Stability in the Midst of Change
Addressing Challenges for Digital
Preservation

Jennifer Brice
Digital Preservation Libra...
Introduction and Background

Video Transfer Suite
BAVC

Dance Preservation and Digitization Project
Dance Heritage Coaliti...
QCTOOLS
What is digital preservation and why is
it important?
“Digital Preservation refers to the
series of managed activities
nec...
The Dartmouth College Library fosters
intellectual growth and advances the
mission of Dartmouth College and
affiliated com...
The biggest challenge for digital
preservation is confronting and
managing change on multiple fronts.
Changing Technology
Changes in Necessary Resources

Digital Life Cycle Model
CASPAR project
Changes in Research and Learning

From the ACTION Toolbox, a collaborative project between the Bregman Music
and Audio Res...
Administrative Changes
Changes in Discipline

Guidelines: File Format Comparison Projects
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Agency
To provide continuous and
sustainable access to digital
materials in the midst of
rapid, constant and complex
change.
We do this by supporting a digital
preservation program that embraces
change as an opportunity for:
thoughtful assessment ...
Addressing Change in Technology
Addressing Changes in Necessary
Resources
Selection Policy for Digitization Projects
Dartmouth College Libraries
Sustaining Digital Scholarship initiative, University of Virginia Library Digital Curation Services
Data Center
Internet Archive
Addressing Changes in Research and
Learning

Activists’ Guide to Archiving Video
WITNESS
Addressing Administrative Changes
Addressing Changes in Discipline

Discussing Challenges
AV Preservation CURATEcamp

Finding Solutions
AMIA/DLF HACK DAY
To provide continuous and
sustainable access to digital
materials in the midst of
rapid, constant and complex
change.
We do this by supporting a digital
preservation program that embraces
change as an opportunity for:
thoughtful assessment ...
Thank You!
Special thanks to:
Jessica Bitley, Preservation Specialist, NEDCC
Hannah Frost, Manager, Stanford Media Preserv...
Bibliography
Caplan, Priscilla. "Understanding PREMIS." PREMIS: Preservation Metadata Maintenance Activity. Library of Con...
Smith Rumsey, Abbey. "But Storage is Cheap!... Preservation in the Age of Abundance". 2011. Video. YouTube, New Haven.
Web...
"Sustainable Economics for a Digital Planet:Ensuring Long Term Access to Digital Information ." Blue Ribbon Task Force on
...
Stability in the Midst of Change: Addressing Challenges for Digital Preservation
Stability in the Midst of Change: Addressing Challenges for Digital Preservation
Stability in the Midst of Change: Addressing Challenges for Digital Preservation
Stability in the Midst of Change: Addressing Challenges for Digital Preservation
Stability in the Midst of Change: Addressing Challenges for Digital Preservation
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Stability in the Midst of Change: Addressing Challenges for Digital Preservation

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  • Hello, and thank you for coming. My name is Jennifer Brice, and, as you know, I’m a candidate for the position of Digital Preservation Librarian.
  • I’d like to start by talking briefly about my experience preserving digital materials. As the Preservation Coordinator for the Bay Area Video Coalition, I create preservation transfers of analog video, and provide technical metadata and fixity checks for transferring files to our clients. I also assist on a project we are collaborating on with the Dance Heritage Coalition to build a digital repository for video documenting dance in America.  
  • BAVC is a unique institution, and working there has heavily influenced my approach to and vision for digital preservation. BAVC is a media and technology based non-profit, and as such, it must respond quickly to change. Change is inherent in a lot of what I do, from the projects I work on, to the workflows we deploy, to the technology I use. We are constantly looking for ways to better serve our mission and our constituents. I’m going to be talking a lot about change today, in part because of my experience working in a quickly changing environment.
  • BAVC’s Preservation Department takes a holistic view of serving the needs of communities working with and responsible for magnetic media. Beyond preservation transfers, we develop on-line resources and tools, as well as training programs, and seek funding to make preservation services accessible to individuals and small organizations. We are also developing open-source software- here is a screenshot of a software that we are currently developing called QCTOOLS that analyzes digitized analog video to identify artifacts and errors. The peaks in the graph show areas of heavy drop-out, which we can see in the corresponding frame. Understanding the needs of your community and finding effective and creative ways to meet those needs is a service philosophy that I believe applies to any successful digital preservation program.
  • Finally, my experience with digital preservation has been almost exclusively with audio-visual materials, and most of my examples today will be from this perspective. Some things to know about these files: they are large- one hour of 10bit uncompressed video is about 100GB- and complex- you can see in this slide a mediainfo report of technical metadata associated with a single file-, and there is no agreed upon “best-practice” file format for long term preservation. As such, most of the “out of the box” repository systems are not optimized to handle a/v materials, and a lot of research and experimentation is going into developing solutions for long term preservation. Preserving A/V materials has given me an opportunity to think carefully about file format characteristics, open-source solutions and the importance of sustainability.
  • What is Digital Preservation?The Digital Preservation Coalition defines digital preservation as the series of managed activities necessary to ensure continued access to digital materials for as long as necessary. To understand this better, lets break down the salient concepts. “Managed activities” refers to high level policies and strategies that inform specific processes and actions. “Continued Access” is the core goal of digital preservation; materials that can’t be rendered, understood or authenticated are of little use to current and future researchers. “Digital materials” can include text, images, a/v files, databases, web and social media content… Any materials in digital format that an institution collects or creates and selects for ongoing support. “As long as necessary” is defined by an organization’s mandate and collection and retention policies. For some materials, this could mean 5 years, for others, this could mean indefinitely.
  • And why is it important?As education and research, information, and new scholarship increasingly move into the digital realm, digital preservation becomes essential to furthering the mission of the Dartmouth College Library.
  • So what’s the biggest challenge to ensuring continued access to digital materials over time? Doing so in an environment that is quickly and continuously changing in complex ways.
  • Technological change is something we are all familiar with. File formats, software, hardware and storage media are continually becoming obsolete. New technologies are often not backwards compatible, or stop being backwards compatible at a certain point. For instance, the most current LTO drive, LTO 6, will only read and write tapes back to LTO version 4. Interdependencies between technologies can render file formats inaccessible when software is no longer supported, or storage media useless when hardware is no longer available. When technology changes, we often loose not just content, but contextual information that makes content renderable and understandable. How do we provide continued access to digital materials when the technology used to create, access, and store it is constantly changing?
  • As we saw earlier, Digital Preservation is defined as ”a series of managed activities”. This is one example of a life-cycle model for digital stewardship that I think demonstrates the dynamic and complex nature of these actions. Digital Preservation activities require resources: administrative time, staff expertise, power draw, upgrades to technological infrastructure, maintenance of systems…In addition, digital content is being created, collected and accessed at ever increasing rates. The sheer volume of digital material to be considered for preservation is overwhelming. The more digital materials there are to preserve, the more resources are required.Digital Preservation activities are perpetual, and the resources necessary to fulfill them will change overtime. Digital storage may become cheaper, but be offset by growth in collections. Preserving more complex digital objects may result in higher investments in infrastructure and administrative costs. While there are cost models for digital preservation, there is still a lot of uncertainty over what the true costs of digital preservation will be over time. How do we create and maintain a sustainable digital preservation program as necessary resources shift over time?
  • Another area of change is in the digital preservation needs of communities served by academic libraries. Libraries make content accessible for their user community, but increasingly users of digital content are also creators of digital content. Students and faculty in all disciplines are, to at least some extent, creating digital materials in a wide variety of simple and complex formats. I came across a good example of complex digital content being created by Dartmouth faculty at the recent Association of Moving Image Archivists Conference. Mark J. Williams, Associate Professor of Film and Media Studies, presented on a digital humanities project he is involved in called ACTION that analyzes variations in light, movement and sound within film. ACTION is software based on Python, fftExtract and Mplayer that produces a number of different data sets and reports with a range of file extensions. Its an interesting project, and it poses a number of preservation challenges, including versioning, dependencies, contextual information and format viability. In order for the results of this project to be usable over time, these challenges would need to be addressed.While not all materials created by the Dartmouth community will be collected by the library or maintained in an institutional repository, researchers need data management and preservation skills to ensure that their work remains viable and accessible over time. However, there are few incentives for the development of these skills. For students and faculty, the focus is on teaching the course, doing the research, completing the assignment, publishing… Outside of grant requirements for data management, the work of preserving and managing this digital content is not a priority and is perceived as holding little value. Furthermore, the speed at which new technology replaces old technology leads to a lack of trust in the stability of digital materials. How do we develop a service model for digital preservation in the midst of evolving research, learning and data management needs?
  • As this is a new position in the library, I thought it was important to address the impact of introducing a digital preservation program into an organization, and the administrative changes that will result. Successful Digital Preservation depends on extensive and effective collaborations throughout an organization- with preservation, campus computing, archives and special collections, the digital libraries technology group, department liaisons and specialty libraries, cataloging and metadata, acquisitions, administration, and records management, among others. Not only will new working relationships emerge, but new systems, workflows and policies will be introduced. Expectations about roles and responsibilities, goals, and outcomes may vary widely. How do we address changes within an organization to ensure that a digital preservation program will be supported and effective?
  • Finally, the field of digital preservation itself is changing quickly. Even as systems are being put in place and workflows are being developed, research, technology, and best practices are rapidly evolving. For example, as I mentioned previously, when digitizing analog video there is no consensus over “best-practice” target file formats for preservation master files. At BAVC I capture analog video to a 10 bit uncompressed codec; Library of Congress digitizes to jpeg2000; some a/v archivists are starting to advocate for the adoption of ffv1 (in fact, we are considering this for the Dance Heritage Coalition project). The Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Agency Audio Visual Working Group is currently developing a matrix for video format comparison to help organizations in choosing a target preservation format. Despite this lack of consensus, video has been and is being digitized for preservation- indeed, due to the fragile nature of magnetic media, we can’t hold off on migrating these materials until a “best-practice” is established. This example holds true for digital preservation as a whole- tools, platforms, best-practices, and standards are constantly evolving. But we can’t hold off on working to preserve digital materials until the “best” solution is reached. How can we develop workflows, choose tools and platforms, and implement standards in the midst of change? How do we keep up with developments in the the field of digital preservation?
  • Thisdynamic nature of digital preservation has informed my vision for a successful digital preservation program, which is To provide continuous and sustainable access to digital materials in the midst of rapid, constant and complex change.
  • We do this by supporting a digital preservation program that embraces change as an opportunity for thoughtful assessment of infrastructure, services and collections and deepening collaborations within the college and with the greater community of digital library practitioners.
  • So, how do we provide continued access to digital materials when the technology used to create, access, and store it is constantly changing? By building a system that is flexible and relies on well supported, open infrastructure. A modular system allows an institution to design a solution specific to their needs. It also makes it easier to respond to changing needs and technologies. Updates or adjustments can be made where needed, instead of having to alter or recreate an entire system. Well supported open-source technologies offer more control over systems. For instance, for the Dance Heritage Coalition project, we are implementing the open-source digital preservation system Archivematica. As is, it works pretty well for our needs, but some aspects of its design are not optimal for our workflow, configurations, and file types. However, because the code is published on github, we were able to “fork” it and make the necessary adjustments. Our “fork” of Archivematica is then available for other institutions to use who are working with similar materials and constraints. Open-source software also allows for flexibility in developing and connecting platforms. For instance, Islandora combines 3 open-source platforms- Fedora, Drupal, and Solr- to provide a framework for digital asset management, preservation and discovery. Hydra is another interesting example. It is “a robust repository”, fronted by many different “heads”- or “feature-rich tailored applications and workflows” that can be combined to meet the needs of an institution. Hydra has a strong developer community, and views this community as an essential part of its mission. Adopting modular, open-source well-supported solutions and being a part of open-source communities, as both users and developers, enables an organization to adapt quickly, effectively and proactively to technological change.
  • Another important aspect to ensuring access to digital materials in the face of changing technology is the implementation of robust technical and contextual metadata. The PREMIS metadata standard “supports activities intended to ensure the long-term usability of a digital resource.” Metadata such as checksums is used to insure data fixity. Information about the date and age of media used to store digital files is useful in ensuring that storage media is kept up to date and files are refreshed. Metadata about file formats is necessary for future migration or emulation strategies. Metadata that tracks changes to original files, a result of strategies such as migration or emulation, is important in maintaining authenticity of materials by documenting provenance. Preservation metadata imbues digital objects with the qualities they need to remain accessible in changing technological environments.
  • Risk assessment tools such as the Trusted Digital Repository Checklist, Trusted Repository Audit Checklist, Drambora and the Simple Property-Oriented Threat (SPOT) Model for Risk Assessment can help identify, plan for, and mitigate threats posed by changes in software, hardware and file formats. These tools are also useful in evaluating organizational viability, organizational structure and staffing, financial stability and procedures and policies that have a direct influence on the ability of an organization to preserve digital assets over time. Threats posed by technological change can be effectively mitigated when areas of risk are identified and contingency plans are developed.
  • Finally, strong, fruitful, collaborative working relationships between digital preservation practitioners and systems administrators and programmers are essential to addressing changes in technology. This is me and our systems administrator, Sam. We’re probably talking about rsync and permissions issues, a recent hot-topic-slash- problem area in one of my workflows. Sam and I have different knowledge bases and skill sets, and through communicating the principles, tools and goals of our respective disciplines, we are able to test out new technologies, trouble-shoot workflows, and create awesome digital preservation solutions.
  • How do we create and maintain a sustainable digital preservation program as necessary resources shift over time? The Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access outlined some excellent strategies in their report “Sustainable Economics for a Digital Planet: Ensuring Long Term Access to Digital Information.First, the series of actions and decisions required for digital preservation must be well considered, and contingency plans put in place for any changes to preservation priorities. Ideally, action should be taken to ensure continued access at the point at which digital content is created. If thoughtful steps are taken from the beginning of the digital preservation life cycle, less resources will be required to preserve an object over time. We have a significant amount of control over materials produced by the library, but what of materials over whose origin we have no control? Outreach to content creators is essential to enhancing sustainability for digital preservation. In a talk on sustainable digital preservation that was part of the Yale Preservation lecture series, Abbey Smith Rumsey spoke of including the management of digital content into the definition of digital literacy. I think this is a great concept, and I will be addressing it more later. Thoughtful actions and strategies employed as early in the digital life cycle as possible help ensure that future stewards of digital materials will have adequate options for accessing digital materials without having to invest huge amounts of resources.
  • Second, sustainability requires the on-going support and investment of stakeholders. In order to garner this support, we need to insure that the digital materials in which we are investing are of high use value to current and future researchers. Attempting to preserving everything would be near impossible, extremely costly and inhibit access to materials, and thus it would be hard to make the case that resources are being thoughtfully used and should be continuously allocated into the future. As with all library collections, thoughtful selection and retention policies that focus on the needs of our user community, both current and future, are essential to establishing sustainability. Dartmouth Library’s Selection for Digitization Policy is a great model for thinking through selection in terms quality of content, implications for the original object, and balancing costs of action with potential benefits.
  • In addition to deciding what digital materials to support, sustainable selection policies can also address levels of stewardship. The Sustainable Digital Scholarship initiative at the University of Virginia Library defines 5 levels of collecting which can be used to allocate resources for digital preservation. Depending on factors such as perceived use value of the content, intent of the creator, and cost/benefit analysis, decisions can be made about to what degree an object or collection will be “treated”. I see this as having strong parallels to the world of book conservation- not every volume in the library should receive the full scope of possible treatments or documentation. Circulating text-books, for example, might get some tear-repair or binding consolidation, while a 15th century incunabula might receive a full scope of treatment, housing and full documentation. Levels of collecting and preserving make it possible to prioritize resources for materials of high value, while keeping options for future access open for materials whose current or future use value is uncertain.
  • Finally, it is important to address sustainability at all levels of digital preservation planning and implementation, including selection of hardware, software, developing workflows, planning migrations, and outreach and education. This could include considering power draw in choosing a storage medium, finding ways to automate workflows, and, as mentioned earlier, educating content creators to take preservation actions at the point of content creation. An example of an elegant approach to sustainability that I particularly like is the Internet Archive’s solution for reducing energy costs. They built a data center inside of their main facility, taking advantage of their proximity to cool ocean breezes to help reduce dependencies on cooling systems, and making a conscious decision that the servers not be kept out of sight. I like this solution for a few reasons. First, it is simple and makes use of resources at hand, such as local weather patterns. Second, by moving servers into their workplace, the fact of energy use is a tangible reality, rather than an abstraction. Bringing awareness to sustainability issues is the first step in finding their solutions.
  • How do we develop a service model for digital preservation in the midst of evolving research, learning and data management needs? I believe that a service model for digital preservation should include assisting content creators to preserve content and its authenticity, even if this content will not be preserved by the Library, or reside in a College repository. As I mentioned previously, education and outreach can aid in ensuring sustainability by teaching content creators to take preservation actions early in the lifecycle of a digital object. However, engaging with content creators about the creation and management of digital materials also helps change the conversation about the nature of digital materials and value of digital preservation. When researchers start to take ownership over their digital files, they are more apt to value the work that goes into ensuring access to materials over time. By promoting ways in which digital preservation concepts, workflows and tools can improve research and learning we can obtain greater investment from a wider audience.A project that I think does an awesome job of outreach and education about data management to a particular audience is the Activists’ Guide to Archiving Video, created and hosted by WITNESS. This guide introduces activists to workflows and terminology and offers suggestions for managing data at varying levels of investment. It also presents scenarios that describe how each step in a data management workflow would be relevant and useful to the interests and goals of activists using video to address social change. Iknow that there are some data management resources in place at Dartmouth already, through the Preservation Department, Office of Sponsored Projects, and Dartmouth College Research Computing. I’d like to build on this work, unite efforts and reach a broad audience. I think it would be great to work with the Education and Outreach Team toidentify digital preservation and management concerns, interests, and needs for students and faculty, and develop resources and training to address these needs.
  • How do we address changes within an organization to ensure that a digital preservation program will be supported and effective? I think the primary way to address uncertainty about change is to connect it to the mission and values of the library. If the community understands how digital preservation furthers the mission of the Library and how digital preservation services align with Library values, administrative change will be easier to accept, welcome and support. It’s important to meaningfully include stakeholders in implementing change. Communication should be timely, proactive and transparent and space should be provided for asking and answering questions. Finally, stakeholders should be given a reasonable and accurate idea of what to expect.
  • How can we develop workflows, choose tools and platforms, and implement standards in the midst of change? How do we keep up with developments in the field of digital preservation?Of course, academic journals, conference proceedings, blogs and eve Twitter are a great way to find out about recent research, projects and hot-topics. However it is also important to be an active part of the digital curation community and develop a strong network of peers. Interacting with colleagues, discussing their projects and workflows, debating the merits and uses of specific tools and platforms is a great way to gain perspective on the work being done in your own institution. Its also a way to be a part of the conversation that moves digital preservation best-practices forward. Through these kinds of interactions we learn what needs are prevalent in the community, and can start developing ways to address these needs. Earlier this year I participated in an AV Preservation Curate Camp. Practitioners from around the country gathered in regional hubs and joined google hangouts to discuss problems that needed solutions, and possible ways these problems could be addressed. The results of this event were incorporated into a Hack Day at the Association for Moving Image Archivists Conference, co-sponsered by the Digital Library Federation. Preservationists, archivists and developers spent the day building solutions for these problems. Although I unfortunately wasn’t able to participate in the Hack Day, I did get to see the tools that emerged, which included metadata schemas, documentation of and instructions for the use of command-line tools, and software for file analysis. It was awesome and inspiring and encapsulated what I love about digital preservation- that there are a lot of smart, creative, collaborative people from all kinds of organizations working together for the common good of ensuring that the digital historic record remains accessible.
  • My vision for a successful digital preservation program, is To provide continuous and sustainable access to digital materials in the midst of rapid, constant and complex change.
  • The dynamic nature of digital preservation offers an amazing opportunity to thoughtfully assess the adoption of flexible, open source technology, the use value of current and future collections and the implementation of community oriented services.I will meet the challenges for digital preservation by deepening collaborationsthrough developing strong working relationships with stakeholders within the College, engaging with open source-source communities, and developing a strong network of peers within the field of digital stewardship.
  • Thank you very much for coming!I’d also like to give a shout-out to colleagues who generously shared with me their time, knowledge and expertise. They served as a sounding board for my ideas, and provided valuable feedback as I was putting this presentation together.
  • II’d love to hear any thoughts or comments you have, and I’m happy to answer any questions.
  • Stability in the Midst of Change: Addressing Challenges for Digital Preservation

    1. 1. Stability in the Midst of Change Addressing Challenges for Digital Preservation Jennifer Brice Digital Preservation Librarian Candidate Dartmouth College Library November 25, 2013
    2. 2. Introduction and Background Video Transfer Suite BAVC Dance Preservation and Digitization Project Dance Heritage Coalition
    3. 3. QCTOOLS
    4. 4. What is digital preservation and why is it important? “Digital Preservation refers to the series of managed activities necessary to ensure continued accessto digital materialsfor as long as necessary.” Digital Preservation Coalition, Definitions and Concept
    5. 5. The Dartmouth College Library fosters intellectual growth and advances the mission of Dartmouth College and affiliated communities bysupporting excellence and innovation in education and research, managing and delivering information, and partnering to develop and disseminate new scholarship. Dartmouth College Library Mission
    6. 6. The biggest challenge for digital preservation is confronting and managing change on multiple fronts.
    7. 7. Changing Technology
    8. 8. Changes in Necessary Resources Digital Life Cycle Model CASPAR project
    9. 9. Changes in Research and Learning From the ACTION Toolbox, a collaborative project between the Bregman Music and Audio Research Studio and the Film and Media Studies department at Dartmouth College. ACTION seeks to provide free and open-source computational tools, and bestpractice documentation, for new media-analytic methodologies based upon machine-vision and machine-hearing algorithms and software.
    10. 10. Administrative Changes
    11. 11. Changes in Discipline Guidelines: File Format Comparison Projects Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Agency
    12. 12. To provide continuous and sustainable access to digital materials in the midst of rapid, constant and complex change.
    13. 13. We do this by supporting a digital preservation program that embraces change as an opportunity for: thoughtful assessment of infrastructure, collections and services deepening collaborations within the college and with the greater community of digital library practitioners
    14. 14. Addressing Change in Technology
    15. 15. Addressing Changes in Necessary Resources
    16. 16. Selection Policy for Digitization Projects Dartmouth College Libraries
    17. 17. Sustaining Digital Scholarship initiative, University of Virginia Library Digital Curation Services
    18. 18. Data Center Internet Archive
    19. 19. Addressing Changes in Research and Learning Activists’ Guide to Archiving Video WITNESS
    20. 20. Addressing Administrative Changes
    21. 21. Addressing Changes in Discipline Discussing Challenges AV Preservation CURATEcamp Finding Solutions AMIA/DLF HACK DAY
    22. 22. To provide continuous and sustainable access to digital materials in the midst of rapid, constant and complex change.
    23. 23. We do this by supporting a digital preservation program that embraces change as an opportunity for: thoughtful assessment of infrastructure, collections and services deepening collaborations within the college and with the greater community of digital library practitioners
    24. 24. Thank You! Special thanks to: Jessica Bitley, Preservation Specialist, NEDCC Hannah Frost, Manager, Stanford Media Preservation Lab Ross Griff, Director of Preservation and Archives, Illinois State University Katherine Kott, Katherine Kott Consulting Dave Rice, Archivist, CUNY Brooke Sansosti, Visual Resources Librarian, Reed College Emily Shaw, Digital Preservation Librarian, University of Iowa Lauren Sorensen, Preservation Project Manager, BAVC Justin Vaccaro, PhD Candidate, Film and Media Studies UC Berkeley Heather Yager, Archivist and Digital Collections Librarian, California Academy of Sciences
    25. 25. Bibliography Caplan, Priscilla. "Understanding PREMIS." PREMIS: Preservation Metadata Maintenance Activity. Library of Congress, 01 Feb 2009. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/understanding-premis.pdf>. Carpenter, Kris. "Green Bytes: Sustainable Approaches to Digital Stewardship, A Practitioner’s Perspective."Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/meetings/documents/ndiipp13/Kris.pdf>. Cramer, Tom. "Digital Preservation in Theory and in Practice." Preservation Bootcamp. PASIG. Ireland, Dublin. 17 Oct 2012. Address. <http://lib.stanford.edu/files/pasig-oct2012/03-Cramer_PASIG_Dublin_2012_DP_Theory.pdf>. Cramer, Tom. "Get a Head on Your Repository with Hydra End-to-End Solutions ." Hot Topics: The DuraSpace Community Webinar Series. DuraSpace. 12 Sep 2012. <http://www.slideshare.net/DuraSpace/9-2512-duraspace-hot-topics-slidesintroduction-to-hydra>. LeFurgy, Bill. "Life Cycle Models for Digital Stewardship." The Signal Digital Preservation. Library of Congress, 21 Feb 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. <http://blogs.loc.gov/digitalpreservation/2012/02/life-cycle-models-for-digital-stewardship/>. McGuigan, Glenn. "Addressing Change in Academic Libraries: A Review of Classical Organizational Theory and Implications for Academic Libraries."Library Philosophy and Practice. (2012): n. page. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/mcguigan.htm>. Ng, Yvonne, and Grace Lile, eds. Activists' Guide to Archiving Video. WITNESS. Web. 20 Nov 2013. <http://archiveguide.witness.org/>. Seaman, David. "Discovering the Information Needs of Humanists When Planning an Institutional Repository." D-Lib. 17.3/4 (2011): n. page. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march11/seaman/03seaman.html>.
    26. 26. Smith Rumsey, Abbey. "But Storage is Cheap!... Preservation in the Age of Abundance". 2011. Video. YouTube, New Haven. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yk9ccNP9xTk>. Vermaaten, Sally, Brian Lavoie, and Priscilla Caplan. "Identifying Threats to Successful Digital Preservation: the SPOT Model for Risk Assessment." D-Lib. 18.9/10 (2012): n. page. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://www.dlib.org/dlib/september12/vermaaten/09vermaaten.html>. ACTION: Tools for Cinematic Information Retrieval. Dartmouth College. Web. 20 Nov 2013. <http://bregman.dartmouth.edu/~action/index.html>. Association of Moving Image Archivists & Digital Library Federation Hack Day 2013. N.p., 11 Nov 2013. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://wiki.curatecamp.org/index.php/Association_of_Moving_Image_Archivists_&_Digital_Library_Federation_Hack_Day _2013>. "The Dartmouth Digital Library Program A Report from the Digital Projects and Infrastructure Group (DPIG)." Dartmouth College Library. Dartmouth College, 12 Sep 2013. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://www.dartmouth.edu/~library/digital/about/report.html>. "Definition of Digital Preservation." JISC Beginner's Guide to Digital Preservation. JISC, n. d. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. <http://blogs.ukoln.ac.uk/jisc-beg-dig-pres/content/what-is-digital-preservation/definition-of-digital-preservation/>. DRAMBORA Interactive. DCC. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://www.repositoryaudit.eu/>. "Guidelines: File Format Comparison Projects." Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative. N.p., 07 Jan 2013. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/guidelines/File_format_compare.html?loclr=blogsig>. "Library Mission and Goals." Dartmouth College Library. Dartmouth College, 02 Aug 2013. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://www.dartmouth.edu/~library/home/about/mission.html>.
    27. 27. "Sustainable Economics for a Digital Planet:Ensuring Long Term Access to Digital Information ." Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://brtf.sdsc.edu/biblio/BRTF_Final_Report.pdf>. “Sustaining Digital Scholarship.” Digital Curation Services. University of Virginia Libraries. Web. 20 Nov 2013. <http://www.digitalcurationservices.org/sustaining-digital-scholarship/>. "TRAC and TDR Checklists." Center for Research Libraries: Global Resources Network . Center for Research Libraries. Web. 24 Nov 2013. http://www.crl.edu/archiving-preservation/digital-archives/metrics-assessing-and-certifying-0.

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