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Coming to terms with intelligence in machines

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My slides are available for you at:
Coming to terms with
intelligence in machines
Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett
Computer Science...

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@dmonett
IG: @ThePartyEye

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@dmonett
IG: @ThePartyEye

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Coming to terms with intelligence in machines

  1. 1. My slides are available for you at: Coming to terms with intelligence in machines Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Computer Science Dept., Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar.monett-diaz@hwr-berlin.de https://www.slideshare.net/dmonett/monett-2021-atd Keynote, Nov. 16, 2021
  2. 2. 2 @dmonett IG: @ThePartyEye
  3. 3. 3 @dmonett IG: @ThePartyEye
  4. 4. 4 @dmonett Main statement: There are no truly intelligent artifacts on the horizon yet.
  5. 5. 5 @dmonett “The long-term dream of AI is to build machines that have the that people have—to build machines that are self-aware, conscious and autonomous in the same way that people like you and me are.” Wooldridge, M. (2020). The Road to Conscious Machines: The Story of AI. UK: Pelican Random House.
  6. 6. 6 @dmonett “Intelligence measures an agent’s ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments.” (Legg & Hutter, 2007) Fogel, D. B. (2006). Defining Artificial Intelligence. In Evolutionary Computation: Toward a New Philosophy of Machine Intelligence. Third Edition, pp. 1-32. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., IEEE Press. Legg, S. and Hutter, M. (2007). Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence. Minds and Machines, 17(4):391-444, Springer. McCarthy, J. (2007). What is Artificial Intelligence? Computer Science Department, School of Engineering, Stanford University. Wang, P. (2008). What Do You Mean by "AI"? In P. Wang, B. Goertzel, and S. Franklin (eds.), Artificial General Intelligence 2008, Proceedings of the First AGI Conference, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, 171:362-373. IOS Press Amsterdam, The Netherlands. “[Artificial Intelligence is] the science and engineering of making intelligent machines. ... It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence.” (McCarthy, 2007) “Intelligence is] the capability of a system to adapt its behavior to meet its goals in a range of environments.” (Fogel, 2006) Four examples of AI definitions “The essence of intelligence is the principle of adapting to the environment while working with insufficient knowledge and resources.” (Wang, 2008)
  7. 7. 7 @dmonett Misleading news and hype around AI
  8. 8. 8 @dmonett “ , the one “available through the newspapers, books and films.” Collins, H. (2018). Artifictional Intelligence: Against Humanity’s Surrender to Computers. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  9. 9. 9 @dmonett “If you rely on movies and science fiction (and even some popular non- fiction) for your view of AI, you will be afraid of AI becoming conscious, turning malevolent, and trying to enslave or kill us all. But given , this is not what most people in the AI community worry about.” Mitchell, M. (2019). Artificial Intelligence: A Guide for Thinking Humans. UK: Pelican Random House.
  10. 10. 10 @dmonett “Neither deep learning nor other forms of second-wave AI, nor any proposals yet advanced for third-wave, .” Smith, B. C. (2019). The Promise of Artificial Intelligence: Reckoning and Judgment. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  11. 11. 11 @dmonett “The myth is not that true AI is possible. As to that, the future of AI is a scientific unknown. –that we have already embarked on the path that will lead to human-level AI, and then superintelligence. We have not.” Larson, E. J. (2021). The Myth of Artificial Intelligence: Why computers can’t think the way we do. Cambridge, MA: Berlknap, Harvard University Press.
  12. 12. 12 @dmonett “The reality of AI for the foreseeable future to the grand dream.” Wooldridge, M. (2020). The Road to Conscious Machines: The Story of AI. UK: Pelican Random House.
  13. 13. 13 @dmonett Key learning 1: There is on defining intelligence.
  14. 14. 14 @dmonett No consensus Journal editors (1921). Intelligence and Its Measurement: A Symposium. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 12(3), 123-147. Detterman, D. K. (1986). Qualitative Integration: The Last Word? In R. J. Sternberg and D. K. Detterman (eds.), What is intelligence? Contemporary Viewpoints on its Nature and Definition, pp. 163-166. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Chollet, F. (2019). The Measure of Intelligence. arXiv:1911.01547 [cs.AI]. “There is very great disagreement concerning the concept of intelligence.” (Journal editors 1921) “[A] substantial disagreement on a single definition still abounds.” (Detterman 1986) “It is a testimony to the immaturity of our field that the question of what we mean when we talk about intelligence still doesn’t have a satisfying answer.” (Chollet 2019)
  15. 15. 15 @dmonett “The lack of specificity allows journalists, entrepreneurs, and marketing departments to say virtually anything they want.” (Lipton, 2018) “[T]he public knowledge and understanding on AI [...] is suffering from a lack of transparency as to capabilities and thus impacts of AI.” (Nemitz, 2018) “[A] lack of clarity in terms of definitions and objectives seems to have plagued the [AI] field right back to its origins in the 1950s. This makes tracing [its] evolution . . . a difficult task.” (AI in the UK, 2018, p. 156) No consensus and its consequences http://approximatelycorrect.com/2018/06/05/ai-ml-ai-swirling-nomenclature-slurried-thought/ http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2018.0089 https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201719/ldselect/ldai/100/100.pdf
  16. 16. 16 @dmonett Key learning 2: Both human and machine intelligence are concepts .
  17. 17. 17 @dmonett 14 Educational Psychology USA, Europe Prediction of behavior 14 Only definitions of human intelligence Participants Primary affiliation Countries Focus Definitions Type of definitions Symposium 1921 Defining (A)I: A comparison
  18. 18. 18 @dmonett 5 (14) educational psychologists define intelligence [ is …] … the power of good responses from the point of view of truth or facts; (Thorndike, 1921) … the ability to carry on abstract thinking; (Terman , 1921) … having learned or ability to learn to adjust oneself to the environment; (Colvin , 1921) … the capacity for knowledge; (Henmon, 1921) … the capacity to acquire capacity. (Woodrow, 1921) As referred to in Lanz, P. (2000). The Concept of Intelligence in Psychology and Philosophy. In Cruse, H., Dean, J., and Ritter, H. (eds.) Prerational Intelligence: Adaptive Behavior and Intelligent Systems Without Symbols and Logic, Vol. 1, 19-30, Springer.
  19. 19. 19 @dmonett 14 Educational Psychology USA, Europe Prediction of behavior 14 Only definitions of human intelligence 25 Diverse Psychologies (educational, cognitive, behavioral, social, cross- cultural, etc.) USA, Europe Understanding of behavior 25 Mostly definitions of human intelligence Participants Primary affiliation Countries Focus Definitions Type of definitions Symposium Symposium 1921 1986 Defining (A)I: A comparison
  20. 20. 20 @dmonett 16 (25) leading psychologists define intelligence [ is] an elusive concept (Estes, 1986); an illusory unified capacity (Horn, 1986); a cognitive proficiency (Glaser, 1986); a polymorphous set of qualities elusive to define, explain, and measure (Brown, 1986); a pluralistic (Anastasi, 1986), context-dependent concept (Anastasi, 1986; Sternberg, 1986); a medley of important events, a mixture of different things (Horn, 1986); a finite set of independent abilities operating as a complex system (Detterman, 1986); the sum total of all cognitive processes (Das, 1986); a collective term for demonstrated, mental individual differences (Hunt, 1986); mental self-government (Sternberg, 1986); a judgement or attribution that people do, and not a quality residing in the individual (Goodnow, 1986); a hypothetical (Zigler, 1986), culture-bound, ethnocentric, and excessively narrow (Berry, 1986), societal construct, a concept in the mind of a society at large (Carroll, 1986). A summary of some of the definitions that are included in Sternberg, R. J. and Detterman, D. K. (1986). What is intelligence? Contemporary Viewpoints on its Nature and Definition. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  21. 21. 21 @dmonett AGISI survey 14 Educational Psychology USA, Europe Prediction of behavior 14 Only definitions of human intelligence 25 Diverse Psychologies (educational, cognitive, behavioral, social, cross- cultural, etc.) USA, Europe Understanding of behavior 25 Mostly definitions of human intelligence 567 (academia: 79.7%) Computer Science, Engineering, Biology, Neurosciences, Philosophy, Cognitive Science, etc. 57+ countries Computation of behavior 343 (+ 4128 opinions) Explicit distinction human vs. machine intelligence Participants Primary affiliation Countries Focus Definitions Type of definitions Symposium Symposium 1921 1986 2019 Defining (A)I: A comparison
  22. 22. 22 @dmonett 24.7.2017—25.7.2019 57+ 184+ Academia (N=452, 79.7%) Industry (N=116, 20.5%) Researchers (N=435, 76.7%) Educators (N=197, 34.7%) Developers, Engineers (N=90, 15.9%) 567 responses 4,128 opinions 343 new, suggested definitions 9x2 definitions of (human/machine) intelligence to agree upon AGISI survey Defining (machine) Intelligence (Partial results) Monett, D. and Lewis, C. W. P. (2018). Getting clarity by defining Artificial Intelligence—A Survey. In Müller, Vincent C. (Ed.), Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence 2017. SAPERE 44 (pp. 212-214). Berlin: Springer. See http://agisi.org/Survey_intelligence.html
  23. 23. 23 @dmonett 9x2 (+) definitions of (human/machine) intelligence to agree upon See http://agisi.org/Defs_intelligence.html
  24. 24. 24 @dmonett A widely accepted definition of intelligence Gottfredson, L. S. (1997a). Mainstream science on intelligence: An editorial with 52 signatories, history, and bibliography. Intelligence, 24: 13-23. As cited in Haier, R. J. (2017). The Neuroscience of Intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press. Most accepted definition, AGISI survey
  25. 25. 25 @dmonett 1 target article on defining AI (Wang, 2019) 20 commentaries from leading AI experts 1 extended answer from target author Wang, P. (2019). On Defining Artificial Intelligence. Journal of Artificial General Intelligence, 10(2), 1–37. Monett, D., Lewis, C. W. P., & Thórisson, K. R. (eds.) (2020). Special Issue “On Defining Artificial Intelligence.” Journal of Artificial General Intelligence, 11(2), 1–100. But still no general consensus in the AI community!
  26. 26. 26 @dmonett “ . Rather, artificial intelligence is both embodied and material, made from natural resources, fuel, human labor, infrastructures, logistics, histories, and classifications. AI systems are not autonomous, rational, or able to discern anything without extensive, computationally intensive training with large datasets or predefined rules and rewards.” Crawford, K. (2021). Atlas of AI: Power, Politics, and the Planetary Costs of Artificial Intelligence. Yale University Press.
  27. 27. 27 @dmonett Key learning 3: between AI and Software Engineering .
  28. 28. 28 @dmonett AI? It is software!
  29. 29. 29 @dmonett Monett, D., & Lemke, C. (2021). AI-ware: Bridging AI and Software Engineering for responsible and sustainable intelligent artefacts. In van Giffen, B., Koehler, J., Brenner, W., & Albayrak, C. A., Managing Artificial Intelligence (pp. 66-73), Workshop Paper Series, INFORMATIK 2021, Institute of Information Management, University of St. Gallen. A workshop co-located with INFORMATIK 2021, the 51st Annual Conference of the German Informatics Society (GI), September 29th - October 1st, 2021, in Berlin and online. Soft- ware AI- ware
  30. 30. 30 @dmonett (Monett & Lemke, 2021) AI- ware The need to be aware of what AI is and is not, its subfields, as well as a critical appraisal of where does applying AI make sense at all. The conjunction of AI and Software Engineering, mainly –but not only– the former learning from the variety of well-established techniques and good practices from the latter, at the same time extending them.
  31. 31. 31 @dmonett research agenda & Responsible AI (Monett & Lemke, 2021) Societal and ethical perspective Algorithmic perspective Data-oriented perspective Framework- based perspective Economics perspective Interdisciplinary perspective
  32. 32. 32 @dmonett Ex.: Requirements engineering as a process Adapted from (Schenkel, 2014)
  33. 33. 33 @dmonett Ex.: Requirements engineering as a process Adapted from (Schenkel, 2014) Responsible AI: in all stages! RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI
  34. 34. 34 @dmonett Ex.: Requirements development in detail Adapted from (Wiegers & Beatty, 2013)
  35. 35. 35 @dmonett Ex.: Requirements development in detail Adapted from (Wiegers & Beatty, 2013) Responsible AI: in all stages! RAI RAI RAI RAI
  36. 36. 36 @dmonett Agile development? No problem! © Ignacio Palomo Duarte https://flic.kr/p/8QjDJy
  37. 37. 37 @dmonett Agile development? No problem! Responsible AI: in all stages! RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI RAI © Ignacio Palomo Duarte https://flic.kr/p/8QjDJy
  38. 38. 38 @dmonett How?
  39. 39. 39 @dmonett Responsible AI, Regulating AI
  40. 40. 40 @dmonett https://ec.europa.eu/futurium/en/ai-alliance-consultation/guidelines/2 “[A] non-exhaustive [with ] to operationalise Trustworthy AI. It particularly applies to AI systems that directly interact with users, and is primarily addressed to developers and deployers of AI systems.”
  41. 41. 41 @dmonett “Did you assess how your system behaves in unexpected situations and environments?” Cartoon created at www.projectcartoon.com (Trustworthy AI assessment list, 2019)
  42. 42. 42 @dmonett “Did you consider the potential impact or safety risk to the environment or to animals?” Cartoon created at www.projectcartoon.com (Trustworthy AI assessment list, 2019)
  43. 43. 43 @dmonett “In case the AI system features a chat bot or conversational system, are the human end users made aware of the fact that they are interacting with a non-human agent?” Cartoon created at www.projectcartoon.com (Trustworthy AI assessment list, 2019)
  44. 44. 44 @dmonett “Did you consider ways to develop the AI system or train the model without or with minimal use of potentially sensitive or personal data?” Cartoon created at www.projectcartoon.com (Trustworthy AI assessment list, 2019)
  45. 45. 45 @dmonett “Did you consider diversity and representativeness of users in the data? Did you test for specific populations or problematic use cases?” Cartoon created at www.projectcartoon.com (Trustworthy AI assessment list, 2019)
  46. 46. 46 @dmonett “Did you put in place mechanisms that facilitate the system’s auditability by internal and/or independent actors?” Cartoon created at www.projectcartoon.com (Trustworthy AI assessment list, 2019)
  47. 47. Put it on your backlog! That’s how RAI gets done. @dmonett
  48. 48. 48 @dmonett It is software!
  49. 49. 49 @dmonett Responsible AI needs responsible humans.
  50. 50. 50 @dmonett Main statement: There are no truly intelligent artifacts on the horizon yet.
  51. 51. 51 @dmonett We are the intelligent ones.
  52. 52. Contact /monettdiaz @dmonett Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett 52 http://monettdiaz.com dagmar.monett-diaz@hwr-berlin.de Prof. Dr. Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence, Software Engineering) Computer Science Dept. Co-Director M.Sc. Digital Transformation Berlin School of Economics and Law (HWR Berlin) Faculty of Cooperative Studies Template: ATD and www.allppt.com

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