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Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
Developing the curriculum chapter 1
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Developing the curriculum chapter 1

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  • 1. CHAPTER 1:CURRICULUM ANDINSTRUCTION DEFINEDDeveloping the CurriculumEighth EditionPeter F. OlivaWilliam R. Gordon II
  • 2. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-2AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO:• Identify alternative definitions of curriculum.• Distinguish between curriculum and instruction.• Explain in what ways curriculum can be considereda discipline.• Create or select a model of the relationshipbetween curriculum and instruction and describeyour creation or selection.
  • 3. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-3CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM• The track—the curriculum—has become one of thekey concerns of today’s schools.• The quest for a definition of curriculum has taxedmany an educator.• In many schools a written plan may be called acurriculum, but a curriculum encompasses manymore entities than a written plan.
  • 4. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-4CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM• The term curriculum can be conceived in a narrowway (as subjects taught) or in a broad way (as all theexperiences of learners, both in school and out,directed by the school).• Curriculum—is built, planned, designed, andconstructed. It is improved, revised, and evaluated.
  • 5. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-5CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM• With considerable ingenuity the specialist canmold, shape, and tailor the curriculum to the needsof children the school serves.• Some curriculum theorists combine elements ofboth curriculum and instruction in defining the termcurriculum.
  • 6. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-6CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUMOthers find a definition of curriculum in:• purposes or goals of the curriculum• contexts within which the curriculum is found• strategies used throughout the curriculum
  • 7. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-7CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM• The purpose of the curriculum:○ what curriculum does or should do○ what the curriculum is meant to achieve• The contexts of the curriculum are the settings withinwhich it takes shape-three types:○ essentialist curriculum-designed to transmit thecultural heritage○ a child-centered curriculum-designed to focus onthe learner○ reconstructionist curriculum-aims to educate youthin such a way that they will be capable of solvingsome of society’s pressing problems
  • 8. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-8CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM• Text definition - curriculum is perceived as a planor program for all the experiences that thelearner encounters under the direction of theschool. In practice, the curriculum consists of anumber of plans, in written form and of varyingscope, that delineate the desired learningexperiences. The curriculum, therefore, may be aunit, a course, a sequence of courses, theschool’s entire program of studies—and may beencountered inside or outside of class or schoolwhen directed by the personnel of the school.
  • 9. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-9RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CURRICULUM ANDINSTRUCTION• A simplistic view of curriculum is - that which istaught and instruction as the means used to teachthat which is taught.• Even more simply, curriculum can be conceived asthe “what” or ends and instruction as the “how” ormeans.
  • 10. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-10• Both curriculum and instruction are subsystems ofa larger system called schooling or education.–Decisions about the curriculum relate to plans orprograms and thus are programmatic.–Decisions about instruction (and therebyimplementation) are methodological.RELATIONSHIPS BETWEENCURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
  • 11. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-11Four Models:1. Dualistic2. Interlocking3. Concentric4. CyclicalModels of the Curriculum–Instruction Relationship
  • 12. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-12Models of the Curriculum–Instruction RelationshipDualistic Model:• Curriculum sits on one side and instruction on theother – no intersection.• Discussions of curriculum are divorced from theirpractical application to the classroom.• Under this model the curriculum and theinstructional process may change withoutsignificantly affecting one another.
  • 13. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-13Models of the Curriculum–Instruction RelationshipInterlocking Model:• Curriculum and instruction are shown as systemsentwined.• The separation of one from the other would doserious harm to both.
  • 14. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-14Concentric Models:• Mutual dependence is the key feature of concentricmodels.• Two conceptions of the curriculum–instructionrelationship that show one as the subsystem of theother.Models of the Curriculum–Instruction Relationship
  • 15. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-15Models of the Curriculum–Instruction RelationshipCyclical Model:• Curriculum and instruction are separate entitieswith a continuing circular relationship.• Curriculum makes a continuous impact oninstruction and, vice versa, instruction has impacton curriculum.• The essential element of feedback is stressed.
  • 16. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-16Models of the Curriculum–Instruction RelationshipMost theoreticians today appear to agree with thefollowing comments:• Curriculum and instruction are related butdifferent.• Curriculum and instruction are interlocking andinterdependent.• Curriculum and instruction may be studied andanalyzed as separate entities but cannot function inmutual isolation.
  • 17. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-17CURRICULUM AS A DISCIPLINEWhat are the characteristics of a discipline?• Principles - An organized set of theoreticalconstructs or principles that governs it.• Knowledge and Skills - It encompasses a body ofknowledge and skills pertinent to that discipline aswell as the use of an amalgamation of knowledgeand skills from many disciplines.• Theoreticians and Practitioners – It hastheoreticians and practitioners.
  • 18. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-18CURRICULUM SPECIALISTSCurriculum specialists make contributions by:• Creatively transforming theory and knowledge intopractice.• Examining and reexamining theory and knowledgefrom their field and related fields.• Stimulating research on curricular problems.• Providing leadership to the teachers.
  • 19. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved1-19A FINAL THOUGHT:•Teachers, curriculum specialists, andinstructional supervisors share leadershipresponsibilities in efforts to develop thecurriculum.

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