Social-Emotional Development in Preschool

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"Plays Nice with Others" - New research on how social-emotional development and preschool teachers support school readiness.

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  • Some Ground Rules:When I teach college students I remind them that they have control over how much they get out of my classes. I can stand up here and talk at you, but w/o any information from you all, I cannot adapt my content to meet your needs and answer your questions.I can also grade them on their participation in class. I do not have that power here, but would like to encourage you all to engage in this workshop. Ask questions, challenge me. You’re the ones in the classrooms with the children every day.
  • Perspective taking and empathize with othersestablish and maintain healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse individuals and groups. This includes communicating clearly, listening actively, cooperating, resisting inappropriate social pressure, negotiating conflict constructively, and seeking and offering help when needed.make constructive and respectful choices about personal behavior and social interactions based on consideration of ethical standards, safety concerns, social norms, the realistic evaluation of consequences of various actions, and the well-being of self and others.
  • Some Ground Rules:When I teach college students I remind them that they have control over how much they get out of my classes. I can stand up here and talk at you, but w/o any information from you all, I cannot adapt my content to meet your needs and answer your questions.I can also grade them on their participation in class. I do not have that power here, but would like to encourage you all to engage in this workshop. Ask questions, challenge me. You’re the ones in the classrooms with the children every day.
  • Children develop SEL skills through interactions. And their social partners include not only their parents and peers, but also their teachers. As you will see throughout these webinars, teacher’s interactions with children do a great deal to impact children’s SEL.For teachers, these interactions are complicated by the fact that they are not only interacting with one or two children, often times they’re interacting with 10 or 20 of them. Regardless of who a child is interacting with, their emotional development will be additionally influenced their social partner’s own emotional competence. ParentsPeersTeachersCentersAt the center-level, the Head Start Performance Standards guide how SEL is supported. But translating that into the substance of individual teacher-child interactions is sometimes unclear.
  • So we’ve not talked about what SEL is and there is a general consensus that teachers are somehow at least partially responsible for it. But I want to break that down a bit more. In turn, I will describe 4 ways that teachers can promote children’s SEL. You’ll notice that each of these bubbles is overlapping with each other a little bit. This is to represent that all of these social emotional teaching components are somewhat related. It’s hard to engage in one without simultaneously doing another, but let’s go through them one a time before we talk about how they work together.
  • In a different approach, the Incredible Years program has been shown to be an effective training program for teachers. So instead of teaching children directly about the labels for emotions, programs like IY reshape the interactions between teachers and students. One of the primary goals of the intervention is to prevent escalating cycles of dysregulated behavior in children by enhancing teachers’ use of clear rules and routines, rewards for positive behavior, and redirection of negative behavior. In an evaluation of the program, Webster-Stratton and colleagues provided intervention teachers in Head Start classrooms with six monthly, 1-day workshops that used videotape vignettes and group discussion for training. Post-intervention observations indicated that compared to control teachers, intervention teachers used more praise and effective discipline techniques and fewer harsh and critical techniques. CSRP includes professional development training in behavior management based on the Incredible Years Teacher Training Program, stress-reduction workshops, and classroom-based mental health consultation regarding student behavior. One of the primary goals of the intervention is to prevent escalating cycles of dysregulated behavior in children by enhancing teachers’ use of clear rules and routines, rewards for positive behavior, and redirection of negative behavior. 5 training sessions each 6 hours. Teachers paired with MH consultant (master’s degree in Social Work) who were coaches to teachers supporting teachers as they applied the techniques and providing standardized, child-focused mental health consultation. The mental health consultants also conducted stress-reduction workshops for teachers that were designed to reduce burnout. RCT in 18 HS sites 94 teachers Higher levels of positive climate, teacher sensitivity, and behavior management in intervention classrooms Positive effects on child outcomes - fewer internalizing and externalizing behavior problems according to both independent observers and teacher ratings (Raver et al., 2009). Children who received the CSRP intervention also scored significantly better on pre-academic and self-regulatory skills by the end of preschool compared to children in the control group. Specifically, intervention participants outperformed control participants on vocabulary, letter naming, early math skills, and measures of executive functioning and attention / impulsivity.
  • Randomized trial in Journal or Primary Prevention 248 children in 20 classrooms:10 classrooms used PATHS10 comparison Head Start classroomsEffects of Receiving PATHSTeachers reported higher levels of social-emotional competence & lower levels of social withdrawalParents reported higher levels of social-emotional competenceChildren were better at identifying emotions, showed less anger bias Head Start REDI – used preschool PATHS356 4-year-old children across two cohorts (46% Male, 25% African-American, 17% Hispanic); 22 = I and 22 = C88 teachers in 44 classroomsOne year implementation of interventionPre (October), post (May) and follow-up assessments (K & 1st grade)Children in REDI classrooms scored higher on:Emotion recognition & understandingCompetent solutions to social problemsTeacher ratings of social-emotional competenceObserver ratings of social-emotional competenceChildren in REDI classrooms scored lower on:Aggressive solutions to challenging social problemsTeacher ratings of aggressionParent ratings of ADHD behaviors and aggression
  • Refer them to website for access to Guidewww.casel.org
  • Sympathetic parents help children cope effectively with their emotions when they are distressed. Accordingly, these children are less likely to become overaroused. Negative, overbearing parental reactions to children’s distress exacerbate child negativity, exemplifying punitive socialization of emotion
  • Research also shows that when classrooms were characterized by interactions that provided more effective Emotional Support, children’s social competence increased more over the course of the Pre-K year.
  • Just as children come to school each day with their own emotions, experiences, and backgrounds, teachers are also differ in their successful navigation of their own social and emotional lives. Some adults are more socially and emotionally skilled then others and these differences in competence have meaningful impacts on teachers’ effective SET. Teachers who are more knowledgeable about emotions will be better equipped to expand on lessons in SEL curriculum programs or may more easily empathize with a child’s complex emotional experienceTeachers who are successful at regulating their emotions may respond to challenging interactions with students in more emotionally effective ways than others. For example, a teacher may regulate their own frustration during a child’s temper-tantrum and instead choose to validate her expression and help her problem solve saying, “I see that you’re very upset because you can’t play in the block area right now, is there somewhere else you would like to play?” Similarly, teachers who are better able to manage their emotions and generally stay on an even keel in the classroom are creating a consistent emotional environment. Children learn what to expect from their teacher and can anticipate how she will respond to their emotional expressions. Teachers who experience intense negative emotions (such as stress or depression) at work are more likely to frequently express negative emotions and to react punitively to children’s expression of emotions (Ersay, 2007; Feldman et al., 1999). These expressions in the classroom serve as models for children and such modeling has been linked to lower levels of emotion regulation and increased aggressive behaviors in children (Ramsden & Hubbard, 2002).
  • Important to note that none of these groups would actually fall into the LOW category on the CLASS, just less supportive, actually around the average for the measure across the country.
  • More supportive teachers advocated for deliberately and overtly regulating certain emotions in front of children through the use of specific curriculum-based strategies. Less supportive teachers favored exhaustive regulation, reducing emotions across the board and adopting the Façade of a happy, positive teacher while in the classroom. There was some evidence of teachers also acknowledging that what emotions they regulate, and in which direction, directly influences the environment of their classrooms and their children’s experiences.
  • Teachers from both the more and less supportive groups discussed expressing mostly positive emotions as well as limited, but purposeful expression of negative emotions in some instances. Their intentional expression of emotions not only modeled for students how to appropriately express emotions, but also served to normalize the experience of some emotions for children and demonstrate for them what can realistically be expected to happen after you express emotions.
  • Teachers from both the more and less supportive groups discussed expressing mostly positive emotions as well as limited, but purposeful expression of negative emotions in some instances. Their intentional expression of emotions not only modeled for students how to appropriately express emotions, but also served to normalize the experience of some emotions for children and demonstrate for them what can realistically be expected to happen after you express emotions.
  • Social-Emotional Development in Preschool

    1. 1. “Plays Nice with Others”: How Educators Can BestSupport Social Emotional Learning in Young ChildrenKatherine (Kate) Zinsser, PhDAssistant ProfessorUniversity of Illinois, ChicagoApril 25, 2013
    2. 2. Follow Today’s EventEarly Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.@HatchEarlyChild#HatchExpertsQuestions | Comments | Feedback
    3. 3. Today’s SpeakerEarly Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.Kate ZinsserAssistant ProfessorUniversity of Illinois,Chicago
    4. 4. Katherine M. Zinsser, Ph.D.University of Illinois, Chicago
    5. 5. Objectives Review the latest research on the development ofsocial and emotional competence in young children Discuss how SEL is related to school readiness andearly school success Describe the role that teachers play in children’sacquisition of SEL skills4
    6. 6. Young children are hard at work 3 and 4 year olds aremastering: Early literacy skills Gross & fine motor skills Early mathematics ANDSocial-Emotional SkillsCollaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning(2012)5
    7. 7. • Emotional Expression• Emotional Understanding / Knowledge• Emotion Regulation• Social Problem Solving & Peer Skills6
    8. 8.  Basic Emotions Happy, sad, angry, afraid,etc. “Social” Emotions Having a sense of self andothers guilt, empathy, etc BlendsEmotional expression“You broke mytruck--I am notyour friend.”Sad + guilty + mad7
    9. 9. Emotional understanding / knowledge Expressions Situations Causes Using emotion language8
    10. 10. Emotion regulation Defining regulation Down Regulation Minimize the expression orexperience of emotions Up Regulation Increase expression orexperience of an emotions Relation of social success9
    11. 11. Social problem solving & peer skills Empathy & perspective taking Maintaining friendships Communication of needs and wants Reacting positively to conflict (Choosing prosocial responses over aggressive ones) Making choices based on known social norms, safety,and feelings of others.10
    12. 12. With SEL, it all works together11Denham, S.A., Bassett, H.H., Zinsser, K., Wyatt, T.M. (under review). How Preschoolers Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) Predicts Their SchoolReadiness: Developing Theory-Promoting, Competency-Based Assessments. Manuscript submitted for publication to Infant and ChildDevelopment.SEL SkillsSkills for HandlingChallengingSituations in theClassroomEmotionUnderstandingProblemSolvingSkillsClassroomAdjustmentAcademicReadinessWhat aKindergartenTeacher May SeeLess Aggressionand NegativityPro-social andRegulatedBehaviorPreschoolClassroomAdjustmentWhat a PreschoolTeacher May See
    13. 13. SEL is critical for social and academicsuccess Children without age appropriate emotional/socialskills: Participate less in class Less accepted by classmates/teachers Get fewer instructions/positive feedback from teachers Like school less and less Social-emotional competence predicts academicsuccess in 1st grade, even after controlling intelligence/ family background12
    14. 14. This pattern persists into laterelementary years, too Aggressive/antisocial children are more likely to: Perform poorly on academic tasks Be held back in later grades Drop out later on Continue antisocial behavior It is necessary to pinpoint social-emotional strengthsand weaknesses early to ensure long-term well-beingand academic success (Raver & Knitzer, 2002)13
    15. 15. To what extent do you agree with the following statement:Parents expect teachers to teach children social-emotional skillsA) Strongly AgreeB) AgreeC) Neither Agree nor DisagreeD) DisagreeE) Strongly Disagree14
    16. 16. CenterWho’s teaching SEL?Child ParentPeersTeacherChildChildChildChildChild Traditionally the realmof parents More time withteachers, less withparents Teachers areincreasingly beingheld accountable forSEL How do we worktogether to helpchildren?15
    17. 17. Four ways early childhood education teachers can impactchildren’s SEL16
    18. 18. How do we help?TeacherEmotionalCompetenceClassroomEmotionalClimateModeling &Reacting toEmotionsSocialEmotionalLearningSELInstructionSocialEmotionalTeaching17
    19. 19. SEL instruction Teaching SEL through interactions Labeling, Coaching, Scaffolding, etc. Direct instruction through SEL Curriculum Evidence-based, implemented with fidelity18
    20. 20. SEL instruction – Through Interactions Explicit Instruction Modeling of Skills Discussion of Relevant Situations Opportunities for Practice with Recognition Feedback and Reflection19
    21. 21. Incredible Years Teacher TrainingCarolyn Webster-Stratton20 Teacher attention, encouragement, praise Motivating children with incentives Preventing behavior problems Decreasing inappropriate behaviors Building positive relations with students,problem solvingSEL instruction – Interactions Training
    22. 22. The Preschool PATHSTMCurriculumDomitrovich, Greenberg, Kusche &Cortes (2005) Friendship skills Emotion knowledge21 Intentional self-control Social problem-solvingSEL instruction - Curriculum
    23. 23.  High Quality Implementation is Essential How well a program adopts and utilizes a packagedcurriculum or training program will significantly impact itseffectiveness. Previous research has show that oftentimes improperimplementation results in variation in children’s outcomes(Derzon, Sale, Springer & Brounstein, 2005; Durlak & Weissberg, 2005; Durlak & Dupree, 2008)22SEL instruction – Evidence Based Curriculum and Training
    24. 24. It is important to chose aprogram that will meet yourneeds and that you can carryout effectively and with highfidelity.Check out http://casel.org/guideto access the GuideSEL instruction – Evidence Based Curriculum and Training
    25. 25.  Modeling emotional expression andregulation Display positive and negative emotionsappropriately Utilize the same regulation techniques youwant children to use (e.g., go to the “turtlecorner”) Reacting and responding to children’semotions Encourage expression by respondingpositively and/or validating Help children cope with their emotionseither by focusing on the problem or theemotion Avoid minimizing/punishing/dismissingchildren’s emotionsChildTeacher24Modeling & Reacting to Emotions(Bailey, Denham, & Curby, 2013; Denham,Bassett, Bailey, Zinsser, Wantanabe,& Fettig, 2013)
    26. 26. Modeling emotional expression andregulation25TeacherPositiveAffectiveBalanceChild PositiveAffectiveBalanceChildren in classrooms withmore positive teachersexpress more positiveemotionsTeacherTendernessChild PositiveAffectiveBalance&ChildTendernessChildren in classrooms withteachers who displaytenderness express morepositive emotions.Teachers who are tender aresocializing children to betender with others.
    27. 27. Reacting and responding to children’semotions26Teacher PositiveReactionsChild PositiveReactionsChildren in classrooms withteachers who react positively toemotional expression will alsoreact more positivelyTeacherEmotionallyAttentiveReactionsChild PositiveReactionsTeachers who focus on andvalidate children’s emotions havechildren react more positively toothers’ emotions.TeacherDismissiveReactionsChild NegativeReactionsTeachers who minimize, ignore, orpunish emotional expressionshave children who react lesspositively to others’ emotions.
    28. 28. Classroom Emotional Climate27
    29. 29.  Higher levels of emotional support by teachers isassociated with better child outcomes academicallyand socially This can partially be explained by the closeattachment-like relationships that children formwith early teachers Children in classrooms with more supportiveteachers display more adaptive classroom behaviorsand better academic outcomes(Rimm-Kaufman, Curby, Grimm, Nathanson, & Brock, 2009; Graziano, et al., 2007)28Classroom Emotional Climate
    30. 30. EMOTIONALSUPPORTPositiveClimateNegativeClimateTeacherSensitivityRegard forStudentPerspectivesCLASSROOMORGANIZATIONBehavior ManagementProductivityInstructional LearningFormatsINSTRUCTIONALSUPPORTConcept DevelopmentQuality of FeedbackLanguage ModelingPositive Climate:RelationshipsPositive AffectPositive CommunicationRespect 29Classroom Emotional Climate – THE CLASS
    31. 31. Teacher Emotional Competence A teacher’s own emotional competence is abuilding block of Social-Emotional Teaching Classrooms are emotional places!30Picturesque Occasional RealityUnder-acknowledged TeacherEmotions… Not just for children,but teachers too!
    32. 32.  In order to teach about SEL, teachers have to beemotionally competent too Express and identify emotions accurately Be aware of and sensitive to others’ emotions Manage their own emotions31Teacher Emotional Competence
    33. 33.  Knowledge “if a teacher doesnt have the language [skills] that you need to talkto children, [she’s] not being a competent teacher” Expression A good teacher is “one that is willing to show and use the fullspectrum of emotions” Regulation Teachers need to be “able to control [her] own emotions and tomodel that for the children”Teachers know emotional competence is important32Teacher Emotional Competence
    34. 34. -0.5-0.4-0.3-0.2-0.100.10.20.30.40.5Low (-1 SD) Average High (+1 SD)ChildAggressionMean Emotional SupportInconsistentTeachersConsistentTeachers More stressed teachershave students who are: less regulated less productive less positive and less prosocial More stressed teachersare less consistent intheir emotionalsupport (CLASS) Inconsistency in emotionalsupportiveness negatively impactschildren’s SEL, even if teachers are onaverage very supportive33But knowledge alone is notsufficientTeacher Emotional Competence
    35. 35. 34
    36. 36. To what extent do you agree with the following statement:Teachers should always look happy and smileyin their classroom, no matter how they reallyfeel.A) Strongly AgreeB) AgreeC) Neither Agree nor DisagreeD) DisagreeE) Strongly Disagree35
    37. 37. The combined effects of SET Research has shown that parents who value emotions: Engage in more positive socialization practices, investmore time in children’s emotional experiences, andencourage children’s expression of emotions Have children who are more emotionally competent Theoretically the same should hold true for teacherstoo; those who value and believe in emotions should Create more positive classroom environments Engage more fully in SEL curriculum activities Be more emotionally competent themselves36
    38. 38. Method: Pair a popular assessment of classroom quality(CLASS) and teachers’ discussions during focus groups.01234567CLASSEmotionalSupportLess SupportiveAverageMore Supportive(Zinsser, Shewark, Denham, & Curby, 2013; Zinsser, Denham & Shewark, 2013) 37How do SET practices combine toimpact SEL in the classroom?
    39. 39. How do teachers’ beliefs relate to theirclassroom practices?Value of SELUse of SELStrategiesTeacher Role inSELMoreEmotionallySupportiveView SEL as integraland articulatecomplexunderstanding ofchildren’s emotions.-Go beyond SELcurriculum andpurposefullyintegrated lessonsinto non SELlearningopportunities.Emphasize theircontinualengagement insocialization andview SEL as acollaborationbetween parents andteachers.LessEmotionallySupportiveAre able to list severalSEL skills, but notelaborate on them.Rely heavily oncurriculum tostructure their SELinteractions withstudents.Feel moreaccountable forchildrens emotionsocialization.Did expect muchfrom parents.
    40. 40. “Practice What You Preach”Overtly use the regulationstrategies they want the studentsto use.“‘Do I need turtle right now? Imgetting a little upset andfrustrated. Im going to take abreak.’ I have to be willing to dothat, otherwise its just a bunchof talk.”The “Teacher Façade”“No matter how yourefeeling, once you come into theclassroom you have to put yourface on.”“You need to always have asmile.”More EmotionallySupportive TeachersLess EmotionallySupportive TeachersTeachers’ Beliefs about their own emotions39
    41. 41. What the research says about SET: Teachers successfully use a variety of SEL curriculum toimprove children’s SEL, but that’s not the only way. Modeling of and reacting to emotions socializes children’semotions through daily interactions. The classroom emotional climate impacts children andteachers alike. Teachers who feel stressed in the classroomstruggle to maintain consistent/predictable climates. Teachers’ own emotional competence, including theirunderstanding of and valuing of emotions is related to theirclassroom practices, including integrating SELcurriculum, parent engagement and expression and regulationof emotions.40
    42. 42. What teachers can do in the classroom: Express mostly positive emotions, as well as limited butpurposeful expression of negative emotions Model appropriate expressions and normalize theexperience of some emotions (“adults get frustrated too”) Model use of regulation strategies teachers want to see Explain the consequences of emotions and behavior What can realistically be expected to happen after youexpress emotions? “Just because you say you’re sorry doesn’t mean Johnny hasto want to play with you”41
    43. 43. What teachers can do in the classroom: Reflect on your beliefs about emotions Do you believe you’re a social-emotional teacher?Why/Why not? Are your classroom practices maximizing children’s SEL? Are you a good model of SEL for your students? Reflect on your SET practices Take into account family and environmental influences onindividual SEL differences (e.g., siblings and sharing) Empathize with children’s perspectives during interactions(proximity and height) Adjust pacing of activities to children’s needs42
    44. 44. What teachers can do outside of theclassroom: Take care of yourself Be mindful of your experiences of stress both at work and at homeand be proactive Take time for self-care (exercise, laughter, healthy diet, etc.) Consider changing classroom organization to reduce the situationsthat cause stress (e.g., transitions)43
    45. 45. Administrators can reflect too: Do you encourage teachers to teach social-emotional skills? Do they know why? How do you support teachers’ social-emotional teaching? Adequate resources? High fidelity implementation of curriculum and training? Do they know that you value emotions? What do you do to support teachers’ emotions? Is your center a positive, emotionally supportive place towork?44
    46. 46. Additional Resources Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL.org) Zinsser, K., Bailey, C., Curby, T.W., Denham, S.A., Bassett, H.H., &Morris, C. (2013). Exploring the predictable classroom: Preschool teacherstress, emotional supportiveness, and students’ social-emotional behavior inprivate and Head Start classrooms. National Head Start AssociationDialog, 16(2). Baily, C., Zinsser, K., Curby, T.W., Denham, S.A. Bassett, H.H. (2013).Consistently emotionally supportive preschool teachers and children’s social-emotional learning in the classroom: implications for center directors andteachers. National Head Start Association Dialog, 16(2). Denham, S.A., Bassett, H.H., Zinsser, K., Wyatt, T.M. (under review). HowPreschoolers Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) Predicts Their SchoolReadiness: Developing Theory-Promoting, Competency-Based Assessments. Zinsser, K., Shewark, E., Denham, S.A., & Curby, T.W. (in revision). A mixed-method examination of preschool teacher beliefs about emotion socializationand relations observed emotional support. Manuscript in revision at Infant andChild Development.45
    47. 47. For more information, join the Social EmotionalTeacher & Learning Lab mailing list:Click here
    48. 48. QuestionsEarly Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.Kate ZinsserAssistant ProfessorUniversity ofIllinois, Chicago
    49. 49. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #hatchinars | Copyright 2011 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.Interactive Technology & Learning ActivitiesBrought to you by The Early Learning Experts
    50. 50. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.Research-Based Software CreatesBreakthrough Moments!
    51. 51. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.www.hatchearlylearning.com/WePlaySmart
    52. 52. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #HatchExperts| Copyright 2012 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.www.hatchearlychildhood.com/demowebinarsTechnology Demo Webinars
    53. 53. Early Learning Technology | www.HatchEarlyLearning.com #hatchinars | Copyright 2011 Hatch Inc. All Rights Reserved.Empowering Young Minds ThroughSignsDawn Braa, M.A., Dakota County TechnicalCollegeEarly Childhood & Youth Development InstructorMay 16th , 2013www.hatchearlylearning.com/webinars

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