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The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements
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The Fundamentals of Nutrition & Compound Movements

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  • 1. The Fundamentals of Nutrition and Compound Movements Sponsored by:
  • 2. Speakers Lynn Clay Nutrition Consultant & published author BJ Rule and Tommy Matthews Directors of Optimal Life Fitness. Trainer education providers
  • 3. Agenda
    • The importance of Nutrition in the Fitness Setting
    • The importance of Resistance training as a mode of exercise in health and fitness
    • Nutrition for the active male/female
    • Break – 11.45am – 12 midday
    •  
    • Weight management, effective dieting and goal setting
    • Losing Body Fat and the role of resistance training
    •  
    • 1pm – 1.45pm Lunch
    •  
    • Nutrition for increasing lean muscle
    • Resistance Training for Increasing muscle mass
    • Break – 2.30pm – 2.45pm
    •  
    • Nutrition for Performance
    • CV Fitness/Sports Specific strength and conditioning
    •  
    • 3.45 – 5pm – Workshop and summaries.
  • 4. The Importance of Nutrition in the Fitness Setting?
    • Members / Clients desire for body transformation & improved health / fitness
        • Obesity prevalence / trends
        • Causes of excess weight
        • Nutrition, Exercise & Health
    • Benefits to the personal trainer / Health Club / Organisation
        • A well balanced diet leads to improved energy and faster results
        • Improved Client / Membership retention
        • Opportunities for additional areas of secondary income / spend
        • Improved Job satisfaction / motivation levels
  • 5. The Backdrop – obesity prevalence / trends (Apologies to Darwin)
    • Definition of obesity
    • Body Mass Index >30 kg/m 2
    • where BMI = Weight (kg) / Height (m) 2
    • Overweight defined as BMI >25 kg/m 2
    Number of obese still rising
  • 6. Obesity in Britain (Health Survey for England 2006)
    • Over 1 in 5 adults is obese (BMI>30)
    • 24% for both men and women
    • The number has tripled over the last 20 years
    • Nearly two-thirds of men and over half of women are overweight or obese (BMI>25)
    • 67% of men, 56% of women
    • Foresight project (2008) predicts that 60% of UK adults could be obese by 2050
  • 7. Obesity in Britain (NAO report, January 2001)
    • 4 most common problems linked to obesity
          • cardiovascular disease
          • type 2 diabetes
          • hypertension
          • osteoarthritis
    • Both Nutrition & Exercise can play a role in reducing incidence
  • 8. Trends 1950 – 1990 in dietary intake and inactivity indicators in relationship to obesity in Britain (Prentice & Jebb, 1995) Obesity – gluttony or sloth?
  • 9. Calories no longer used after 50 years of labour-saving devices Costain 2003 Weekly Activity 1950s/2000s Shopping on foot /car, supermarket trolley 2400 /276 Washing clothes by hand /machine 1500 /270 Making coal fire /lighting gas fire 1300 /~0 Making beds with blankets /duvet 575 /300 Per hour Mowing lawn by hand /machine mower 500 /180 Driving without /with power steering 96 /75
  • 10. Is energy intake increasing or activity decreasing?
    • Female Students 1988 2003
    • rates of overweight: 15% 34%
    • physical activity (PAL= 1.64): no change
    • energy intake: increased
    • fat% decreased
    • CHO% increased
    • protein% increased
    • Warwick PM & Reid J British Journal of Nutrition
    • (2004), 92, 679–688
  • 11. Other goals?
    • Increase muscle
        • Calories, protein, hormonal balance
    • Improve performance
        • Fuel , recovery, immunity
    • Improve health
        • Dietary balance
        • Fibre
        • Fat intake
  • 12. Benefits to the personal trainer / Health Club / Organisation
    • A well balanced diet leads to improved energy and faster results
        • This impacts on Client / Membership retention
    • Opportunities for additional areas of secondary income / spend
        • Sports Nutrition Market size - £462m
        • Delivering the nutritional needs
    • Combination of good advice and convenient products
        • Results come more easily
        • Improved Job satisfaction / motivation levels / success
  • 13. The Importance of Resistance Training as a mode of exercise in Health and Fitness
    • Resistance training is the most important mode of training as we are constantly living against resistance- gravity.
    • Resistance training develops our musculoskeletal system.
    • Our musculoskeletal system houses our CNS, PNS, internal organs and tissue. It is the framework and structure that allows us to function and live.
    • Benefits of resistance training:
      • Improved posture, structure, performance, strength, speed, power, range of movement, lean muscle mass and coordination.
    • The benefits of resistance training occur as it :
      • Stimulates bone formation,
      • stimulates muscular adaptations,
      • stimulates connective tissue adaptations
  • 14. The importance of stimulating bone formation
    • Ageing population
    • In the UK‚ in 2005‚ estimates based on the 2001 Census of Population‚ there were more than 11 million people of state pension age and over (11‚244‚000)- Age Concern
    • Female clients: Osteoarthritis, osteoporosis,
    • Force absorption and projection
    • Stronger structure
    • Stimulating Bone Formation
          • - Use exercises that directly load the skeleton
          • - Use compound exercises that direct forces through the spine and hip, and allow greater loads to be lifted
          • - Overload the musculoskeletal system, and progressively increase the load as the tissues adapt.
          • - Vary exercise selection, changing distribution of force to continually present new stimulus
          • The exercises selected should be structural and weight bearing. (Baechle and Earle)
  • 15. Importance of Stimulating Muscle Adaptations
    • Increased Strength- function, structure, posture
    • Increased Muscle Mass- function, aesthetics, metabolic effects
        • - Stimulating Muscle Adaptations
          • o For Strength
            •  High loads, few repetitions, full recovery periods
          • o For Muscle Size
            •  Moderate loads, high volume, short to moderate rest periods
          • o For Muscular Endurance
            •  Low intensity, high volume, little recovery allowed
  • 16. Importance of Stimulating Connective Tissue Adaptations
    • Resistance to injuries
    • Improved joint integrity
    • Stimulating Connective Tissue Adaptations
          • Tendons, Ligaments, Fascia
            • High- intensity loading results in a net growth of the involved connective tissues
          • Cartilage
            • Weight- bearing forces and complete movement throughout the range of motion are essential to maintaining tissue viability
            • Strenuous exercise does not appear to cause degenerative joint disease
  • 17. Types of Resistance Training
    • Types of Resistance Training (It’s about the body and not the weight, cause and effect):
    • Body weight - “if you cannot perform body-weight exercises such as push ups, chins and dips, then you are not functionally strong and may be more likely to be injured.” Mike Boyle
    • Free Weights:
        • - Barbells
        • - Dumbbells
        • - Kettlebells
        • - Cables
    • Implements:
        • - Bands, tubing, chains
        • - Medicine balls
        • - Clubs, Hammers
        • - Kegs, tyres
        • Sand bags
    • Machines
  • 18. Exercise Selection
    • Movements not muscles
    • Primal Patterns (Paul Chek)
    • - Squat, bend, lunge, push, pull, rotation, locomotion
    • - Hybrids, combinations
    • Training Function
        • Standing on own two feet, supporting own body weight
        • Planes of movement: Sagital, Frontal, Transverse
        • PLAY!!!
  • 19. Free weights vs... machines
    • Commercial interests are often at stake where machines are concerned.
    • No argument from a movement or functional point of view.
    • The biggest argument for machines is that they are often ‘safer’.
    • Machines that only have moderate ranges of adjustment for the average individual and limited planes of movement should really be questioned about safety.
    • Points about machines:
        • Exacerbation of postural positions- flexor chain dominance.
        • Fixed axis, fixed levers and movement planes
        • Faulty movement planes- about the weight not the movement
        • Isolate Joints- muscles not movements
    • Machines: Space and cost
  • 20. Compound versus Isolation
    • Benefits of compound exercises over isolation :
        • Greater motor unit recruitment (most bang for buck!)
        • Increased hormone secretion
        • Improved overall strength and function
        • Increased lean muscle mass
        • Improved bone and connective tissue strength
        • Higher Metabolic cost (Fitness and Fat burning abilities)
        • Time effective
  • 21. Gyms of the past, present and future
    • Gyms of the:
    • past (physical culture centres)
    • present
    • (machine laden commercial gym)
    • future
    • (pt studios/ cross fit/ move it space)
    • What it means to:
        • Trainers
        • Fitness Managers
        • Gym managers/ Owners
  • 22. Nutrition for the active male/female
    • Basic dietary needs
      • Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals
          • Role and requirement
      • The Glycemic Index and it’s value
      • Supplements and their role in the diet
  • 23. Basic dietary needs
  • 24. Basic concepts… Nutrients Macro-nutrients Micro-nutrients Food Groups Food
  • 25. Basic concepts… Nutrients Macro-nutrients Micro-nutrients Food Food Groups Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Sugars& Starches Fibres Vitamins Minerals
  • 26. Energy and Calories =Kcal Food= Proteins Carbs Fats Alcohol 1g 1 2 3 4 kcal 1 2 3 4 kcal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 kcal 9 kcal
  • 27. Basic concepts… Macro-Nutrients Micro-Nutrients Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Vitamins Minerals Sugar & Starch Fibres Proteins 1g 4 kcal
  • 28. Proteins Essential AA=9 Not produced in body ->DIET Non essential AA=11 Produced in the body Proteins combination of AA Amino acids 20 different “Building Blocks”
  • 29. General model for protein metabolism and turnover
  • 30. Proteins 10-15% Energy daily requirement* 0.8g per kg/bw (inactive) 1-2g per kg/bw (active) Cells Muscles Organs Blood Nervous system Bones *Depends on Metabolic Demands, Pregnancy, lactation, growth, goals.
  • 31. Lean Protein Portions
    • Proteins (foods containing 20g lean protein)
    • Turkey / Chicken 75g 1 breast
    • Grilled Fish (White) 100g 1 fillet
    • Salmon/Tuna 100g 1 small tin
    • Eggs whole 150g 3 medium
    • Egg whites 180g 5 large
    • Cottage cheese (low fat) 150g 4 tablespoons
    • Milk – skimmed/semi-skimmed 600ml 1 pint
    • 1 serving whey protein isolate 30g 1 scoop
    • Kidney beans 230g
    • Tofu 220g
    • Chickpeas 100g
    • Quorn 140g
    • Adding protein to a meal increases feelings of fullness and lowers the GI of the food ingested.
  • 32. Carbohydrates Sugars & Starches Fibres Macro-Nutrients Micro-Nutrients Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Vitamins Minerals Carbs 1g 4 kcal
  • 33. Digestible Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Sugars & Starch Can your body digest? Yes No Fibres
  • 34. Carbohydrates ~45-65% daily requirement
  • 35. Non-Digestible Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Sugars & Starch Can your body digest? Yes No Fibres
  • 36. Non-Digestible Carbohydrates Non digestible carbs Soluble fibres Insoluble fibres Fruits, Oats, barley, vegetables Wheat, vegetables, many grain products -Affect Glucose and Fat absorption -Positive effect on gut health -Effect on hunger feeling 25g/ day
    • Mechanical/Bulking effect
    • Aid intestinal transit
  • 37. Glycemic Index (GI) Fruit & Vegetables Wholegrains Oats (rolled) Milk Nuts Wheat bread Rye bread Millet Couscous Corn flakes Baked potato White rice White bread Croissant Chips Cakes GI Hungry feeling & blood sugar levels <55 56-69 >70 100 Sweets Fruit & Vegetables Wholegrains Oats (rolled) Milk Nuts
  • 38. Lipids (Fats) Macro-Nutrients Micro-Nutrients Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Vitamins Minerals Sugars Fibres Fats 1g 9 kcal
  • 39. Why are Fats important? Fats fatty acids Vitamin carriers Cell membrane Energy Source Metabolism Signaling
  • 40. Fats or Lipids 25-30% daily requirement
  • 41. Types of Fats Fats Mono-unsaturated, MUFA Poly-unsaturated, PUFA Saturated
  • 42. Essential Fatty Acids Fats Mono-unsaturated, MUFA Poly-unsaturated, PUFA Omega-3 Omega-6 Saturated
    •  Cholesterol level in blood
    •  Risk cardiovascular diseases
    •  Cholesterol level in blood
    •  Risk cardiovascular diseases
  • 43. Trans Fatty Acids (TFA) Fats Saturated
    • Some are TRANS FATTY ACIDS
    Partial hydrogenation (Industrial Process)
  • 44. Basic Concepts: Micronutrients Macro-Nutrients Micro-Nutrients Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Vitamins Minerals Sugars Fibres
  • 45. Should we recommend supplements?
    • The Role of Supplements:
    • To make up for deficiencies - activity increases demand for nutrients
    • To provide convenient ways to maintain correct dietary practices
    • To improve the speed at which exercisers obtain results
    • To allow individuals to increase exercise load
  • 46. Weight management / effective dieting and goal setting
      • Balancing the diet for weight loss
        • Calculating calorie needs (BMR + AMR calculations)
        • Appetite regulation, satiety and their importance in long term dietary success
        • Blood sugar regulation, energy and diet compliance
        • Micronutrients in fruits & vegetables - how to promote 5 a day
  • 47. Calorie Needs (energy requirement) 1. B asal metabolism BMR prediction equations: wt, age & sex e.g. 70kg female, age 18-30. BMR = 14.97x 70 +496=1543 kcals % Total Biosynthesis 40 protein, fat, glucose, urea active transport 38 sodium pump in nerves and all cells mechanical work (e.g. heart, gut) 22 2. All other output Physical Activity Level, PAL vs Quotient,PAQ PAL values (populations) in relation to overall physical activity (occupation and leisure). Light moderate vigorous 1.4-1.7 1.7-1.99 2-2.4 PAQ values (individual) are more accurate Energy requirement = energy expenditure = BMR x PAQ Weight loss requires an energy deficit Handout 1
  • 48. Food intake regulation: hunger and satiety
    • Inhibition of excitatory stimuli
    • Suppression of pleasant feelings
    • Gastric distension/delayed emptying
    • Satiety
    • Eating behaviour
    • sociocultural, economic, behavioural factors.
    • desire for variety: food cravings
    • Physiology
    • Smell, sight, gastric contractions
    • Hunger:
    Meal termination Meal initiation Food intake Grehlin Secretion Leptin secretion by fat cells
  • 49. Why isn’t everyone obese! Energy intake Precise regulation Energy expenditure
    • Over a 10 yr period = 30lb weight gain
    ± 1 biscuit or1/2 apple/d!
  • 50. Factors that induce satiety/ control hunger
    • Hydration
      • Daily drinking + match needs around exercise
    • Speed of eating
      • Satiation signals noticed earlier
    • Meal timing
      • Blood sugar control
    • Combination of nutrients
      • Protein
      • Fibre
      • Low G I Carbohydrate
  • 51. Blood Sugar response to meal mix and regularity
  • 52. Meal Balance
    • Calories should be divided over meal sittings to provide more practical information. Even then, for some it is not practical to count calories to organise our food. Practical measures of intake therefore offer a more useful guide for balancing a meal.
  • 53. Meal Regularity
    • Why you shouldn’t skip meals
      • A greater number of eating episodes per day is correlated with lower risk of obesity
      • - Any time you skip a meal your body goes into fasting mode. As fasting continues:
  • 54. Benefits of small regular meals Lower risk of obesity
  • 55. Supplements for Fat Loss
    • Start with calorie need
    • Balance meals across the day
      • Is this achievable?
      • Where is it difficult?
      • Bridge the gaps
    • Accelerate results
      • Increase cardio
      • Integrate resistance work to increase BMR
      • Add foods/ingredients to increase thermic effect
  • 56. Whey protein
    • Derived from Milk
      • Separated in the cheese making process and refined
      • Many grades of Whey protein exist
    • A Complete protein
    • Boosts Immune System
    • Fills you up for longer
    • Convenient
  • 57. Increasing the thermic effect
    • Include Protein (increases metabolic rate more than carb or fat after a meal).
    • Eat small regular meals.
    • Including heat producing foods can have an additional effect on calories burned in the period after a meal
      • Check that your client is not caffeine sensitive when recommending any products containing caffeine
  • 58. Example Menu CARB PROTEIN VITS/MINS/FIBRE Breakfast Porridge Semi-skimmed milk Berries Mid-Morning Fruit Promax / Promax Diet Fruit Lunch Wholemeal pasta Chicken breast Roasted veg Mid-afternoon/post training Fruit Promax/Promax Diet/ Bar Fruit Dinner Wholemeal rice Salmon fillet Vegetables
  • 59. Goal setting, organisation and monitoring of results
    • Set short, medium and long term goals that are realistic.
    • Create a ‘negative list’ too.
      • Goals....lose 8lbs in 4 weeks; improve energy; feel confident
      • If I don’t stick to the plan I will....remain overweight; be at higher health risk; feel unhealthy and lethargic.
    • Get your client organised – menu’s / shopping list / supplements
    • Monitoring – book your client in for regular (4 weekly) updates and ask to record their intake in a food diary (and exercise).
    • Build in a re-feed day once a week – this assists with diet compliance and stimulates the metabolism too.
  • 60. Losing body fat and the role of resistance training
        • Why it’s important for gyms, trainers and clients to understand
        • Obesity epidemic, fatter society
          • in 2006, 24 per cent of adults (aged 16 or over) in England were classified as obese. This represents an overall increase from 15 per cent in 1993. NHS
        • Current trends, debunking myths
          • Fat Burning Zones 60% maximum HR
          • Steady state training
          • Fasted CV
  • 61. Hierarchy of fat loss (Alwyn Cosgrove)
        • Increase Lean muscle mass
            • Metabolism
        • Intervals/ metabolic training
            • Up to 48hrs and in some cases 72hrs post exercise
        • Steady state exercise
            • Moderate level fat primary fuel
        • Fasted exercise
            • Upon waking. Low enough levels (below 60%) to utilise fat as fuel
        • NEPA- non, exercise, physical activity
        • Nutrition- crucially important
  • 62. Fat loss a different approach
        • HIIT
          • Hi Intensity Interval Training. Tabata’s anyone?
        • Metabolic Training
          • Training to raise metabolic rate as high as possible
            • Kettlebells
        • IWT- interval weight training
        • Circuits- weighted circuits
          • Supersets, hybrids, complexes, weighted/ bw, upper lower
        • Repetition or time?
  • 63. Ideal fat loss scenario Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Resistance Training HIIT Resistance Training HIIT Resistance Training Steady State Fasted CV Fasted CV Fasted CV
  • 64. Nutrition for increasing lean muscle
      • Calorie requirements
      • The role of protein in muscle growth
      • Providing an optimal environment for muscle growth
      • Monitoring results.
  • 65. Calorie Needs (energy requirement) 2. All other output Physical Activity Quotient 1807 x 1.625 = 1740 Energy requirement = energy expenditure = BMR x PAQ Weight gain requires an energy excess + 500 = 2240 = 6 meal sittings of 373kcal or 5 of 448kcal 1. B asal metabolism BMR prediction equations: wt, age & sex e.g. 70kg male, age 18-30. BMR = (15.3 x 70) + 679 =1071 kcals % Total Biosynthesis 40 protein, fat, glucose, urea active transport 38 sodium pump in nerves and all cells mechanical work (e.g. heart, gut) 22
  • 66. The role of protein in muscle growth
      • Amount – 2g.kg/bw.day
      • Timing (daily regular and post exercise)
      • Type – low fat, complete proteins
    Body Protein
  • 67. Providing an optimal hormonal environment for muscle growth
    • Regular resistance work to stimulate testosterone and growth hormone levels
    • Nutritionally complete diet
        • rich in vitamins, minerals and good fats
    • Eat a mix of protein and carbohydrates within 20 minutes of exercise
    • Regular meals to encourage muscle retention
        • This should happen every day!
  • 68. The role of exercise & Nutrition Exercise Nutrition Hormones Overcompensation Amino Acids Muscle Growth Stimulus (fuel)
  • 69. Supplements for Increasing Muscle
    • Start with calorie need
    • Balance meals across the day
      • Is this achievable?
      • Where is it difficult?
      • Bridge the gaps – add protein/calories where necessary
    • Accelerate results
      • Energy products
      • Creatine
  • 70. Supplement Options
    • Protein / carb supplements
        • provide high quality whey protein and circa 500 calories per serving.
    • Energy products can increase training intensity
    • Creatine can increase training intensity leading to faster results
        • Dosages above 10g.day not shown to provide any additional benefit
        • Creatine should be cycled
        • Hydration important
    • Recovery products are key
        • 20 minute recovery window
  • 71. Re-assessment
    • Initial expectations of 1lb per week gain
        • If this doesn’t occur increase calorie recommendations by 250 – 500.
    • Muscle gain will slow as weight increases
        • Reassessment, taking in to account new weight required every 4 weeks
    • Additional supplements can accelerate gains
        • Improve clients results
        • Increase secondary spend
  • 72. Increasing muscle mass and where people go wrong
    • Increasing lean muscle mass in order to improve physical appearance is one of the main reasons why the majority of gym users train (this can be whether they are aware of it or not!)
    • Increasing lean muscle mass (ms mass):
    • Improves aesthetics
            • More ms mass
            • Less fat as more mm burns fat (metabolic effect)
            • Improves Performance
            • More ms mass, more strength
            • More shock absorption, ability to absorb loads
  • 73. Current trends, what we’ve been taught, common mistakes
    • The science:
        • Hypertrophy and hyperplasia
        • Sarcomere vs.. sarcoplasm growth. (Ms v Pump)
        • “ It is generally accepted that higher training volumes are associated with increases in muscle size .” Baechle and Earle.
            • Hypertrophy 3-4 sets of 8-12 reps pros/ cons
            • Following muscle mag, pro bodybuilder routines
            • Split routines, muscles not movements
            • Too much isolation and reliance of machines Increasing lean muscle mass in order to improve physical appearance is one of the main reasons why the majority of gym users train (this can be whether they are aware of it or not!)
  • 74. Designing an effective muscle building programme
    • Exercise selection: Movement not muscles!
        • Primal Patterns: (The body wants to be balanced- for every
        • push- pull)
        • Variation
        • Volume, intensity: Sets, reps, rest period
        • Frequency of training
        • Recovery:The body grows while it rests
        • Client Profile: - age, gender, training age, injury profile,
        • technical ability, barriers, commitment, realistic frequency
  • 75. Thinking outside of the box to increase muscle mass
        • Volume- 25 the new 25?!
        • 5 sets of 5
        • EDT (Escalating Density Training, Charles Staley)
        • Rest Pause Technique
        • Clusters
        • Pyramids
        • Increasing volume
        • It’s all about progression!
  • 76. Designing a Lean muscle building programme that works
    • Current training ability and goals
    • Recovery ability, sleep, stress
    • Training days per week (frequency)
    • Time per session (duration)
    • Exercise selection
    • Sets, repetitions and rest periods
  • 77. Nutrition for Performance
    • Satisfy General dietary needs with small regular meals and calorie balance for weight maintenance
    • Needs before – eat a low to moderate GI meal 2 hours prior to exercise, leaving time for digestion (e.g. mid-afternoon snack). Adequate fluid (6 to 8 glasses of water across the day)
    • Needs during – High Glycemic Carbohydrate, electrolytes, BCAAs? (hydration, energy provision, improved mental focus, reduced muscle damage).
  • 78. Nutrition for Performance cont...
    • Needs after – High GI Carbohydrate within 20 minutes (recovery window – glycogen refuelling, muscle recovery, appetite control). Protein shown to improve glycogen uptake, reduce muscle soreness and facilitate recovery.
    • Considerations – intensity and duration & type of exercise + goal
  • 79. Supplements for Performance
    • Small regular meal base & calorie balance still important
      • Whey protein?
    • Add 750ml fluid per hour of exercise (1-1.2 ltr in hot climates)
      • Water vs Carb drink?
      • 90 mins plus – electrolytes
    • Replenish glycogen stores after exercise and repair tissue damage
      • Carb/protein drink? 3:1 ratio carbs to protein
    • A diet rich in fruit, vegetables and essential fatty acids will accelerate recovery too.
    • Creatine?
  • 80. CV fitness and the role of resistance training
        • Aerobic fitness or CV fitness is what most people mean when they refer to ‘fitness’.
        • CV fitness is hugely important as it directly effects hear health.
        • CV fitness is one of the most trainable components of ‘fitness’
        • Peak CV conditioning can occur within 6-12 weeks (Charles Poliquin)
        • According to Baechle and Earle:
        • “ The cardiovascular system transports nutrients and removes waste products while helping to maintain the environment for all the body’s functions. The blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues for use in cellular metabolism, and it transports carbon dioxide- the most abundant by product of metabolism - from the tissues to the lungs where it is removed from the body .”
  • 81. Cardiovascular fitness
        • Energy System Training
        • - Aerobic
        • - Anaerobic: ATP- PC
        • Lactate “ an athletes lactate threshold appears to be a better indicator of his or her aerobic endurance than Vo2 Max.” Baechle and Earle
        • Endurance local, global, CV fitness
          • Cellular level gaseous exchange, nutrient delivery, waste removal
          • Muscular endurance the ability of ms to contract over a period
          • Ability to recover ability to supply oxygen, nutrients and remove waste, to return to homeostasis
          • Role of Strength Training
  • 82. Cardiovascular fitness….
        • The importance of resistance training for endurance athletes: a marathon is 42, 500 reps!!
          • too many individuals take on distance training when they can’t squat or lunge!
        • Putting together an effective CV fitness programme
          • Structure and posture
          • Stability and mobility- trunk, limbs and joints
          • Training- rehearsal, reinforcement of movement patterns
          • Agility
          • Requirements of activity: general/ specific
  • 83. Cardiovascular fitness….
        • Increasing/ improving endurance and cv fitness
          • Common mistakes
            • 5km training, 10km training
          • Intervals, higher intensities
            • Get fitter faster
          • Interval weight training
          • “ Acute aerobic exercise results in increased cardiac output, stroke volume, HR, oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure and blood flow to active muscles and a decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Resistance exercise with low intensity and high volume generally results in similar responses…”
  • 84. Sample conditioning programme Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Intervals Weights Steady State Weights Fartlek Distance Rest 400m on 3mins Compound mvmts 20-30mins hard Compound mvmts Marathon appreciation session LSD Reduce rest Inc time up to or distance 400= 70secs, 400= easy Fortnightly
  • 85. Sport specific strength and conditioning
        • What is sport specific fitness?
        • Sport specific fitness is being conditioned to face the demands of a sport. Specificity is crucial
        • Importance to trainers, gyms
          • Humans are competitive by nature
          • Mastering ones self
          • Sport provides the element of PLAY
          • Triathlons, MMA, Golf, Football, Tennis
  • 86. Conditioning for sport
        • Needs analysis of sport
          • Duration, movement patterns, positional differences, acceleration, deceleration, short bursts…
        • Energy system requirements
          • Aerobic
          • Anaerobic
            • Atp-pc
            • Lactic
          • Combinations
        • Strength requirements
        • Type of strength and speed
          • Speed/ power/ speed endurance/ ‘first step’
        • Skill
        • Assessment of clients current abilities
  • 87. Assessing current abilities relative to sport Sport specific testing- Bleep test, Malcolm's, T- tests Assessing Functional Strength- Mike Boyle Pull up/chin up Inverted Row Push- ups One legged box squat Vertical Jump(inches) World Class 25+/ 15+ 25+/15+ 50/ 35 5 each leg 35+/25+ National 20-25/ 10-15 20-25/ 10-15 42/ 27 5 33-35/20-25 Collegiate 15-20/ 5-10 15-20/ 5-10 35/ 20 5 25-30/ 20 High School 10-15/ 3-5 10-15/ 3-5 25/ 12 5 22-25/15-20 NFL Linemen 8-10 8-10 5
  • 88. Conditioning for Sport
        • Management of skill training and conditioning as well as recovery and nutrition. Communication with sports coaches is crucial so is research and understanding of sport.
        • Structure of training week
          • Skill training, game/match day, conditioning
        • Training session priority
          • Skill, practice, strength, energy system training
  • 89. Sample Sport specific In Season Rugby League: Championship Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Rest/ recovery Strength, Skill Skill practice Strength Practice Rest Game Pool session. Light exercise Weights, skill, energy systems Practice done at high intensity Gym session Skills Short session Individual Team Training Team Training Individual Team Training
  • 90. Workshop
  • 91. Resistance Summary
      • Importance of resistance training
      • Increasing lean muscle mass
      • Losing body fat
      • Increasing CV fitness and why resistance is crucial
      • Sport specific fitness
    • Time to get Strong!!!
  • 92. Nutrition Summary
    • Nutrition needs to be addressed if we are to achieve measurable results for our clients
    • Nutrition impacts weight, performance and health for the client and success, satisfaction and member/client retention for the trainer/club.
    • Effective nutritional strategies should include poster, booklet and verbal communication and the health club environment should ideally support healthy food options
    • Protein based products in particular provide a convenient way for clients to balance their diets and provide additional secondary spend for the club/trainer.

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