The nature and requirements of
interaction design: why ethnography?
Design Ethnography: Fishing?
Developing clarity and
focus from uncertainty
Perspectives on the role
of anthropology in design
Research through design:
Zimmerman, J., Forlizzi, J., & Evenson, S. (2007). Research through
design as a method for interaction design research in HCI. Proceedings
of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems -
CHI ’07 (pp. 493-502)
The landscape of human centred design: multiple entry
points for ethnography
Sanders, E. B.-N., & Stappers, P. J. (2008).
Co-creation and the new landscapes of
design. CoDesign, 4(1), 5-18. doi:
A little bit of history
Developments in Ethnography
In the field one has to face a
chaos of facts, some of which
are so small that they seem
insignificant; others loom so
large that they are hard to
encompass with one synthetic
glance. But in this crude form
they are not scientific facts at
all; they are absolutely
elusive, and can be fixed only
by interpretation (Bronislaw
Malinowski, Baloma (1954),
Ethnography: origins of
the outsider/insider view
Sociological ethnography: city as
Visual ethnography: a
picture worth 1000 words
Focused ethnography: impetus
from Latour and Goffman
Medical ethnography: an
Engebretson, J. (2011). Clinically applied
medical ethnography: relevance to cultural
competence in patient care. The Nursing
clinics of North America, 46(2), 145-54
new ways of working
Without field research: cliches versus
theorizing or design driven
• Should I take an overt or covert role in the field?
• How much should my prior reading and analysis dictate the
• How long should or can I remain in the field?
• What is the effect of my presence on results and can I
intervene in situations?
• Should I take photographs or film in the field?
• Can I use cultural probes to get users to gather their own
• Ethnography has its own history of developments
• Applied ethnography represents a practical application
• There is a critical discussion between applied and
• The application into design puts an emphasis on stories
and people's own perceptions