Outline What is Localization? ◦ Localization (L10N) vs. Translation ◦ Internationalization (I18N) ◦ Globalization ◦ Localization History Why Localization? Localization Tools Localization Project Workflow ◦ Major milestones ◦ People Involved ◦ Software Localization ◦ Documentation Localization
Localization vs. Translation LOCALIZATION (L10N ) is the adaptation of a product to a new language and culture. A localized program should be indistinguishable from a program written by members of that culture TRANSLATION is the simple changing of words and phrases from one language to another. It does NOT take into account, the cultural differences between the people and the countries of the source and target languages. Example: ◦ English: President Barack Obama approved the budget of ten million dollars for the celebrations of the 4th of July in Washington DC. ◦ French Translation: Le président Barack Obama a approuvé le budget de 10 millions de dollars pour les festivités du 4 juillet à Washington. ◦ French Localization: Le président Nicolas Sarcozy a approuvé le budget de 7 millions d’Euros pour les festivités du 14 juillet à Paris.
Internationalization INTERNATIONALIZATION (I18N) is a process of generalizing a product so that it can handle multiple languages and cultural conventions without redesign. During this process, linguistic and cultural elements are isolated from the code. Things to consider: ◦ Country-specific institutions : date/time format, holidays, telephone and address format, measuring units, paper sizes, default font selection, case differences, word separation and hyphenation, taxes, etc. ◦ Graphics and graphical symbols such as money ($, €, £,¥) ◦ Text expansion: number and length of words, sentence structure and punctuation. ◦ Character sets and fonts ◦ Terminology, abbreviations, acronyms, and jargon. ◦ Lists and Indexes (sorting/alphabetizing) ◦ Software: GUI (e.g use of color) and text ◦ Documentation: concise, clear, no slang or jargon, no culture-specific examples
Globalization = I18N + n x L10N The greater the level of effort spent on internationalization, the lesser the effort spent on localization.
Localization History Started in 1980s Introduction of desktop computers -> need for localized software More than just translation: project management involving translators, editors, proofreaders. New technologies : Computer-Aided Translation (CAT) and Translation Memory (TM) tools 1990s – Consolidation of the Localization Industry ◦ More localization service providers ◦ Emergence of a relatively standard production outsourcing framework. ◦ Further professionalization : industry organizations, conferences, publications, academic interest and generally increased visibility.
Why Localize? Some facts: English speakers : only ¼ of the world population (some level of competence). Nearly 5 billion people are unreachable without translation More non-English speakers use localized software. Most software users expect their software to be written in their own language. US software dominates the world market : about 80% of software is localized from English into other languages Typical localization priorities: FIGS (French, Italian, German, Spanish) and Japanese. Why localization is needed? ◦ Increase Revenue ◦ Engage customers more effectively ◦ Maintain global brand recognition
How to localize? Localization Tools Computer-Aided Translation (CAT) tools ◦ Segmentize the text into sentences ◦ Present the text in a convenient way to a translator ◦ Save the translation together with the source text in the Translation Memory (TM) ◦ Reuse of the Translation Memory in future translations ◦ Fuzzy Search: can find segments which do not match 100 %. ◦ Terminology Glossary lookup Importance of using the CAT Tools ◦ Translation consistency and uniformity in terms usage ◦ Saving localization costs: repetitions are charged less then new strings ◦ Saving time
Localization Project Components LOCALIZATION PROJECT SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION HELP Program Files PDF Web Help Sample Files Tutorials Demos DecemberDecember 26, 2009 26, 2009
Localization Project: Major Milestones Project Initiation: ◦ Pre-Sales: a request for localization comes from Sales/Operations ◦ Analysis of Source Material: what files should be translated ◦ Scheduling and Budgeting: L10N PM asks for detailed quotes from several localization vendors (costs, schedule, work to be done, deliverables) ◦ Kick-Off: L10N PM organizes a kick-off meeting with the L10N vendor ◦ Terminology Setup: prepare a Glossary of special terms used in your industry. ◦ Preparation of Source Material : prepare a L10N Kit (localizable files, detailed explanation, required deliverables) Translation ◦ Translation of Software ◦ Translation of Online Help and Documentation Engineering and Testing the Software Screen captures Help Engineering and Desktop Publishing (DTP) of Documentation Product QA and Delivery Project Closure