Industrial Psychology: Leadership Theories
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  • 1. Giselle M. Manabat
  • 2.  Affective Identity Motivation- they enjoy being in charge and leading others  Noncalculative Motivation- for personal gain  Social-Normative Motivation- out of sense of duty/obligation
  • 3.  High in nP and low in nAff  3 Personalities:    2   Paranoid/Passive-Aggressive- charming, quiet people but back stabber High Likability Floater- insecure, seldom rock the boat or cause trouble Narcissists- overcome insecurity by overconfidence types of leaders: Person-oriented Leader- high in Consideration Task-Oriented Leader- high in Initiating Structure
  • 4. 1. FIEDLER’S CONTIGENCY THEORY -leadership styles is effective only in certain situations. -one should understand styles of leadership rather than changing them -“Leader-Match Training”  LPC SCALE (LEAST PREFERRED COWORKER) LPC leaders= task-oriented (best in situations that are either favorable or unfavorable LPC leaders= interpersonal (moderate f)
  • 5.  Task Structuredness- goals clearly stated & known by members (tasks are standardized)  Leader Position Power- high position/ legitimate power = favorable  Leader-Member Relations- high subordinates who like leaders= favorable (support & loyalties of followers)
  • 6. 2. IMPACT THEORY  6 styles: STYLES CLIMATE Informational Style IGNORANCE Magnetic Style DESPAIR Position Style INSTABILITY Affiliation Style ANXIETY Coercive Style CRISIS Tactical Style DISORGANIZATION
  • 7. 3. HOUSE’s PATH-GOAL THEORY  4 leadership styles: (SPAID)     SUPPORTIVE STYLE- supportive relationships with subordinates PARTICIPATIVE STYLE- includes subordinates in decision making ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED STYLE- set challenging goals & rewards which increases performance INSTRUMENTAL STYLE- planning, organizing, provides specific guidelines & clear rules
  • 8. 3. HERSEY & BLANCHARD’s SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY  Follower Readiness- most important follower characteristic (ability & willingness to perform task)  Maturity- leaders adapting to followers  Competence & Motivation  4 Readiness & 4 Behavioral Styles
  • 9. UNABLE ABLE UNWILLING Directing R1 Supporting R2 WILLING Coaching R3 Delegating R4
  • 10.  LMX THEORY/VDL THEORY -Leader-Member Exchange or Vertical Dyad Theory -relationship between people 2 Groups:  In-group- high quality of relationship with the leader  Out-group- low quality of relationship
  • 11.  VROOM-YETTON MODEL- inclusion of group members in DM process STYLES DESCRIPTION Autocratic 1 (A1) Leader decides alone Autocratic 2 (A2) Leader gets information from members then decides alone Consultative 1 (C1) Leader shares the info. “individually” then decides alone Consultative 2 (C2) Leader shares the info. In “groups” then decides alone Group 2 Leader shares the info in group & let the group reach consensus
  • 12. MANAGEMENT BY WALKING AROUND (MBWA) -specific behavioral theory -leaders and managers are most effective when they are out of their offices, walking around
  • 13.  FRENCH 5      & RAVEN’s BASE OF POWER Basic Types of Power EXPERT- knowledgeable LEGITIMATE- on the basis of position bestowed REWARD- control financial & nonfinancial reward COERCIVE-control punishment REFERENT- lie in the positive feelings that others hold for him; obtain by complimenting others, doing favors, friendly & supportive
  • 14.  TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP -task-oriented behavior -setting goals, monitoring performance, providing consequences to success or failure 3 dimensions: 1. Contingent Reward-rewarding followers for engaging desired activities 2. Management by Exception/ACTIVE- monitor performance & take coercive action 3. Management by Exception/PASSIVE- do not actively monitor performance & take coercive actions only when necessary
  • 15.  BASS’ TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP -changing or transforming the goals, values, ethics, standards & performance of others 3 Dimensions: 1. Charisma- enthusiasm, high moral & ethical standards 2. Intellectual Stimulation- open thinking 3. Individual Consideration- encourage individual growth
  • 16.  IOWA 3  STUDIES: Kurt Lewin’s Leadership Styles leadership styles: (*LAD) LAISSEZ-FAIRE- minimize leader’s involvement in DM; allowing subordinates to make decisions with little guidance AUTOCRATIC- leader takes decision without consulting others  DEMOCRATIC- leader involves people in DM 
  • 17.  OHIO STATE STUDIES  2 Major Dimensions:  INITIATING STRUCTURE- (task-oriented) leaders define their own & their subordinates roles in achieving the group’s formal goals.  CONSIDERATION- (relationship-oriented) supportive, participative, with respect for others
  • 18.  BLAKE & MOUTON’s MANAGERIAL GRID  5 Types: (*CAMIT)  COUNTRY CLUB MANAGEMENT- low in task orientation; high in relationship orientation  AUTHORITY-COMPLIANCE- high in task orientation; low in relationship orientation  MIDDLE-OF-THE-ROAD- weak balance of focus  IMPOVERISHED MANAGEMENT- (lazy approach) LOW in task and relationship orientation  TEAM MANAGEMENT- HIGH in task and relationship orientation
  • 19.  RENSIS LIKERT’s LEADERSHIP STYLES  4 Leadership Styles: (*C BEAP)  CONSULTATIVE- consults subordinates but leader makes major decisions  BENEVOLENT AUTHORITATIVE- uses “rewards” to encourage others; concern + authority  EXPLOITIVE AUTHORITATIVE- uses threat “fearbased method” ; low concern for people  PARTICIPATIVE- allowing subordinates to participate in the DM
  • 20.  LORD & MAHEL’s IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP THEORY -Leadership: outcome of a perceptual process involving both leaders & subordinates -Leaders affect performance of member through behavior, traits, charisma, qualities, abilities, etc. -PROTOTYPE-mental representation of a leader -FOLLOWER’S PERCEPTION- general impression of a leader based on one’s prototype