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Multilingual sites in Drupal 7: New features, new possibilities

Multilingual sites in Drupal 7: New features, new possibilities
by Grigory Naumovets
(A presentation ar DrupalCamp Kyiv, June 3-4, 2011)

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  • 1. Multilingual sites in Drupal 7: New features, new possibilities Grigory Naumovets Kiev, Ukraine
  • 2. Outline
    • Support of multilingual content in Drupal: an overview
    • New multilingual features in D7 core
    • New multilingual features in D7 versions of contributed modules (i18n etc.)
    • Summary of most important improvements in multilingual functionality
    • Problems and prospects
  • 3. It’s a followup presentation to:
    • Multilingual sites in Drupal : Problems, solutions, workarounds, and “goodness on the way”
    • (DrupalCamp Kyiv 2009)
    • www.slideshare.net/Tinnka/multilanguage-drupal
    • gn.org.ua/drupal/presentations/DrupalCamp_2009-2010
    • 2009 ----> 2011:
    • Has anything essential changed with the release of Drupal 7?
    • Is “multilingual goodness” already approaching, or still on the way?
  • 4. What is ”i18n” and ”L10n”?
    • i nternationalizatio n  i18n
    18 letters omitted 10 letters omitted L ocalizatio n  L10n These abbreviations are used in the names of Drupal modules, such as “i18n” or “L10n_client”
  • 5. If Drupal nodes were designed as multilingual from the very beginning …
    • node/1
    • (multilingual)
    Title (lang1) Title (lang2) Body (lang1) Body (lang2) Some field (lang1) Some field (lang2) Another field (language-neutral) Some file attached (lang1) Some file attached (lang2) Another file attached (language-neutral) comments
  • 6. However, Drupal nodes are unilingual . i18n is an external feature.
    • node/1 (unilingual) lang1
    Some file attached Another file attached node/2 (unilingual) lang2 Some file attached Another file attached Drupal i18n system: I hereby declare node/1 and node/2 to be translations of each other comments comments Title Body Some field Another field Title Body Some field Another field
  • 7. Multilanguage: inside or outside?
    • Two possible approaches to i18n:
    • Multilingual features inside an object
    • Unilingual object, multilanguage features are applied from outside as a system of connections to other objects
    • “ Object” can be a node, a block, a taxonomy term, a menu, a menu item, and so on.
  • 8. Inside vs outside
    • Drupal uses both approaches (depending on the object type), so improvements of multilang support proceed in two ways:
      • Making objects “more multilingual”
      • Improving the system of i18n-related connections between unilingual objects
    • Each approach has its advantages and difficulties
    • Until recently, approach to nodes was only “from outside”
    • Some problems caused by this approach will be demonstrated below
  • 9. No field-level language attributes: Why it can be a problem? Example 1
    • node/1 lang1
    Image field node/2 lang2 Image field translation synchronization Title Body Title Body
  • 10. No field-level language attributes: Why it can be a problem? Example 2
    • You need to synchronize nodereferences
    • (i18nsync)
    node/3 (en) event info node/4 (ru) event info node/1 (en) location info node/2 (ru) location info translation translation nodereference nodereference
  • 11. Problem with multilingual views based on nodereference
    • ru/events/by-location/ Распределение со бытий по месту проведения:
      • Киев (6)
      • Кишинёв (4)
    ru/events/by-location/37 Список событий в Кишинёве
    • en/events/by-location/ Events grouped by locations :
      • Kiev (6)
      • Chişinău (4)
    en/events/by-location/36 List of events in Chişinău “ Chişinău ” (node/36) and “ Кишинёв ” (node/37) are different nodes, so when you switch language EN -> RU while viewing the “ List of events in Chişinău ” you will see an empty list instead of “ Список событий в Кишинёве ” . en  ru en  ru
  • 12. Inside vs outside
    • However, the “outside” approach can have some advantages, too
      • It can be simpler to do or maintain
      • It can utilize such node-level things as access permissions for nodes having certain attributes (e.g. when you have different people working with nodes in different languages), and so on
    • It’s highly desirable to have both possibilities, and choose between them depending on the specific situation.
  • 13. Now, let us look at the D7 core
    • Modules included in D7 core (same as for D6):
      • Content Translation
      • Locale
    • ( disabled by default )
  • 14. Site configuration settings: “ Regional and Language ” section
    • Available after enabling the “ Locale ” module
  • 15. Regional settings
    • New in D7:
    • Now you can set “Default country” (to be used by contributed modules)
    • More intelligent time zone handling (with PHP 5.2+ DateTime objects )
  • 16. Date and time settings
    • More control over date and time format
  • 17. Configuration of Languages: Detection and selection
    • New in D7:
    • Finer control over language detection and selection
    • We can set order of priorities
  • 18. Interface translation
    • New in D7:
    • Improved user interface
    • Support for context
  • 19. Contexts are intended for per-meaning translatability Context: “May” as Long month name ( not “may be”) Context is a new feature; guidelines still need to be developed. So far, used inconsistently. Not supported by Javascript menu items and strings.
  • 20. Localization auto-update
    • Localization update module by Jose Reyero ( L10n_update )
    • Works similarly to Drupal core update module
    • Downloads translation updates from localize.drupal.org (or from custom depository)
    • Available both for D7 and D6 (v. 7.x-1.0-beta2 and 6.x-1.0-beta1 of 2011-May-31 )
  • 21. “ Cheat sheets” for localizers (“ шпаргалки ”)
    • Drupal 7 localization cheat sheet Drupal 6 localization cheat sheet by Gábor Hojtsy hojtsy.hu/files/Drupal7TranslationCheatSheetv2.pdf hojtsy.hu/files/Drupal6TranslationCheatSheetv2.pdf
  • 22. Now about content translation Enable multilingual support in content type properties: Looking for this in “Publishing options” is not really obvious
  • 23. Now we can control ‘ node.language ’ attribute for nodes of this content type
    • By default, a new node is Language neutral
    New in D7: For language-neutral nodes, database field node.language = ‘und’ ‘ und’ means ‘undetermined’ in compliance with ISO 639
  • 24. Node translation (same as in D6)
    • “ Translate ” tab is seen when:
    • This content type has multilingual support “ Enabled, with translation ”
    • This node is NOT language neutral
    • User is permitted to translate content
  • 25. “ Translation set” (same as in D6)
    • ‘ tnid ’ – translation set id
    • is shared by all nodes in a translation set
    • is equal to ‘nid’ of the base node
    node/1 Base node node.nid=1 node.language=‘ en ’ node.tnid= 1 node/2 Translated node node.nid=2 node.language=‘ uk ’ node.tnid= 1 node/3 Translated node node.nid=3 node.language=‘ ru ’ node.tnid= 1
  • 26. And now something really new… We need to use some contributed modules However, D7 has NO built-in interface for translatable fields  D7 core has built-in support for field languages!!! (via its new Field API) 
  • 27. Entity_translation module
    • Can be used to translate fields
    New item in “Regional and language settings” – “Entity translation”
  • 28. Entity translation
    • Field settings: “Users may translate this field”
    New option for multilingual support in content type properties
  • 29. Single node with multilingual body and other fields: wow, it [almost] works!
    • Node title is a different kind of field and cannot be translated this way!!!
    example.com/uk/node/1 example.com/node/1
  • 30. ‘ Title’ module: replace node title with a regular field
  • 31. Single node with multilingual body and other fields: now the title can be translated, too!
    • Node title is now replaced with a regular field using ‘Title’ module
    example.com/uk/node/1 example.com/node/1
  • 32. Entity_translation + Title: is this already the “multilingual field goodness”?
    • These modules are very recent, still at the ‘dev’ stage (v. 7.x-1.x-dev )
    • As of June 2, 2011,
      • 130 sites currently report using ‘Entity_translation’
      • 59 sites currently report using ‘Title’
    • Still quite a lot of todo’s
    • We need to test its interactions with views. taxonomy, paths, and so on.
  • 33. Now about the i18n.module
    • Q: Can I build a multilingual site using only the core D7 functionality?
    • A: A very simple site – yes, but for more complex things you’ll need the i18n.module. i18n helps you handle multilingual blocks, menus, views, synchronization of items between nodes, and so on.
  • 34. Enabling multilingual variables in i18n/D6: add their names ( site_name , site_footer , theme_settings , etc.) to the settings.php file $conf['i18n_variables'] = array( // Site name, slogan, mission, etc.. 'site_name', 'site_slogan', 'site_mission', 'site_footer', 'anonymous', // Different front page for each language 'site_frontpage', // Primary and secondary links 'menu_primary_links_source', 'menu_secondary_links_source', // Contact form information 'contact_form_information', // For theme variables, read more below 'theme_settings', 'theme_garland_settings', );
  • 35. i18n/D7 does not work this way anymore Now multilingual variables are controlled via “Multilingial settings – Variables” menu (Depends on the new variable.module )
  • 36. Multilingual variables A very convenient link to switch languages (especially if there is no language switcher in the admin theme)
  • 37. New in D7 and important: Translation set API
    • (i18n_translation.module)
    • Now we can create translation sets not only for nodes, but for other things, too:
      • taxonomy terms
      • menu items
      • paths
    • Not implemented yet for blocks
  • 38. Taxonomy terms Connect different terms as translations of each other: This option was available in D6, too – but it did not really work. Now (I hope) it should!
  • 39. New: Path translation (i18n_path.module)
    • Intended for translation of generic paths that don't have other way of being translated.
    • From any of these pages, the language switcher will point to the other path for each language.
    • Note: path translations must be defined without aliases.
  • 40. Menu translation
    • Thanks to Translation set API, now we can translate menu items pointing to specific nodes, e.g.: (en) -> node/1 (uk) -> node/2
  • 41. Blocks
    • Translation sets not working for Blocks yet(?)
    • Improved UI and visibility options
    • Block can be translated via string translation
  • 42. Other improvements in i18n
    • More options and improved UI for content selection and filtering by language
    • More items can be synchronized between translation set nodes (because more items are available as Fields)
    • Translation redirect (i18n_redirect.module): redirect to translated path when available (SEO optimization)
    • Contact form translation (i18n_contact.module) – recently added
  • 43. Berlin Internationalization sprint (May 11-15, 2011)
    • i18nsprint.drupalevents.de
    • reyero.net/en/drupal/berlin_internationalization_sprint : “ How i18n got some fresh blood and a sexy facelift ”
    • i18n 7.x-1.0-beta6 (May 24, 2011) includes improvements from Berlin i18n sprint. New features:
      • Consistent translation tabs for objects
      • Contact form translation
  • 44. Summary of most important changes in D7 and i18n/D7
    • D7:
      • Translation of fields within a node (no built-in UI yet, available via recently contributed modules)
    • i18n/D7:
      • Translation sets (connecting taxonomy terms, menu items, paths, etc.)
    • Plus lots of less important improvements in UI, content selection and filtering, etc.
  • 45. References
    • Drupal 7's new multilingual systems compilation by Gábor Hojtsy hojtsy.hu/multilingual-drupal7
    • Drupal 7 Multilingual: What is new in i18n by Suzanne Kennedy evolvingweb.ca/story/drupal-7-multilingual-whats-new-i18n
    • Multilanguage for Drupal 7: Internationalization module (i18n beta1) by Jose Reyero reyero.net/en/drupal/drupal7_i18n_beta1_overview
    • Content Translation (field translation) in Drupal 7: First steps by Randy Fay (read discussions in the comments, too!) randyfay.com/node/88
  • 46. Questions?
    • Contacts:
    • http://camp11.drupal.ua/users/GN
    • [email_address]
    • http://gn.org.ua/feedback