The questions is hard to answer, so we end up answering the question through decisions about everyday life. How to behave, where to live, eat and what to ware. And what is your next step in your career? \nEverything is up to you in a postmodern, relative world.\n\n
Our accelerating world forces us to be self-reflective in order to cope with the ever-changing conditions.\nSelf-disclosure seems to be the key tactic, if you would like to win the game of authenticity.\n
It seems to be a correlation between individual expressed personality o Fb and how they are perceived IRL. (Vaddis, Vasire & Gosling mfl, 2007)\n\n
In an interesting study respondents said they gladly revealed personal information, but at the same time they reported that they were worried about personal integrity. \n\n
Socialmedia from a psychological perspective
Social Media- a broader context from a psychological perspective Nordic Psychology Students 2011, 21 May, Uppsala Jonas Mosskin
My talkGive a psychological context for how to look uponInternet and social media. With a little help fromsociology. Few academics talk about the biggerpicture.Individual and identity-construction in the context ofFacebook & Twitter.Media landscape effects social relationships.Self-reflective society with instant feedback.A couple of examples of how this effects you as apsychologist.
About me JONAS MOSSKIN, almost graduated psychologist from Stockholm, currently based in Berlin. Work also with coaching and group- development. Founder of several public psychology concepts at Kulturhuset in Stockholm, Psykologer tittar på film and Psykologer läser böcker. I have a blog www.mosskin.se, about psychology, culture and internet since 2007. I write articles for several magazines like Modern Psykologi and Psykologtidningen. I’m currently writing my final thesis about how social media affect the relationship between the psychologist and the client.
First a question to all of you: What’s your emotional experience of the web? What’s your emotional experience of Facebook?
What we know so far What we do know is that most human behavior we see offline is still there online. Some processes and behavior online is more vivid, some less. In the 1990:s people and scholars were often cyber- enthusiasts hoping that society will change a lot online. Today there is a growing consensus that the distinction between offline and online is vanished.
What we know so far about the web Not so much... There are few studies with preliminary results. Internet and the web have mainly been studied 1) as technic and information-medium 2) as a conversation arena. 3) a social space.
Self-reﬂexivity The sociologist Anthony Giddens wrote in the early 1990:s about the postmodern man. In his book Modernity and self-identity he describes today’s human being as a self-reflexive person. Today people find themselves in a therapeutic culture where there is a constant loop of self-introspection. Being modern today means that the question: How am I going to live my life? comes up all the time. The questions is hard to answer, so we end up answering the question through decisions about everyday life. How to behave, where to live, eat and what to ware. And what is your next step in your career?
Authenticity According to Giddens we strive for self- realization. We want to control time and space as well as our living and our body. Authenticity is the moral imperative in today’s culture of self-realization. That fit’s perfect with the kind of person developing on social networking sites.
The world is ﬂuid,life have to be ﬂexible We are desperately longing to feel safe and to create stability in our life. At the same time we are restless and want to embrace all the new. This leads inevitable to ambivalence. A state of powerlessness and a feeling of insecurity about where to head. But, also a feeling of curiosity and excitement in our lives.
Ambivalence We are ambivalent in front of our own quest to find our true self. Some psychologist like for example E. Erikson, call this identity-diffusion when we talk about adolescence. Today, we don’t know where to go, but we have different means and resources around us that we can use to reach this particular place...
Individualization The sociologist Zygmunt Bauman compares today’s society with a camping site. People park the caravan at the camping site, safely behind fences. They care about themselves, complain about the neighbors and the service and then head to some other place. No one takes responsibility for the whole, the environment, the community or how the camping site correspond to other sites. Powerlessness and inadequacy are the postmodern positions of today.
Our mission in life “The mission today, is to take the least risky and closest turn-off, then change direction before the road becomes impassable or before the road-system are revised, or before the desired goal moves away or loses it’s former attraction.” (Zygmunt Bauman)
Lack of personal meaning Our society is rich when it comes to technical and economic resources, but poor when it comes to moral guidance. Society, or our community, is not taking part in our life and no one tells us how to live our life in an ethical way. Bauman means that we need to formulate a personal meaning of our own. But most people instead consume and repress all such thoughts. We suffer from personal lack of meaning.
Compensatory recreation- activitesPlay computer-gamesHang around on FacebookSurf the webGo shoppingAttend parties
A social-psychologicalperspective on the web and social media Stanley Milgram, 1974: ”The social psychology of this century reveals a major lesson. Often it’s not so much the kind of person a man is, as the kind of situation in which he finds himself that determines how he will act”.
Impression ManagementErving Goffman, a social-psychologist, compared human interaction with theater.We play a role and present our self in a conscious way.Goffman called this human behavior self-presentation for impression management.We play roles, often together in a group at work or at leisure-time.
Playing a role as a group Swedish royal family announcing Victoria’s marriage
Playing a role as a teamMe and my colleague Jenny Jägerfeld posing for Psykologer läser böcker
Playing a role as an individualBarack Obama campaining The artist Grace Jones
Front stage & BackstageTo be able to perform different roles, we need to separate people indifferent ways.Goffman borrowed the concept of front stage and backstage from thetheater. We structure and separate our social life in different scenes.
Performances at front stage and backstage. Think about the waiters and the kitchen at a restaurant. Or the closed door at the doctor or the psychologist.
Borders are ﬂuid To be able to be backstage we have to create a closed space. Some people have to be the audience, to whom we can perform our self-image. We must create borders between people to be able to function as a social being. How is that possible on the web today? When are you truly backstage on social media like Facebook or Twitter
Collapsing ContextsWe have all contacts in the same feed and frame at Facebook but alsoon Twitter, LinkedIn and other social platforms. Childhood-friends, ourboss, Mother, student peers, and gym-mates appears all together. Butwhat do they really have in common?When do you need to communicate to all of them at the same time?
We are inﬂuenced by ourpeers and norms on Facebook Behaviors are contagious on Fb. Click ”attending” on an event, even though you won’t come. It looks cool. Have photos on your children as a profile. Be funny. Get high status by having many “friends”. Always be positive.
Current social-media research We have 6,6 close contacts on Fb and 100-200 contacts in average. (Lewis et al., 2008) 100-300 contacts on FB is perceived as normal. Close to 300 makes people more socially attractive. More than 300 isn’t increasing popularity. (Utz, 2010)It seems that when we communicate on SNS we have a concept of an audience of our10-20 closest friends. (Brake, 2008)Popularity and status in a group of young people seems to increase the more you areusing the strategy of self-disclosure. (Boyd, 2004)Many people think that friends are to much outspoken and self-disclosing. (Christofides2009)
Current social-media research If you disclose personal information on an online- community, the probability that others will be self- disclosive increases. This process leads to intimate relationships. (Henderson & Gilding, 2004) Individuals with too many friends are perceived as not so trustworthy and less authentic. Paradoxically, an individual that is self-disclosive on Fb, is perceived as trustworthy. (Tong, Van der Heide & Langwell, 2008) Popularity is measured by the number of Fb-friends. Extroverted individuals are favoured. “Rich get richer”. But introverted people can compensate socially on the web. “Poor get richer”. (Zywicka & Danowski, 2008)
Social-media research Narcisstic individuals are more socially active on Fb, self-disclosive, and present themselves more sexy on photos. (Buffardi & Campbell, 2008) To express yourself and use self-disclosure seems to be the easiest way to be popular, but the price you have to pay is that you disclose intimate details. (Zywicka och Danowski, 2009) Communication on SNS were caracterized by positioning in the group and to strengthen group cohesion. The personal profile is more a “place marker” than a self-portrait. (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2011) & (Livingstone, 2008)
The new social landscape for psychologists to navigate in The not so modern The modern life digital skepticism from psychologists
A warning example of self- disclosure on Facebook:”My internship as a psychologist starts on Wednesday at xxx one of the best yyyschools!!!!!!!!!”"10 new patients (!!!!!!), all between 6 and 9 years old."”Low self-esteem. Im too young! As one of my childpatients put it: "21?? Youre not even anadult!!" Dont ya just love kids...””My little patients are amazing :) They keep reminding me of why I decided to become apsychologist.””I cant believe Im testing, observing and treating kids, talking to and coaching parents andteachers, and sending kids to other instances with my own recommendations. And theteachers actually like me, respect me and treat me like a real psychologist!!!!!””My two youngest patients now bought the idea that I have a multicolored little bird who fliesto school and to their houses and reports to me if they behave well or not…"
Suicide on InternetA 21 year old Swedish guy committed suicide in October 2010,broadcasted on Flashback.Some people encourage him to do it in the 1,5 h previous discussion inthe forum.
Another web-related suicideAn evening in January Simone Black, an English woman, committed suicide. Oneevening, she posted a status update on Facebook: “Took all my pills be dead soonso bye bye every one.”No one called the police, until afternoon the next day, but then she was dead. Blackhad 1082 contacts but no one reacted in time. A lot of her contacts didn’t believeher and even wrote sniffy comments. This seems to be a phenomena described insocial psychology as the “bystander-effect”. The more people witnessing a crimethe less likely that someone call the police.
Psychologist have to think in new ways old? New?
Questions for you How can we reach out to young people? Are virtual clinic a solution? Shall we start with mobile teams on the web? What can you do as a psychology-student? Who to blame: parents, school, the web, the computers?
Thanks! Jonas Mosskin email@example.com www.mosskin.se twitter: @jonasmosskin 073-6505103