EDUCATIONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
Problem-based Learning
Problem Statement
 To investigate how these 4 interlinked
aspects - the micro and meso environment
(family, classmates, t...
Learning
Ability
Needs
Micro-
environment
Information
Processing
Social -
Emotional
Learning
Outline of Presentation
Conclusion
Problem Hypothesis Solutions
Needs Microenvironment SEL
Information
Processing
Hypothesis
 Needs
 Parents’ lack of personal care to a child’s sense of belonging, safety and
self-esteem affects his de...
• A child’s relationship with his microenvironment
affects his propensity to learn in school.
• A child’s SES influences p...
Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological
Theory of Development
 Bio”: influence of
genetic makeup on
development
 physical traits
...
Chronosystem
Macrosystem
Exosystem
Mesosystem
Microsystem
Child • most powerful influence on
development
• parents, teache...
BRONFENBRENNER’S THEORY
Microsystem – Parents
Problem
• Parents do not seem to care for Jeremy, and blames each
other for ...
Problem
• Teachers are insensitive and not understanding enough,
and hurls insensitive and hurtful remarks at Jeremy
• Inf...
Problem
• Jeremy is ostracized by his peers in school
Theory
• Peers constitute a child’s microsystem
• Peers provide emot...
Problem
• Form teacher made repeated attempts to speak with
Jeremy’s parents, but failed to contact them
• Parents are too...
Problem
• Parents are working professionals and seem to have very
high expectations for Jeremy
Theory
• Socio-Economic Sta...
Parents’ lack of personal care to a child’s sense of
belonging, safety and self-esteem affects his desire to
learn.
Needs ...
NEEDS – Belonging to family
Problem
• Student becomes overwhelmed by anxiety as
he/she seeks to please parents to fulfill ...
NEEDS – Sense of Relatedness
Problem
• Student desires to leave the class and feels
apart from classmates rather than bein...
NEEDS – Self Determination
Problem
• Students feel that they have no say in their
timetable.
• Lack of rest (unfulfilled p...
A child’s deficiencies in social-emotional
competencies adversely affect his performance in
school
Social-Emotional learni...
Awareness of
Self & Others
• Awareness &
management of
feelings
• Constructive sense of
self
• Perspective-taking
Positive...
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL
LEARNING
Problem
• Student is lethargic and listless in class
• As a result of staying up late doing work...
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL
LEARNING
Problem
• Student does not perform well academically in
school
Theory
• Awareness of self
• Stud...
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL
LEARNING
Problem
• Student is ostracized by friends in school
Theory
• Social interaction skills
• Studen...
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL
LEARNING
Problem
• Teachers’ insensitive remarks about student
not fitting in with any group
Theory
• Awa...
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL
LEARNING
Problem
• Parents’ lack of attention and encouragement to student.
Theory
• Social interaction s...
Solutions
Inability to
practise
responsible
decision-
making
Lack of
awareness of
self and
others
Lack of social
interacti...
• A child’s attention can be divided when faced
with emotional issues.
• Inherent abilities such as cognitive resources
pl...
INFORMATION PROCESSING
Problem
• Student does not spend quality time with parents and feel
neglected
Theory
• Sense of bel...
INFORMATION PROCESSING
Problem
• Student is distracted in class
Theory
• Inability to focus in class due to emotional &
ps...
INFORMATION PROCESSING
Problem
• Absent of trust between educators & students
Theory
• Lack of trust affects students’ att...
INFORMATION PROCESSING
Problem
• Students do not feel cared for in the school/classroom.
Theory
• A caring environment nur...
Needs
 Hypothesis:
 For effective learning to take place, the
learner's basic needs, such as need for
belonging and safe...
Environment
[Bronfenbrenner’s Theory]
 Hypothesis
 The micro and mesoenvironment has a direct
impact on the social-emoti...
Social-Emotional Learning
 Hypothesis:
 Components of Social Emotional Learning such as
Self-Awareness, Self-Management ...
Information Processing
 Hypothesis:
 To ensure that effective learning takes place, it
is important for teachers to lear...
Conclusion
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  • Our mission is to establish social and emotional learning (SEL) as an essential part of education. We envision a world where families, schools, and communities work together to promote children's success in school and life and to support the healthy development of all children.
    Current Priorities
    This is a time of exciting change for the SEL field. In the past two decades, through scientific research CASEL and our collaborators have demonstrated the effectiveness of evidence-based SEL programming and its positive effects on young people and schools. Now we are working to take SEL to scale in schools across the country in a national SEL initiative.
  • Group presentation compiled minani

    1. 1. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Problem-based Learning
    2. 2. Problem Statement  To investigate how these 4 interlinked aspects - the micro and meso environment (family, classmates, teachers) of a child, the degree of fulfilment of needs of the child, the social-emotional learning processes of the child, and how a child processes information, would influence the learning ability of a child.
    3. 3. Learning Ability Needs Micro- environment Information Processing Social - Emotional Learning
    4. 4. Outline of Presentation Conclusion Problem Hypothesis Solutions Needs Microenvironment SEL Information Processing
    5. 5. Hypothesis  Needs  Parents’ lack of personal care to a child’s sense of belonging, safety and self-esteem affects his desire to learn.  Microenvironment  A child’s relationship with his microenvironment (parents/classmates/teachers) affects his propensity to learn in school.  A child’s socio-economic status (SES) influences parents’ expectations on the child.  A teacher’s expectations and impressions of a child affects his performance in school  Social and Emotional Learning  A child’s deficiencies in social-emotional competencies adversely affect his performance in school  Information Processing  A child’s attention can be divided when faced with emotional issues.  Inherent abilities such as Cognitive resources play a part in learning abilities
    6. 6. • A child’s relationship with his microenvironment affects his propensity to learn in school. • A child’s SES influences parents’ expectations on the child. • A teacher’s expectations and impressions of a child affects his performance in school Microenvironment
    7. 7. Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory of Development  Bio”: influence of genetic makeup on development  physical traits  temperament  “Ecological” refers to the environmental influences  Microsystem  Mesosystem  Exosystem  Macrosystem  Chronosystem
    8. 8. Chronosystem Macrosystem Exosystem Mesosystem Microsystem Child • most powerful influence on development • parents, teachers and peers • interactions between the elements of the microsystem • relationship between parents and teachers Bronferbrenner’s Bioecological Theory of Development Levels Involved
    9. 9. BRONFENBRENNER’S THEORY Microsystem – Parents Problem • Parents do not seem to care for Jeremy, and blames each other for his poor grade Theory • Parents constitute child’s microsystem • Perhaps the most powerful influences on child’s development • Authoritarian style of parenting • Parents are unresponsive and detached from the child • Negligence would adversely affect the child’s motivation and performance in school Solution • Help parents realize that they have to take primary responsibility for their child • School can organise talks that focuses on parents’ and teachers’ roles on a child’s development
    10. 10. Problem • Teachers are insensitive and not understanding enough, and hurls insensitive and hurtful remarks at Jeremy • Inflict further emotional damage • Encourage negative self concept Theory • Teachers constitute a child’s microsystem • Teachers are a crucial source of support for a child • Also a source of motivation and acceptance Solution • Teachers should try to find out child’s situation before reprimanding child • Scolding should be done tactfully BRONFENBRENNER’S THEORY Microsystem – Teachers
    11. 11. Problem • Jeremy is ostracized by his peers in school Theory • Peers constitute a child’s microsystem • Peers provide emotional support • Allow opportunities for development of social skills • Being in a clique gives one a sense of identity Solution • Teachers could encourage interaction • Talk to the class to clarify student’s situation • Incorporate interactive activities or games during lessons BRONFENBRENNER’S THEORY Microsystem – Peers
    12. 12. Problem • Form teacher made repeated attempts to speak with Jeremy’s parents, but failed to contact them • Parents are too busy Theory • Mesosystem poorly established • Ineffective communication between teacher and parents • Adversely affects child’s development Solution • More frequent meetings • More effective communication • Interest of child as priority BRONFENBRENNER’S THEORY Mesosystem
    13. 13. Problem • Parents are working professionals and seem to have very high expectations for Jeremy Theory • Socio-Economic Status • Parents with middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) often lack the time and energy to fully invest in their child’s preparation and performance in school (Ramey & Ramey, 1994) • Child feels neglected, and have no sense of belonging • Child may eventually become withdrawn Solution • Help parents realize that they need to invest more into their child's development • School can organise talks that focuses on a child’s needs and what parents should do Social Economic System
    14. 14. Parents’ lack of personal care to a child’s sense of belonging, safety and self-esteem affects his desire to learn. Needs of a Child
    15. 15. NEEDS – Belonging to family Problem • Student becomes overwhelmed by anxiety as he/she seeks to please parents to fulfill his/her need to be loved by parents. Theory • Emotional stress on child. • Eagerness to perform well to please parents, but no means to do so. • Insecurity and added anxiety which hampers ability to learn. Solution • Parents should show concern for child other than academic areas. • Recognise child’s interest and talents in non- academic areas.
    16. 16. NEEDS – Sense of Relatedness Problem • Student desires to leave the class and feels apart from classmates rather than being a part of the class. Theory • Mind cluttered with thoughts of ‘getting out of situation’ • Hampered from acquiring knowledge with a peace of mind. Solution • Teachers should communicate positive regard unconditionally and show earnest commitment to students and their learning. (Cornelius-White, 2007) • Teacher can entrust the child some form of responsibility in class.
    17. 17. NEEDS – Self Determination Problem • Students feel that they have no say in their timetable. • Lack of rest (unfulfilled physical needs) Theory • Interest in school tasks is increased when students have been given some choice and opportunities to take personal responsibility for learning. (Grolnick, Gurland, Jacob & Decourcey, 2002) • Meeting of basic physiological needs such as sufficient rest is essential. (Maslow, 1970) Solution • Parents can sit down with child and work out a consensus on study regime • Factor in free time for rest.
    18. 18. A child’s deficiencies in social-emotional competencies adversely affect his performance in school Social-Emotional learning
    19. 19. Awareness of Self & Others • Awareness & management of feelings • Constructive sense of self • Perspective-taking Positive Attitudes & Values • Personal responsibility • Respect for others • Social responsibility Responsible Decision-making • Problem-identification • Social-norm analysis • Adaptive goal-setting • Problem-solving Social Interaction Skills • Expressive communication • Cooperation • Negotiation • Help-seeking • Refusal SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING COMPETENCIES Adapted from: http://www.casel.org/downloads/Safe%20and%20Sound/3B_SEL_Framework.pdf
    20. 20. SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING Problem • Student is lethargic and listless in class • As a result of staying up late doing work/ having tuition Theory • Responsible decision-making • Without ability to identify problem situations, the student is unable to make responsible and helpful decisions.
    21. 21. SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING Problem • Student does not perform well academically in school Theory • Awareness of self • Student is unable to recognize his strengths and weaknesses • Responsible decision-making • Student is unable to act on his perceived strengths and weaknesses • Student is unable to solve problems • Student did not practise adaptive goal- setting • Student does not seek help
    22. 22. SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING Problem • Student is ostracized by friends in school Theory • Social interaction skills • Student did not expressively communicate his opinions and feelings to his peers • Student is unable to issue refusals • Awareness of self • Student does not display awareness of his strengths and weaknesses
    23. 23. SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING Problem • Teachers’ insensitive remarks about student not fitting in with any group Theory • Awareness of self • Student is unable to manage his feelings and regulate his responses to comments by others
    24. 24. SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING Problem • Parents’ lack of attention and encouragement to student. Theory • Social interaction skills (Relationship Management Skills) • Student did not demonstrate expressive communication skills to convey his feelings and opinions to others • Student has no negotiation skills to suggest compromises
    25. 25. Solutions Inability to practise responsible decision- making Lack of awareness of self and others Lack of social interaction skills Exploit teachable moments in class to practise SEL skills Create emotionally- and psychologically- safe learning environment Foster positive relationships in class Role Models
    26. 26. • A child’s attention can be divided when faced with emotional issues. • Inherent abilities such as cognitive resources play a part in learning abilities Information processing
    27. 27. INFORMATION PROCESSING Problem • Student does not spend quality time with parents and feel neglected Theory • Sense of belonging and safety is essential to a child before self- actualization can take place • Primary concerns are emotional issues. Students will be unable to focus and perform in school & his Information Processing skills are affected. Solution • Parents should set aside quality time to spend with their child/children. • Child/Children should be provided with care and a sense of belonging before being able to concentrate and focus on Information Processing in the classroom.
    28. 28. INFORMATION PROCESSING Problem • Student is distracted in class Theory • Inability to focus in class due to emotional & psychological stresses • Information Processing skills are affected & students are unable to catch up academically with peers Solution • Manage the distressing issues of the students to ensure that there is a marked improvement in the attention of the students towards education.
    29. 29. INFORMATION PROCESSING Problem • Absent of trust between educators & students Theory • Lack of trust affects students’ attitude towards Information Processing • Creates an unhealthy learning environment • Impedes students’ ability in Information Processing Solution • Create a bridge to promote mutual understanding & respect • Allows a healthy 2 way communication to approach each other • Promotes the development of Information Processing
    30. 30. INFORMATION PROCESSING Problem • Students do not feel cared for in the school/classroom. Theory • A caring environment nurtures positive Information Processing • Students who feel uncared for are in a negative learning environment which impedes & disrupt their Information Processing skills. Solution • Showing genuine care & concern for students allows for improvement in Information Processing.
    31. 31. Needs  Hypothesis:  For effective learning to take place, the learner's basic needs, such as need for belonging and safety, have to first be met.  Conclusion:  When the deficiency needs are not met, the student’s focus cannot be fixated on learning.
    32. 32. Environment [Bronfenbrenner’s Theory]  Hypothesis  The micro and mesoenvironment has a direct impact on the social-emotional capacities of a child  Conclusion
    33. 33. Social-Emotional Learning  Hypothesis:  Components of Social Emotional Learning such as Self-Awareness, Self-Management and Relationship Skills have a direct relationship with the effectiveness of learning.  Conclusion:  Without SEL competencies, the student’s learning capacity will be crippled because learning is also achieved through co-construction as a community rather than solo effort.
    34. 34. Information Processing  Hypothesis:  To ensure that effective learning takes place, it is important for teachers to learn how information is being processed in different types of learners to cater lesson design and teaching according to their needs.  Conclusion: 
    35. 35. Conclusion

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