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  • 1. MANTHAN   Brain  Gain:  Promoting  Research  and   Innovation     Yamini  Bansal   Madalsa  Singh   Saniya  Pawar   Aaradhya  Srivastava     Ayush  Kanodia  
  • 2.     Lack  of  Commercially  viable   research   •  India  filed  only  0.3%  of  total  world   patents  compared  to  China  which  filed   as  many  as  15%.   •  India’s  total  patent  output  from   1981-­‐2011  was  approximately  37,000.   •  China’s  patent  output  during  the  same   period  exceeded  150,000.       Lack  of  Innova5on-­‐driven   R&D  from  the  Private   Sector   •  India  has  only  14  companies  in  the   2011  R&D  rankings  of  the  top  1400   world  companies   •  The  highest  ranked  Indian  company,   Tata  Motors  stands  at  264th  in     comparison  to  General  Motors  which  is   9th   Current Scenario of R&D in India Migra5on  of  Indian   Graduates  Abroad   •  The  number  of  Indian  students   studying  abroad  in  2010  was  2,00,621   •  Several  IT  graduates  had  leR  India  and   emerged  as  important  Entrepreneurs   where  15%  of  the  start  ups  today  are   supposed  to  by  people  of  Indian  origin     AMBIT  OF  THE  PROBLEM  
  • 3. Low  research  &  Low  pracUcal   component  in  curriculum         Absence  of  high-­‐knowledge  jobs   and  innovaUve  enterprises           Lower  competency  at  the  world   market  in  terms  of  product   innovaUon  and  technologies         India  sUll  relying  on  industries   harnessing  obsolete  techniques         StagnaUon  of  innovaUon    at   the  University  Level   StagnaUon  of  skills  at  the   Employability  Level     StagnaUon  of  technology  at   Industry  Level     StagnaUon  of  economy  due   to  non-­‐sustainability     *Lack  of  commercially  viable  research     *Lack  of  monetary  incenUves   *Research  is  not  marketable   *OpportuniUes  to  enter  industrial    research  abroad   *Companies  are  not  focusing     on  potenUal  technology  for  the   long  term  but  depending  on   exisUng  technology     *Absence  of  a  government-­‐ backed  engagement  forum  for   high  end  technology   *Private  companies  driven  by   quarterly  profits  and  “Returns  on   Investment”   *Companies  making  the   maximum  revenues  like  Indian   Oil  CorporaUon  are  not  those   which  heavily  depend  on  R&D   for  sustenance   *Lack  of  incenUve  to  invest   *The  trend  in  the  private  sector   is  to  buy  technology  rather  than   undertake  high-­‐risk,  high-­‐ investment  R&D   AMBIT  OF  THE  PROBLEM  
  • 4. PROPOSED  SOLUTION   Market-­‐Driven  Industry-­‐Academia  Engagement   Institute-­‐Industry   AfKiliate  Programs   Training  for  high-­‐ end  manpower   development   Creation  of  Kield-­‐ speciKic,   collaborative   Innovation  Clusters   We  suggest  ways  to  increase  the  %   contribu3on  of  the  Private  Sector  in  R&D   with    Academia   Israel  spends  more  than  4%  of  GDP  in  Research  &  Development   (R&D)  while  Japan,  South  Korea  and  Scandinavian  countries  spend   more  than  3%.  US,  France,  Germany  spend  more  than  2%  and  China   spends  more  than  1.50%.  But  the  most  important  point  is,  in  all  these   countries,  Industry  spends  more  than  government  in  R&D;  in  some   countries,  3  3mes  more  than  Government  spending.  In  India,  while   total  spending  in  R&D  is  around  1%,  Government's  spending  is  2  to  3   3mes  more  than  that  of  Industry's.  
  • 5. The  Industry  Innova0on  Clusters  under  Na0onal  Innova0on  Council  were  formed  with  the  objec0ve  of  catering  to  mutual  needs  of   industry  and  academia  by  providing  an  avenue  for  co-­‐opera0on.  Our  objec0ve  is  to  a@ract  private  investment  to  these  clusters   To  increase  funds  and  expand  to  high-­‐end  technological  research,  we  propose:   •  CreaUon  of  clusters  specific  to  a  prominent  areas  of  research  like  Renewable   Energy,  Nanotechnology,  CS-­‐IT,  Manufacturing  Processes     •  IntroducUon  of  lab  faciliUes  with  mulUple  university  partnerships  sponsored   by  private  companies     •  Jointly  owned  lab  equipment  for  common  use     PROPOSED  SOLUTION:  INNOVATION  CLUSTERS  2.0   Landscaping   ConceptualizaUon   Product  Design   Servicing  Product  TesUng   Sales   University  Professors  and  Researchers  can  assist  the  companies  here   Why  is  this  beJer  than  them  working  in  their  own  R&D  labs?   •  Jointly  owned  expensive  infrastructure   •  Pre-­‐compeUUve  knowledge  sharing     •  Opportunity  to  invest  in  high-­‐risk  research   •  Access  to  mulUtudes  of  technology  on  the  same  ground   •  High  concentraUon  of  experts  from  various  fields  
  • 6. Implementation   PROPOSED  SOLUTION:  INNOVATION  CLUSTERS  2.0     • The  government  will  set  aside  an  iniUal  seed  capital  for  the  NaUonal  InnovaUon  Council  to  develop   these  high-­‐end  technology  clusters  IniUal  capital  investment   • Private  Companies  in  all  sectors  will  be  invited    to  be  signatories  to  an  agreement  that  would  enable   them  to  sponsor  the  sejng  up  their  field-­‐specific  faciliUes  and  secure  returns  on  their  engagement.   Invite  companies  to  be   voluntary  signatories   • A  panel  consisUng  of  senior  research  scienUsts  and  industrial  representaUve  will  be  set  up  to   evaluate  the  prospecUve  areas  of  research  working  with  NaUonal  InnovaUon  Council   • The  panel  will  be  required  to  submit  detailed  proposals  on  the  resources  (lab  equipment  etc.)   required  for  the  sejng  up  of  each  cluster   IdenUficaUon  of  potenUal   areas  of  research     • ConstrucUon  of  the  facility  and  procurement  of  required  lab  equipments  in  a  specified  Ume  frame   • They  will  hold  regular  convenUons  to  make  road-­‐maps  for  development  and  idea-­‐exchange  Sejng  up   • Quarterly  meeUngs  will  be  held  at  the  clusters  to  facilitate  dialogue  between  private  companies  and   universiUes  to  review  current  work  and  evaluate  future  requirements  of  funding   • A  contact  point  will  be  provided  to  both  universiUes  and  industries  to  facilitate  easy  communicaUon   ConUnuing  Engagement  
  • 7. Stake-­‐Holder  Analysis   R&D   Government   of  India   Private   Players   Technical   Start-­‐Ups   University   Partners   *IniUal  Funding   for  basic  infrastructure   (Upto  10  years)   *Consistent  flow  of    funds   *Technical  SoluUons   *OpUmized  products   *Government    incenUves     *Opportunity  to  produce  prototypes   (linking  technological  development   to  commercial  products  )   *Infrastructure   *Challenging  problems   *New  Ideas/SoluUons   *Consultancy   *Funds   *Marketable  ideas   *Infrastructure   *HR   *IncubaUon   *Technical  assistance   Technical  research  of   *Strategic  importance   *Healthcare   *Socio-­‐Economic     PROPOSED  SOLUTION:  INNOVATION  CLUSTERS  2.0    
  • 8. University  of  Stanford  currently  has  more  40  academic  department-­‐corporate  affiliate  programs,  from  startups  to   mature  corporates,  to  provide  educa0on,  research  partnership  and  connec0ons  to  world  class  faculty  and  students     PROPOSED  SOLUTION:  AFFILIATE  PROGRAMS   FormaUon  of  inter-­‐ disciplinary  centers   within  universiUes   keeping  the  need  of   the  industry  in  mind   Industries  enter  into   affiliate  programs   with  these  centers   based  on  research   requirements     Companies  engage  for   consultancy,  tesUng   faciliUes,  process   opUmizaUon  and   technical  approvals       Impact:   1.  Removes  the  hassles  involved  for  companies   requiring  soluUons  to  mulU-­‐disciplinary   problems     2.  Students  working  in  the  department/research   lab  get  hands-­‐on  experience  of  industry   problem  statements   3.  Introduces  the  relevance  of  applied  research  in   the  university   4.  Involves  the  pumping  of  money  in  the   department/research  facility  as  opposed  to   the  money  earned  by  professors  through   individual  consultancy  as  in  status  quo   5.  Opportunity  for  Industries  to  work  with  the   pool  of  scienUfic  experUse  from  abroad   through  the  network  of  the  exisUng  professors   ImplementaUon:   1.  IdenUficaUon  of  prospecUve  problems  areas   in  industries  involving  mulUdisciplinary   research   2.  Designing  a  legal  framework  for  the  affiliate   program  (resources  to  be  shared,  funds  to   be  provided)     3.  Holding  annual  meeUngs  to  review  progress   of  the  program  and  anUcipate  future   requirements   4.  Giving  enough  flexibility  to  exercise  IPR  to   both  the  industry  and  university  
  • 9. Descrip5on   Implementa5on   Impact   Fellowships  &   Exchange   Programs   Private  companies  will  consUtute   fellowship  programs/  exchange   programs  to  enable  university   students  to  work  with  industrial   research  groups  within  their   faciliUes  for  product  innovaUon   and  opUmizaUon       -­‐Provision  of  salary,  awards,   fringe  benefits  and  project  costs     -­‐PotenUal  of  becoming  a   permanent  employee  of  the   company     -­‐A  review  team  of  the  private   company  to  execute  selecUon   procedure,  performance  based   review  of  the  fellow     University:     •  Increasing  employability  of   the  students  of  the   university   •  Making  higher  educaUon   cost  effecUve   Industry:   •  Employment  of  newly   acquired  technical  experUse   •  PotenUal  long  term   employability  with  reduced   risk     Short  Term   Courses  at   University  for   Industry   employees   -­‐Specific  courses  designed  to  keep   industries  up  to  date  with  current   technology  with  a  special   emphasis  on  small  scale   industries     -­‐  Hands  on  training  about  latest   lab  equipment  and  technology   development     -­‐1-­‐2  week  courses/seminars     -­‐Publicity  for  available  courses   through  the  university  webpage   and  industry  convenUons           University:     •  Funding  and  remunera5on   in  lieu  of  the  knowledge   •  Use  of  academic  concepts  in   prac5cal  industrial  projects   Industry:     •  Up-­‐to  date  manpower   •  Technology  up-­‐gradaUon     •  InteracUon  with  Professors   through  on  the  spot  problem   solving   PROPOSED  SOLUTIONS:  HIGH-­‐END  MANPOWER  DEVELOPMENT  
  • 10. CHALLENGES  AND  MITIGATION   • Private  companies  may  not  find  it  lucraUve  to  invest  in  research  owing  to  their  immediate   goals  of  quarterly  profits   • PotenUal  offering  of  fiscal  grants  &  other  incenUves  to  companies  to  reduce  risk   Industries  driven  by   ‘Return  on  Investment’   •   Academia  and  industries  might  not  appreciate  the  mutual  benefits  of  the  symbiosis   • Successful  implementaUon  on  forums  like  idea-­‐exchange  &  convenUons  to  bring  about   direct  interacUon     Unawareness  about   mutual  benefits   • Industry  and  academia  may  not  come  on  agreeable  terms  over  the  possession  of  IPR     concerning      the  newly  developed  technologies   • Strengthening  the  naUonal  IPR  and  patent  laws  to  safeguard  research  and  innovaUon   • Revising  IPR  policies  at  the  University  level  to  facilitate  commercializaUon  of  a  student’s   research  and  thesis   Intellectual  Property   Conflict   • Challenge  of  striking  a  balance  between  the  flexibility  of  academic  research  and  market-­‐ driven  industrial  research   • Earmark  a  certain  amount  of    Government  fund  to  be  invested  in  fundamental  research   Applied  vs.  Pure   research   • PotenUal  misuse  of  funds,  red  tape  for  approvals,  corrupUon  on  a  government  level   • Lobbying  by  industries  to  further  their  self-­‐interests  based  on  profitability  instead  of   promoUng  innovaUve  technologies   • Robust  overseeing  of  implementaUon  through  periodic  reviews  &  centralized  audiUng   facility  (website)  by  commiqee,  academia  and  industry  alike   Bureaucracy   &  Lobbying  
  • 11. SOURCES •  White  Paper  on  R&D  :  Department  of  Science  &  Technology,  Government  of  India   •  InnovaUon  and  Growth  :  RaUonale  for  an  InnovaUve  Strategy,  OrganizaUon  for   Economic  CooperaUon  and  Development   •  Japanese  Research  and  InnovaUon  Policy,  published  by  VINNOVA   •  Challenges  in  Industry-­‐Academia  CollaboraUon  by  Pankaj  Jalote,  Dept  of  CSE,  IIT   Kanpur     •  www.bricdata.com   •  Building  Bricks  :  Exploring  Global  Research  and  InnovaUon  impact  of  Brazil,  Russia,   India,  China,  South  Korea  by  Thomson  Reuters   •  hqp://corporate.stanford.edu/affiliate_programs.html   •  Science  and  Technology  InnovaUon  Policy  2013,  Government  of  India   •  NaUonal  InnovaUon  Council,  Government  of  India   •  Project  Atlas  :  India,  InsUtute  for  InternaUonal  EducaUon   •  Special  Thanks  to  Prof.  Udayan  Ganguly,  Dept.  of  Electrical  Engineering  and  Prof.   S.D.Jog,  Dept.  of  Mechanical  Engineering  at  IIT  Bombay