehicles. Additional options high on the list include the ability to compare vehicles and the ability to get guidance and advice over the web.” (Dcosta 2012) Evidently, secondary- and tertiary sources ( see blue arrows) gain more interest than the primary sources. Mature markets are France, Germany, United Kingdom and the United States, and the developing markets of Brazil, China, India and Russia. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 19 OVERALL IMPACT
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … So far, only positive results have been expressed by the featured platforms. But as the saying goes, “just as a coin has two sides, every story has two perspectives. Breaking news distorted Facebook's IPO when the world's largest automaker just bailed out on them prior to platform's anticipated IPO. “General Motors plans to stop paying for ads on Facebook in a move that raises questions about the social network’s business model ahead of its highly anticipated initial public offering. GM said it would continue to expand its use of Facebook pages for its brands, which companies can set up for free.” -FT,May 15, 2012 “Facebook executives have assiduously courted the world's largest carmaker. One source said Facebook was not pushing for GM's immediate return, but offered to provide data showing the effectiveness of the website's paid ads.” - IBTimes, July 3,2012 Apparently, there are two stories being told here, sharing the same ground. GM expressed that Facebook had not done a convincing job of demonstrating what returns the new forms of advertising for its brands would generate. (FT, 2012) Other carmakers does not spend as much as $40 million dollar on Facebook as GM did. Subaru, a Japanese car maker, stated that they are satisfied with the $5 million investment they had on Facebook, providing them pleasant results. “This is the next phase of marketing and advertising and Id on't think GM, Facebook or any other company is quite there yet because it's still emerging”. R.Lieb, analyst at Altimeter Group. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 20 SWOT
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Having said that social media is the new sensation and an emerging market place, the presence of a company will defend and bolster it's position. Being in the same place as your customers and potential clients is what social media offers. Social media platforms contribute in finding the sentiment tone and emotions of consumers. These factors extracted from thousands of conversations might contribute to car makers' customer service approach. These results are also forms of instant feedback regarding carmakers' status with their customers and competitors, which they can break down in different time periods. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 21 Strengths
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Looking back at the web charts, Ford has undoubtedly been the winner among its peers. However, it can be considered as weakness, when people who speak positively about your product are not buying your product. What are words when it can not sustain a company's operations? Ford was caught in this dilemma. Interpretation of platform results can sound positive but can produce negative output. “ Most of the companies have scores slightly above the industry average, Intention to Buy Scores for General Motors and Chrysler are strongly below average. This means that there is considerably more conversation regarding “intention not to buy” than “intention to buy.” -Discovery Research, 2011 Positive Evangelism examines the Positive speech minus the Negative speech and adjusts for the industry average. The following are some of the critical highlights found from the data. “Toyota, Honda, and BMW have strong Evangelism Scores meaning that conversation has stronger positive speak than negative speak.”-Discovery Research, 2011 Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 22 Weakness
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … As mentioned in our introduction, according to OECD report, economic activity in the automobile industry usually moves in line with the overall business cycle, where they studied the correlation between two variables in the Unites States, Germany and Japan. A correlation is found between car sales and private consumption, which might be a huge factor determining the total sales of the industry. Source : Bundesbank; INSEE; Datastream; OECD Economic Outlook 86 and Main Economic Indicators. Aside from the the economic environment, strongly correlated to car sales, another aspect is the emergence of other social media platforms. The Internet world is known for taking the world with storm achieving sky- high valuations but usually ends up with a bubble. New social media platforms are going to emerge aside from the the mergers and acquisitions of current platforms. For instance, Facebook's purchase of Instagram, amounting $1bn last April 2012. (FT) Users are exposed to the adjustment period due to changes and amendments when two platforms merge or one gets acquired. The adjustment period can cost advertisers such as the car industry time and money. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 23 Threats
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Obviously, its is not just about getting most “likes” on Facebook. Some companies have taken Facebook fan interaction to the next level. If you've always wanted to design a car, but hate the fact that you actually need to go to "school" and have "experience," then Facebook cars is the thing. Aston Martin decided to let their fans build a custom model once they reach 1 million "likes."The company let the fans build the entire car, letting them choose the model, interior and exterior options and the name. The resulting (and not very creatively named) DB9 1M is simply stunning. -Carbuzz 2012. THIS IS A NEW METHOD OF SOLICITING BUYERS WHICH MODELS THEY WANT TO BE IN THE MARKET. Nissan interacted with its Facebook fans, letting them design a 370Z track car. The company solicited opinions from its fans, sourcing mods such as a GReddy twin- turbocharged system and catback exhaust system from those who voted. -Carbuzz 2012. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 24 Opportunities
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Based on what has been said throughout this report, in can be summarized by “Social Media is a new market place.” Websites are just for formality while in fact the selling and information are in social media. Both GM's and Ford's Facebook pages boasts numerous videos and updates related to their operations. However, secondary operators such as dealers and tertiary operators such as auto- blogs and auto tweeps show more effectivity than primary operators (the companies themselves GM and Ford). It can be said that dealers and bloggers are kind of a new segment outside the companies' umbrella. For the dealers, their scope is limited to a certain area of their distribution, thus provides them advantage in knowing their customers and how to catch their attention. Auto-bloggers on the other hand serves as an independent body, possessing the freedom of comparing different car brands as well as disclosing the features of individual brands. Therefore, it is my verdict that secondary and tertiary operators benefit more from social media than the primary ones. Dealers earn higher provision with more customers, white tertiary sources hoover in numerous advertisement, sponsorships and goodies from carmakers. Matching the results of likes and outreach with the total revenues and marketing expenses by GM and FORD, still does not provide grounds for a measurement on social media advertising. It is still worth claiming that for the automobile industry, social media and mobile applications is yet less understood. However it is unquestionable the fact that awareness created through social media provide popularity among audiences and there is value added. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 25 LOGOUT
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … 2012. FACEBOOK SUBSCRIBER GROWTH BETWEEN 2011 AND 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.internetworldstats.com/facebook.htm [Accessed July 15 2012]. 22, B. 2011. Social Media Score Card - North American Automotive. BROIHIER, B. 2012. The Faces of GM: How James Wood Motors uses Social Media to Engage Loyal Customers [Online]. Available: http://www.socialmediadelivered.com/2012/01/17/the-faces- of-gm-how-james-wood-motors-uses-social-media-to-engage-loyal-customers/ [Accessed July 2012]. DCOSTA, F. February 20, 2012. Putting the customer in the driver’s seat – Social Media insights for a rapidly transforming auto industry. Capgemini. GM. 2012. Amanda Williams: Engagingwith customers online [Online]. Available: http://www.facesofgm.com/2012/01/03/amanda-williams-engaging-with-customers-online/. HENRY, J. 2012. How Facebook, Twitter Can Move the Metal [Online]. Advertising Age. Available: http://adage.com/article/news/social-media-marketing-facebook-twitter-move-autos/145402/. HINES, C. M. 2012. 5 Facebook-Built Cars [Online]. Available: http://carbuzz.com/news/2012/7/13/5- Facebook-Built-Cars-7709704/ [Accessed July 2012]. KLOUT. 2012. Available: http://klout.com/#/therealautoblog/score-analysis. LEADER, D. N. S. S. T. 2011. Social Media White Paper for the Automotive Industry. Discovery Research Group Report. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 26 REFERENCES
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … MARKETING, P. D. February 12, 2011. Automotive Advertising Budgets Rise [Online]. Available: http://www.automotive-advertising.net/20110212-automotive-advertising-budgets-rise/ [Accessed July 2012]. NUTTALL, R. W.A. C. 2012. Facebook to buy Instagram for $1bn . Financial Times. SEETHARAMAN, D. 2012. Ford bets in star power, social media to launch 2013 Fusion. Reuters. Reuters. SHANNON BOND, A. E.-J. A. A. D. 2012. GM to pull back on Facebook advertising . Financial Times. SHIH, B. K. A. G. July 3, 2012 GM talking with Facebook about advertising again: sources. International Business Times. Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 27 REFERENCES
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 28 INDEX
    • The less understood social media and mobile applications … Hult id: 875360 CARMAKERS' SHIFT TO SOCIAL MEDIAADVERTISNG 29