Theories of team building

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  • 1. Dr. Gambari, Amosa Isiaka Department of Science Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna. E-mail: gambarii@yahoo.com; gambarisiaka@gmail.com; gambari@futminna.edu.ng Blogsite: www.drgambari.com Website: www.gambariisiaka.com Mobil Phone: +234-803-689-7955; +234-805-558-6716
  • 2. THEORIES OF TEAM BUILDING A PAPER PRESENTED AT OFFICE OF ACCOUNTANT GENERAL OF THE FEDERATION (OAGF), FCT, ABUJA 27th AUGUST, 2012
  • 3. OBJECTIVES At the end of this presentation, the participants should be able to: (i) State the meaning of theory (ii) Explain the importance of theory (iii) Differentiate between team and team building (iv) Identify and explain some theories of team building
  • 4. THEORY A theory presents a systematic way of understanding events, behaviors and/or situations. A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that explains or predicts events or situations by specifying relations among variables. “Testability” and “Generalization”is an important feature of a theory.
  • 5. Importance of Theory Theories can guide the search to: (i) Understand why people do or do not practice acceptable behaviors; (ii) Help identify what information is needed to design an effective intervention strategy; (iii) Provide insight into how to design a program.
  • 6. TEAM T TOGETHER E EVERYONE A ACHIEVE M MORE
  • 7. What is a Team? A team is a small group of people with complementary skills, who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable (Adair, 1986)
  • 8. Cont... a workgroup or unit with a common purpose through which members develop mutual relationships for the achievement of goals/tasks. Teamwork, then, implies cooperative and coordinated effort by individuals working together in the interests of their common cause. It requires the sharing of talent and leadership, the playing of multiple roles (Harris , 1986)
  • 9. Characteristics of a Team (i) It is a group that has a job to do, whether as paid participants or as volunteers. (ii) It is a group that achieves cohesiveness (iii) It is a group with a common objective, whose members are very clear about working toward one purpose. (iv) It is a group whose members are interdependence.
  • 10. What is Team Building? According to Cleland (1996), team building is the process of forming, growing, and improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals with different needs, backgrounds, and abilities into an integrated, high-performance team.
  • 11. Coming together is a beginning Keeping together is progress Working together is success.
  • 12. QUIZ 1. What does the acronym “TEAM” stand for? 2. Testability is an important feature of a theory. (circle) True False 3. You can cause communication problems with lack of eye contact. (circle) True False 4. Theories can guide the search to the following EXCEPT …………. (a). Understand why people do or do not practice acceptable behaviors (b). Help identify what information is needed to design an effective intervention strategy (c). Assist to develop high-performance in human behavior (d). Provide insight into how to design a program
  • 13. TYPES OF TEAM BUILDING THEORIES 1.Beldin’s team role theory, 2.Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory; 3.John Adair Leadership theory; 4.Isabel Briggs-Myers’s MBTI theory; 5.Douglas McGregor X and Y theory; 6.Tajfel, Social Identity theory, 7.Tuckman’s theory of group development; and 8.Jung’ colour works theory
  • 14. 1. Beldin’s Team Role Theory British psychologist Dr Meredith Belbin worked to achieve a coherent and accurate system that explains individual behaviour and its influence on team success.
  • 15. Ever have these happen on your teams: Some team members do not complete what you expected them to do Team members lack flexibility so things fall through the cracks A valued expert on the team, does not see the bigger picture of their role, so tasks and steps are missed along the way that were expected Perhaps one team members is upset at another team member’s approach to performing a task
  • 16. Dr. Meredith Belbin made some keen observations… After observing teams working together for years, he made some unique observations: – People on teams assume different “team roles: – A “team role” is a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a certain way – He derived 9 roles from those he observed that people will fall under – Each team role will determine the team’s success
  • 17. Creating a more balanced team EXAMPLES: – If team members have similar weakness = • The team as a whole may tend to have that weakness – If team members have similar team strengths= • They may tend to compete (rather than co-operate) for the team tasks and responsibilities that best suit their natural styles So you can use the model with your team to help ensure that necessary team roles are covered, and that potential behavioral tensions or weaknesses among the team member are addressed.
  • 18. Understanding Belbin’s team role model Belbin identified nine team roles and he categorized those roles into three groups: – Action Oriented – People Oriented – Thought Oriented Each team role is associated with typical behavioral and interpersonal strengths.
  • 19. Belbin’s Nine Team Roles are… Action Oriented – Shapers (SH) – Implementer (IMP) – Completer-Finisher (CF) People Oriented – Coordinator (CO) – Team Worker (TW) – Resource Investigator (RI) Thought Oriented – Plant (PL) – Monitor-Evaluator (ME) – Specialist (SP)
  • 20. Action Oriented – Shapers (SH) – Shapers… • Challenge the team to improve. • Dynamic and usually extroverted people who enjoy stimulating others, questioning norms, and finding the best approaches to problems. • Shakes things up to make sure that all possibilities are considered and that the team does not become complacent. – Shapers often see obstacles as exciting challenges and they tend to have the courage to push on when others feel like quitting. – Potential weaknesses -- They may be argumentative, and that they may offend people's feelings.
  • 21. Action Oriented – Implementer (IMP) Implementers… • People who get things done. • Turn the team's ideas and concepts into practical actions and plans. • Typically conservative, disciplined people who work systematically and efficiently and are very well organized. • These are the people who you can count on to get the job done. • Potential weaknesses -- Implementers may be inflexible and somewhat resistant to change.
  • 22. Action Oriented – Completer-Finisher (CF) Completer-Finishers… • Are the people who see that projects are completed thoroughly • Ensure there have been no errors or omissions and they pay attention to the smallest of details. • Very concerned with deadlines and will push the team to make sure the job is completed on time • Described as perfectionists who are orderly, conscientious, and anxious. • Potential weaknesses -- May worry unnecessarily and find it hard to delegate.
  • 23. People Oriented – Coordinator (CO) Coordinators… • Take on the traditional team-leader role and have also been referred to as the chairperson • Guide the team to what they perceive are the objectives. • Are often excellent listeners • Are naturally able to recognize the value that each team members brings to the table. • They are calm and good-natured and delegate tasks very effectively. Potential weaknesses -- May delegate away too much personal responsibility, and may tend to be manipulative.
  • 24. People Oriented – Team Worker (TW) Team Workers… • Are the people who provide support and make sure the team is working together • These people fill the role of negotiators within the team and they are flexible, diplomatic, and perceptive. • Tend to be popular people who are very capable in their own right but who prioritize team cohesion and helping people getting along. Potential weaknesses -- May have a tendency to be indecisive, and maintain uncommitted positions during discussions and decision-making.
  • 25. People Oriented – Resource Investigator (RI) Resource Investigators… • Are innovative and curious. They explore available options, develop contacts, and negotiate for resources on behalf of the team. • They are enthusiastic team members, who identify and work with external stakeholders to help the team accomplish its objective. • They are outgoing and are often extroverted, meaning that others are often receptive to them and their ideas. Potential weaknesses -- May lose enthusiasm quickly, and are often overly optimistic.
  • 26. Thought Oriented – Plant (PL) Plants… • Is the creative innovator who comes up with new ideas and approaches. • Thrive on praise but criticism is especially hard for them to deal with. • Are often introverted and prefer to work apart from the team. Potential weaknesses -- Because their ideas are so novel, they can be impractical at times. They may also be poor communicators and can tend to ignore given parameters and constraints.
  • 27. Thought Oriented – Monitor – Evaluator (ME) Monitors -- Evaluators… • Best at analyzing and evaluating ideas that other people (often Plants) come up with • Are objective • Carefully weigh the pros and cons of all the options before coming to a decision. • Are critical thinkers and very strategic in their approach. They are often perceived as detached or unemotional. Potential weaknesses -- Sometimes they are poor motivators who react to events rather than instigating them
  • 28. Thought Oriented – Specialist(SP) – Specialists… • Are people who have specialized knowledge that is needed to get the job done. • They are skillful and they work to maintain their professional status. • Their job within the team is to be an expert in the area, and they commit themselves fully to their field of expertise Potential weaknesses -- This may limit their contribution, and lead to a preoccupation with technicalities at the expense of the bigger picture.
  • 29. Belbin’s Team Roles Tables Action Oriented Roles Shaper Challenges the team to improve. Implementer Puts ideas into action. Completer Finisher Ensures thorough, timely completion. People Oriented Roles Coordinator Acts as a chairperson. Team Worker Encourages cooperation. Resource Investigator Explores outside opportunities. Thought Oriented Roles Plant Presents new ideas and approaches. Monitor-Evaluator Analyzes the options. Specialist Provides specialized skills.
  • 30. Using the Belbin Role Model tool The Belbin Team Roles Model can be used in several ways: – You can use it to think about team balance before a project starts – You can use it to highlight and so manage interpersonal differences within an existing team – You can use it to develop yourself or others as a team player.
  • 31. Using the Belbin Role Model tool Here are some steps you can take to get started with this tool: 1. Over a period of time, observe the individual members of your team, and see how they behave individually, contribute to the team and behave within the team. 2. Now list the members of the team, and for each person write down the key strengths and characteristics you have observed. (You may also want to note down any observed weaknesses).
  • 32. Cont... 3. Compare each person's listed strengths and weakness with the Belbin's descriptions of team-roles, and note the one that most accurately describes that person. 4. Once you have done this for each team member, consider the following questions: • Which team roles are missing from your team? • And from this, ask yourself which strengths are likely to be missing from the team overall? • Is there are prevalent team role that many of the team members share?
  • 33. Some tips to keep in mind… With regard to prevalent team roles… Among teams of people that do the same job, a few team roles often prevail. – For example, within a research department, the team roles of Specialist and Plant may prevail. – A team of business consultants may mainly comprise Team Workers and Shapers. – Such teams may be unbalanced, in that they may be missing key approaches and outlooks.
  • 34. Cont... If the team is unbalanced… 1. Identify any team weakness that is not naturally covered by any of the team members. 2. Identify any potential areas of conflict. For example, too many Shapers can weaken a team if each Shaper wants to pull the team in a different direction.
  • 35. Cont... Once you have identified potential weakness, areas of conflict and missing strengths, consider the options you have to improve and change this. Consider: – Whether an existing team member could compensate by purposefully adopting different a team role. With awareness and intention, this is sometimes possible. – Whether one or more team members could improve how they work together and with others to avoid potential conflict of their natural styles. – Whether new skills need to brought onto the team to cover weaknesses.
  • 36. QUIZ 1. Among teams of people that do the same job, a few team roles often prevail. (circle) True False 2. All these are types of team building theory EXCEPT ………….. (a). Douglas McGregor X and Y theory; (b). Gregor Mendel work Theory (C). Tajfel, Social Identity theory, (d). Tuckman’s theory of group development; and 3. Belbin categorized team roles into three groups: ……….., ………………, and …………. oriented
  • 37. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) was an American psychologist and behavioural scientist who develops a theory of motivation in 1943. Maslow suggested 5 levels of motivation.
  • 38. Philosophical Needs Philosophical needs are those required to sustain life, such as: - Air, Water, Nourishment, Sleep, etc According to Maslow’s theory, if such needs are not satisfied then one’s motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs of basic to one’s bodily functioning.
  • 39. Safety Needs Once philosophical needs are met, ones attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by: Living in a safe area Medical insurance Job security Financial/Reserves According to Maslow’s Hierarchy, if a person feels that he/she is in harm’s way, higher needs will not receive much attention
  • 40. Social Needs Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include: Need of friends Need of belonging Need of give and receive love
  • 41. Esteem Needs Once a person feels a sense of ‘belonging’, the need to feel important arises. Esteem needs may be classified as internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related to self-esteem such as self respect and achievement. External needs are those such as social status and recognition. Some esteem needs are: Self respect; Achievement; Attention; Recognition; Reputation, etc. Maslow later refined his model to include a level between esteem needs and self-actualization: the need for knowledge and aesthetics.
  • 42. Self - Actualization Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. It is the quest of reaching one’s full potential as a person, unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as: Truth; Justice; Wisdom; Meaning, etc. Self-actualized persons have frequencies of peak experiences, which are energised moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization.
  • 43. Implications of Maslow Hierarchy Needs Theory There are some important implications for team building and management. There are opportunities to motivate employees through management style, job design, company events, compensation packages, etc.
  • 44. Cont... Physiological Needs: Provide lunch breaks, tea breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchases the essentials of the life. Safety Needs: Provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security. Social Needs: Create a sense of community via team-based project and social events. Esteem Needs: Recognised achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization: Provide employees a challenge and the opportunities to reach full career potential.
  • 45. QUIZ 1. In what year did Abraham Maslow develop his theory of motivation? (a). 1941 (b). 1942 (c). 1943 (d). 1944 2. …………., ………….., ……………, and …………… are parts of philosophical needs. 3. Esteem needs can be classified as ................... Or .....................
  • 46. John Adair's Action-Centred Leadership John Adair (1934) is one of Britain's foremost authorities on leadership in organizations. Adair approached leadership from a more practical and simple angle; by describing what leaders have to do and the actions they need to take.
  • 47. Cont... John Adair's Action- Centred Leadership model is represented by Adair's 'three circles' diagram, which illustrates Adair's three core management responsibilities.
  • 48. Cont... Adair's theory is more practical and shows that leadership can be taught and that it is a transferable skill. The three circles in Adair's model overlap because:- (a) The task needs a team because one person alone cannot accomplish it. (b) If the team needs are not met the task will suffer and the individuals will not be satisfied. (c)If the individual needs are not met the team will suffer and performance of the task will be impaired.
  • 49. Your Responsibilities as a Leader for Achieving the Task are: identify aims and vision for the group, purpose, and direction - define the activity (the task) identify resources, people, processes, systems and tools (inc. financials, communications, IT) create the plan to achieve the task - deliverables, measures, timescales, strategy and tactics establish responsibilities, objectives, accountabilities and measures, by agreement and delegation set standards, quality, time and reporting parameters control and maintain activities against parameters monitor and maintain overall performance against plan report on progress towards the group's aim review, re-assess, adjust plan, methods and targets as necessary
  • 50. Your Responsibilities as a Leader for the Group are: establish, agree and communicate standards of performance and behaviour establish style, culture, approach of the group - soft skill elements monitor and maintain discipline, ethics, integrity and focus on objectives anticipate and resolve group conflict, struggles or disagreements assess and change as necessary the balance and composition of the group develop team-working, cooperation, morale and team-spirit
  • 51. Cont... develop the collective maturity and capability of the group - progressively increase group freedom and authority encourage the team towards objectives and aims - motivate the group and provide a collective sense of purpose identify, develop and agree team- and project-leadership roles within group enable, facilitate and ensure effective internal and external group communications identify and meet group training needs give feedback to the group on overall progress; consult with, and seek feedback and input from the group
  • 52. Your Responsibilities as a Leader for Each Individual are: understand the team members as individuals - personality, skills, strengths, needs, aims and fears assist and support individuals - plans, problems, challenges, highs and lows identify and agree appropriate individual responsibilities and objectives give recognition and praise to individuals - acknowledge effort and good work where appropriate reward individuals with extra responsibility, advancement and status identify, develop and utilise each individual's capabilities and strengths train and develop individual team members develop individual freedom and authority
  • 53. Adair’s Eight Leadership Functions 1. Defining the task: Using SMART goals (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-Constrained) to set a clear objective. 2. Planning: An open minded, positive and creative search for alternatives. Contingencies should be planned for and plans should be tested. 3. Briefing: Team briefings by the leader are a basic function and essential in order to create the right atmosphere, foster teamwork and motivate each individual. 4. Controlling: Leaders need self-control, good control systems in place and effective delegation and monitoring skills in order to get maximum results from minimum resources.
  • 54. Cont... 5. Evaluating: Assess consequences, evaluate performance, appraise and train individuals. 6. Motivating: Adair identifies eight basic rules for motivating people* in his book Effective Motivation (Guildford: Talbot Adair Press, 1987). Adair also created the 50:50 rule which states that 50% of motivation comes from within a person and 50% from his or her environment and particularly the leadership they encounter. 7. Organising: Good leaders need to be able to organise themselves, their team and their organisation. 8. Setting an example: The best leaders naturally set a good example. If effort needs to be made it will slip and a bad example is noticed more than a good example.
  • 55. QUIZ 1. Adair's 'three circles' diagram represents …………, ………., and …….. management responsibilities. 2. If the team needs are not met the task will suffer and the individuals will be satisfied. (Circle) True False 3. What does the acronym “SMART stand for?
  • 56. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - MBTI The MBTI was developed by Isabel Briggs-Myers (1897 - 1979) and her mother Katherine Cook-Briggs. It is based on the work of Carl Jung and particularly his book Psychological Types. Essentially within the MBTI, there are 16 types and a survey will tell individuals which type they are most like.
  • 57. Myers-Briggs Dichotomies Four dichotomies – Extrovert / Introvert (E/I) – Sensation / Intuition (S/N) – Thinking / Feeling (T/F) – Judging / Perceiving (J/P)
  • 58. 16 Personality Types ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
  • 59. Extroverts & Introverts Extroverts do not know what they are thinking until they say it. As they speak things become clearer to them, so they may change direction as they speak. Introverts, on the other hand, need to think things through. If immediate discussion is throw open to them they become uncomfortable and confused, as they need to go away and consider.
  • 60. Sensors & Intuitives Sensors use specifics such as facts, dates and times. Problem definition is important and they are irritated by vagueness. Intuitive see specifics as limiting and look at the big picture. They may agree with specific details presented by an 'S' but can only understand the 'whole'.
  • 61. Thinkers & Feelers Thinkers will set their emotions to one side so that their feelings will not enter into the logical analysis of a situation. They will not make an immediate decision, preferring to step back from a situation to analyse facts and information. Feelers emphasize the effect the decision will have on people and interpersonal relationships They attend more to human than to technical aspects of problems and value these concerns more than any other type of evidence
  • 62. Judgers & Perceivers Judgers favour exactness. They want to know how long things will take, stay on track and they seek closure. They will make an appointment for 4.30 and arrive at 4.29. Perceivers will put off the final decision for as long as possible. They favour tolerance and open time frames.
  • 63. Extrovert/Introvert at Work Extraverts may see introverts as secretive, unfriendly aloof, self absorbed, slow and awkward – When dealing with Extraverts, allow them to think out loud, use verbal communication, expect action, keep the conversation flowing. Let them work in groups and make oral presentations. Introverts may see extraverts as superficial, too talkative, loose canons, overwhelming, pushy and rude – When dealing with Introverts ask a question and then stop to listen. Give them time to work alone, to finish their sentences, to learn through structure, to reflect, to communicate in writing first.
  • 64. Sensors/Intuitives at Work Sensors can regard intuitives as unrealistic “Space cadets,” new age, careless about details, unrealistic – Work with an intuitive by talking about the big picture, possibilities, implications, analogies, before talking about details. Intuitives can view sensors as resisting new ideas, boring, unimaginative, “old school.” – Work with a sensor by drawing on past proven experience, focus on practical applications, and step by step solutions.
  • 65. Thinkers/Feelers at Work Thinkers may see feelers as illogical, too emotional or trying too hard to please – With thinkers: Be organized, consider cause and effect, pros and cons, focus on consequences, appeal to fairness Feelers may see thinkers as insensitive or distant or self- involved – With feelers: mention points of agreement, focus on their core values, appreciate their contributions, state legitimacy of their feelings, discuss emotional impact of situation
  • 66. Judgers/Perceivers at Work Judgers may view perceivers as wishy-washy procrastinators, unproductive, unreliable, not serious – With judgers: be on time, come with agenda and conclusion, stick to plan, organize Perceivers view judgers as rigid, controlling black and white, stubborn, trigger happy – With perceivers: focus on process, be open to new information, expect questions, allow for discussion
  • 67. QUIZ 1. Which of these is not among Myers-Briggs dichotomies? (a). Extrovert / Introvert (E/I) (b). Sensory / Perception (S/P) (c).Thinking / Feeling (T/F) (d).Judging / Perceiving (J/P) 2. Introverts do not know what they are thinking until they say it. As they speak things become clearer to them, so they may change direction as they speak. (Circle) True False 3. …………. will put off the final decision for as long as possible. (a). Perceivers (b) Thinkers (c) Sensors (d) Feelers
  • 68. X AND Y THEORY Douglas McGregor (1906 – 1964) was a lecturer at Harvard University and became the first Fellow Professor at MIT. He founder of X and Y theory. McGregor's ideas (1960) about managerial behavior had a profound effect on management thinking and practice.
  • 69. X - THEORY Y - THEORY MANGEMENT STAFF THEORYX-AUTHORITARIAN,REPRESSIVE STYLE.TIGHT CONTROL,NO DEVELOPMENT,PRODUCES LIMITED DEPRESSED CULTURE THEORY Y-LIBERATING AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONTROL ACHIEVEMENT AND CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT ACHIEVED BY ENABLING,EMPOWERING AND GIVING RESPONSIBILITY
  • 70. Theory X assumes that: (i) The average person dislikes work and will avoid it unless directly supervised. (ii) Employees must be coerced, controlled and directed to ensure that organisational objectives are met. (iii) The threat of punishment must exist within an organisation. (iv) In fact people prefer to be managed in this way so that they avoid responsibility. (v) Theory X assumes that people are relatively unambitious and their prime driving force is the desire for security.
  • 71. Theory Y assumes that (i) Employees are ambitious, keen to accept greater responsibility and exercise both self-control and direction. (ii) Employees will, in the right conditions, work toward organisational objectives and that commitment will in itself be a reward for so doing. (iii) Employees will exercise their imagination and creativity in their jobs if given the chance and this will give an opportunity for greater productivity. (iv) Theory Y assumes that the average human being will, under the right conditions, not only accept responsibility but also seek more. (v) Lack of ambition and the qualities of Theory X are not inherent human characteristics but learned in working environments that suffocate or do not promote Theory Y behaviours.
  • 72. CHARACTERISTICS OF X THEORY MANAGER  Result-Driven and Deadline-Driven, to the exclusion of everything else.  Issues Deadlines, Ultimatums, Instructions, Directions, Edicts.  Demands, Never asks, Does not participate, Does not team- build.  Short temper, Arrogant, Intolerant.  Unconcerned about staff welfare, or morale.
  • 73. PRACTICAL USE AND EXAMPLES To indicate whether the situation and management style is ‘X’ or ‘Y’: Score the statements (5 = always, 4 = mostly, 3 = often, 2 = occasionally, 1 rarely, 0 = never) 1. My boss asks me politely to do things, gives me reasons why, and invites my suggestions. 2. I am encouraged to learn skills outside of my immediate area of responsibility. 3. I am left to work without interference from my boss, but help is available if I want it. 4. I am given credit and praise when I do good work or put in extra effort. 5. People leaving the company are given an 'exit interview' to hear their views on the organisation. 6. I am incentivised to work hard and well. 7. If I want extra responsibility my boss will find a way to give it to me. 8. If I want extra training my boss will help me find how to get it or will arrange it. 9. I call my boss and my boss's boss by their first names. 10. My boss is available for me to discuss my concerns or worries or suggestions. 11. I know what the company's aims and targets are. 12. I am told how the company is performing on a regular basis. 13. I am given an opportunity to solve problems connected with my work. 14. My boss tells me what is happening in the organisation. 15. I have regular meetings with my boss to discuss how I can improve and develop.
  • 74. PRACTICAL USE AND EXAMPLES Total score: 60-75 = strong Y-theory management (effective short and long term) 45-59 = generally Y-theory management 16-44 = generally X-theory management 0 -15 = strongly X-theory management (autocratic, may be effective short-term, poor long-term)
  • 75. PRACTICAL USE AND EXAMPLES To indicate whether the situation and management style is ‘X’ or ‘Y’: Score the statements (5 = always, 4 = mostly, 3 = often, 2 = occasionally, 1 rarely, 0 = never) 1. My boss asks me politely to do things, gives me reasons why, and invites my suggestions. 2. I am encouraged to learn skills outside of my immediate area of responsibility. 3. I am left to work without interference from my boss, but help is available if I want it. 4. I am given credit and praise when I do good work or put in extra effort. 5. People leaving the company are given an 'exit interview' to hear their views on the organisation. 6. I am incentivised to work hard and well. 7. If I want extra responsibility my boss will find a way to give it to me. 8. If I want extra training my boss will help me find how to get it or will arrange it. 9. I call my boss and my boss's boss by their first names. 10. My boss is available for me to discuss my concerns or worries or suggestions. 11. I know what the company's aims and targets are. 12. I am told how the company is performing on a regular basis. 13. I am given an opportunity to solve problems connected with my work. 14. My boss tells me what is happening in the organisation. 15. I have regular meetings with my boss to discuss how I can improve and develop.
  • 76. PRACTICAL USE AND EXAMPLES Total score 60-75 = strongly prefers Y-theory management 45-59 = generally prefers Y-theory management 16-44 = generally prefers X-theory management 0 -15 = strongly prefers X-theory management
  • 77. QUIZ 1. Theory X assumes that people are relatively ambitious and their prime driving force is the desire for security. (Circle) True False 2. Theory Y assumes that the average human being will, under the right conditions, not only accept responsibility but also seek more. (Circle) True False 3. Which of THESE is not among the characteristics of X Theory manager? (a). Unbothered, Democratic, Never demand (b). Never asks, Does not participate, Does not team-build. (c). Short temper, Arrogant, Intolerant. (d). Unconcerned about staff welfare, or morale.
  • 78. Social Identity theory Social identity theory was developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner in 1979.
  • 79. Defintions In-groups: Groups that we belong to Out-group: Groups that we do not belong to
  • 80. Tajfel proposed that the groups (e.g social class, family, football team, etc) which people belong to were important source of pride and self esteem. Our social identity gives us a sense of belonging to the social world. We tend to favourize our in-group over out-groups E.g. Nigeria has the best football Team in the world! We can also increase our self image by discriminating and holding view against out-group (i.e. the group we don’t belong to). For Ghana, Togo, Cameroun are bunch of losers! Concepts of Social Identity Theory
  • 81. We derive self esteem by positively differentiating our in- group from out-groups (“us” and “them”). Social Identity theory state that the in-group we discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self image. We therefore tend to categorize our social environment into groups. The central hypothesis of social identity theory is that group members of an in-group we seek to find negative aspect of an out-group, thus enhansing their self-image.
  • 82. Social Identity Process They proposed that there are three mental processes involved in evaluating others. 1. Categorization: we categorize object in order to understand them and identify them. Similarly, we categorize people (including ourselves) in order to understand the social environment. We use social categories like Black, White, Christian, Muslim, Student, Bus drivers because they are useful. So if we can assign people to a category then that tells us things about those people. Similarly we can find out things about ourselves by knowing what categories we belong to. The norms of groups also tell us about appropriate behaviours of individuals in the group.
  • 83. Cont... 2. Social identification: We adopt the identity of the group we have categorized ourselves as belonging to.  For example if you have categorized yourself as a student, the chances are, you will adopt the identity of a student and belonging to act in the ways you believe students act (and conform to the norms of the group).  There will be an emotional significance to your identification with a group, and yourself esteem will become bound up with group membership.
  • 84. Cont... 3. Social comparison: Once we have categorized ourselves as part of a group and have identified with that group, we then tend to compare that group with other groups. If our self-esteem is to be maintained our group needs to compare favourably with other groups. If two groups have identify themselves as rivals they are forced to compete in order for the members to maintain their self-esteem.
  • 85. Interpretation The extent to which individuals define themselves as individuals or as group members depends heavily on the politics inherent within their organisational culture. An individual's behaviour and teamwork cannot be predicted solely from their characteristics but is also depend on the social context which determines the belief structures they utilise.
  • 86. Questions for Discussion 1. List all the social categories that you belong to (e.g. Economic Class, Age group, Football Club, Organization, Gender) How many social categories did you come up with? Which of these categories do you identify with the most? 2. Are we more likely to help people who are like us than different from us? 3. Would you rather ask a Nigerian person than a person from Cambodia to watch your luggage at the airport? Why or why not?
  • 87. QUIZ 1. We derive ……… by positively differentiating our in-group from out-groups (a). Self esteem (b). Social identity (c). Social value (d). Mutual recognition 2. In what year did Tajfel and Turner propose Social identity theory? (a). 1976 (b). 1977 (c). 1978 (d). 1979 3. List three mental processes involved in evaluating others: 1.......................... 2................................ 3.................................. 4. According to Social identity theory, we tend to favourize our out-groups over in- groups. (Circle) True False
  • 88. Tuckman’s Theory of Team Development Bruce Tuckman first published this model of team development in 1965. It is effectively a theory of how teams develop from the very start of a project to the end. It describes four main stages, although he added a fifth stage (adjourning) later in his career.
  • 89. Stages of Group Development
  • 90. The Five-Stage Model of Group Development Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Members join and begin the process of defining the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership.
  • 91. Cont... Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Intragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group and disagree over leadership.
  • 92. Cont... Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. Close relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive and establishes its norms for acceptable behavior.
  • 93. Cont... Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. A fully functional group structure allows the group to focus on performing the task at hand.
  • 94. Cont… Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance. This is when the project is complete and the team is ready to disburse. This is an exciting time but a sad one as well. There is a sense of fulfillment and a loss of team unity.
  • 95. QUIZ 1. In what year did Bruce Tuckman first published his model of team development? (a). 1965 (b). 1966 (c). 1967 (d). 1968 2. Which of these is NOT among the Tuckman model stages of group development? (a). Forming Stage (b). Storming Stage (c). Moulding stage (d). Norming Stage 3. Adjourning stage is characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance. (Circle) True False
  • 96. COLOUR WORKS THEORY The Colour Works uses a psychological model of behaviours that helps teams to understand similarities and differences in order to become more effective. How does it work? We are all made up of 4 distinct colour energies of behaviour, each of which has distinct characteristics.
  • 97. The Colour Works Wheel The order and intensity of your colour preferences places you on a 72- type wheel, made up of 8 archetypes, as follows:
  • 98. Cont... Each with its own attributes, style, needs and frustrations. The rest of your team can be plotted on the same wheel, allowing possible gaps in performance and difficult relationships to be understood and worked on.
  • 99. Cont... (i) The Director: - Has the ability to focus on results. - They decide what they want from life and set a strategy to achieve it. - They naturally push themselves and others to achieve goals. - They are not put off by setbacks. (ii) The Motivator: - Has enormous enthusiasm that he spreads to those around them. - Their drive to succeed gives them a high level of motivation to achieve their dreams. - They are not easily put off and find it easy to think positively about every situation.
  • 100. (iii) The Inspirer: - Has well-developed people skills and has a constant need to enjoy interactions with others. - They are persuasive and their quick minds produce creative solutions to others' problems. (iv) The Helper: - Has a genuine desire to help others and put their needs first. -- This makes them flexible and adaptable with a natural ability to share ideas and knowledge. (v) The Supporter: - Has a true team approach. - Their expert listening skills can uncover others' true needs - They are loyal to both their colleagues and their organisation. (vi)The Co-Ordinator: - Can pull all the loose ends together to organise themselves and others in a structured approach. - Their planning and time management skills make them thorough and reliable.
  • 101. (vii) The Observer: - Can write the book on product knowledge required for their job. - They provide the facts that are needed to make decision, - They set the standards for others, analyse and collect the data. (viii) The Reformer: - Has a natural desire to monitor and judge performance. - Their own approach is disciplined and logical and they back this up with a determination to succeed.
  • 102. QUIZ 1. The order and intensity of your colour preferences places you on a 72-type wheel, made up of ……. Arche types (a). 6 (b). 7 (c). 8 (d). 9 2. ………. Whose approach is disciplined and logical has a natural desire to monitor and judge performance. (a). The Motivator (b). The Director (c). The Inspirer (d). The Reformer 3. The Co-Ordinator pulls all the loose ends together to organize themselves and others in a structured approach. (Circle) True False
  • 103. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING, MAY ALMIGHTY GOD BLESS YOU ALL, AMEN