Both Nutrition & Exercise can play a role in reducing incidence
Trends 1950 – 1990 in dietary intake and inactivity indicators in relationship to obesity in Britain (Prentice & Jebb, 1995) Obesity – gluttony or sloth?
Calories no longer used after 50 years of labour-saving devices Costain 2003 Weekly Activity 1950s/2000s Shopping on foot /car, supermarket trolley 2400 /276 Washing clothes by hand /machine 1500 /270 Making coal fire /lighting gas fire 1300 /~0 Making beds with blankets /duvet 575 /300 Per hour Mowing lawn by hand /machine mower 500 /180 Driving without /with power steering 96 /75
Is energy intake increasing or activity decreasing?
Non-Digestible Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Sugars & Starch Can your body digest? Yes No Fibres
Non-Digestible Carbohydrates Non digestible carbs Soluble fibres Insoluble fibres Fruits, Oats, barley, vegetables Wheat, vegetables, many grain products -Affect Glucose and Fat absorption -Positive effect on gut health -Effect on hunger feeling 25g/ day
Aid intestinal transit
Glycemic Index (GI) Fruit & Vegetables Wholegrains Oats (rolled) Milk Nuts Wheat bread Rye bread Millet Couscous Corn flakes Baked potato White rice White bread Croissant Chips Cakes GI Hungry feeling & blood sugar levels <55 56-69 >70 100 Sweets Fruit & Vegetables Wholegrains Oats (rolled) Milk Nuts
To make up for deficiencies - activity increases demand for nutrients
To provide convenient ways to maintain correct dietary practices
To improve the speed at which exercisers obtain results
To allow individuals to increase exercise load
Weight management / effective dieting and goal setting
Balancing the diet for weight loss
Calculating calorie needs (BMR + AMR calculations)
Appetite regulation, satiety and their importance in long term dietary success
Blood sugar regulation, energy and diet compliance
Micronutrients in fruits & vegetables - how to promote 5 a day
Calorie Needs (energy requirement) 1. B asal metabolism BMR prediction equations: wt, age & sex e.g. 70kg female, age 18-30. BMR = 14.97x 70 +496=1543 kcals % Total Biosynthesis 40 protein, fat, glucose, urea active transport 38 sodium pump in nerves and all cells mechanical work (e.g. heart, gut) 22 2. All other output Physical Activity Level, PAL vs Quotient,PAQ PAL values (populations) in relation to overall physical activity (occupation and leisure). Light moderate vigorous 1.4-1.7 1.7-1.99 2-2.4 PAQ values (individual) are more accurate Energy requirement = energy expenditure = BMR x PAQ Weight loss requires an energy deficit Handout 1
Calories should be divided over meal sittings to provide more practical information. Even then, for some it is not practical to count calories to organise our food. Practical measures of intake therefore offer a more useful guide for balancing a meal.
Include Protein (increases metabolic rate more than carb or fat after a meal).
Eat small regular meals.
Including heat producing foods can have an additional effect on calories burned in the period after a meal
Check that your client is not caffeine sensitive when recommending any products containing caffeine
Example Menu CARB PROTEIN VITS/MINS/FIBRE Breakfast Porridge Semi-skimmed milk Berries Mid-Morning Fruit Promax / Promax Diet Fruit Lunch Wholemeal pasta Chicken breast Roasted veg Mid-afternoon/post training Fruit Promax/Promax Diet/ Bar Fruit Dinner Wholemeal rice Salmon fillet Vegetables
Goal setting, organisation and monitoring of results
Set short, medium and long term goals that are realistic.
Create a ‘negative list’ too.
Goals....lose 8lbs in 4 weeks; improve energy; feel confident
If I don’t stick to the plan I will....remain overweight; be at higher health risk; feel unhealthy and lethargic.
Get your client organised – menu’s / shopping list / supplements
Monitoring – book your client in for regular (4 weekly) updates and ask to record their intake in a food diary (and exercise).
Build in a re-feed day once a week – this assists with diet compliance and stimulates the metabolism too.
Losing body fat and the role of resistance training
Why it’s important for gyms, trainers and clients to understand
Obesity epidemic, fatter society
in 2006, 24 per cent of adults (aged 16 or over) in England were classified as obese. This represents an overall increase from 15 per cent in 1993. NHS
Providing an optimal environment for muscle growth
Calorie Needs (energy requirement) 2. All other output Physical Activity Quotient 1807 x 1.625 = 1740 Energy requirement = energy expenditure = BMR x PAQ Weight gain requires an energy excess + 500 = 2240 = 6 meal sittings of 373kcal or 5 of 448kcal 1. B asal metabolism BMR prediction equations: wt, age & sex e.g. 70kg male, age 18-30. BMR = (15.3 x 70) + 679 =1071 kcals % Total Biosynthesis 40 protein, fat, glucose, urea active transport 38 sodium pump in nerves and all cells mechanical work (e.g. heart, gut) 22
If this doesn’t occur increase calorie recommendations by 250 – 500.
Muscle gain will slow as weight increases
Reassessment, taking in to account new weight required every 4 weeks
Additional supplements can accelerate gains
Improve clients results
Increase secondary spend
Increasing muscle mass and where people go wrong
Increasing lean muscle mass in order to improve physical appearance is one of the main reasons why the majority of gym users train (this can be whether they are aware of it or not!)
Increasing lean muscle mass (ms mass):
More ms mass
Less fat as more mm burns fat (metabolic effect)
More ms mass, more strength
More shock absorption, ability to absorb loads
Current trends, what we’ve been taught, common mistakes
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia
Sarcomere vs.. sarcoplasm growth. (Ms v Pump)
“ It is generally accepted that higher training volumes are associated with increases in muscle size .” Baechle and Earle.
Hypertrophy 3-4 sets of 8-12 reps pros/ cons
Following muscle mag, pro bodybuilder routines
Split routines, muscles not movements
Too much isolation and reliance of machines Increasing lean muscle mass in order to improve physical appearance is one of the main reasons why the majority of gym users train (this can be whether they are aware of it or not!)
Designing an effective muscle building programme
Exercise selection: Movement not muscles!
Primal Patterns: (The body wants to be balanced- for every
Volume, intensity: Sets, reps, rest period
Frequency of training
Recovery:The body grows while it rests
Client Profile: - age, gender, training age, injury profile,
technical ability, barriers, commitment, realistic frequency
Thinking outside of the box to increase muscle mass
Volume- 25 the new 25?!
5 sets of 5
EDT (Escalating Density Training, Charles Staley)
Rest Pause Technique
It’s all about progression!
Designing a Lean muscle building programme that works
Needs after – High GI Carbohydrate within 20 minutes (recovery window – glycogen refuelling, muscle recovery, appetite control). Protein shown to improve glycogen uptake, reduce muscle soreness and facilitate recovery.
Considerations – intensity and duration & type of exercise + goal
Small regular meal base & calorie balance still important
Add 750ml fluid per hour of exercise (1-1.2 ltr in hot climates)
Water vs Carb drink?
90 mins plus – electrolytes
Replenish glycogen stores after exercise and repair tissue damage
Carb/protein drink? 3:1 ratio carbs to protein
A diet rich in fruit, vegetables and essential fatty acids will accelerate recovery too.
CV fitness and the role of resistance training
Aerobic fitness or CV fitness is what most people mean when they refer to ‘fitness’.
CV fitness is hugely important as it directly effects hear health.
CV fitness is one of the most trainable components of ‘fitness’
Peak CV conditioning can occur within 6-12 weeks (Charles Poliquin)
According to Baechle and Earle:
“ The cardiovascular system transports nutrients and removes waste products while helping to maintain the environment for all the body’s functions. The blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues for use in cellular metabolism, and it transports carbon dioxide- the most abundant by product of metabolism - from the tissues to the lungs where it is removed from the body .”
“ Acute aerobic exercise results in increased cardiac output, stroke volume, HR, oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure and blood flow to active muscles and a decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Resistance exercise with low intensity and high volume generally results in similar responses…”
Sample conditioning programme Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Intervals Weights Steady State Weights Fartlek Distance Rest 400m on 3mins Compound mvmts 20-30mins hard Compound mvmts Marathon appreciation session LSD Reduce rest Inc time up to or distance 400= 70secs, 400= easy Fortnightly
Management of skill training and conditioning as well as recovery and nutrition. Communication with sports coaches is crucial so is research and understanding of sport.
Structure of training week
Skill training, game/match day, conditioning
Training session priority
Skill, practice, strength, energy system training
Sample Sport specific In Season Rugby League: Championship Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Rest/ recovery Strength, Skill Skill practice Strength Practice Rest Game Pool session. Light exercise Weights, skill, energy systems Practice done at high intensity Gym session Skills Short session Individual Team Training Team Training Individual Team Training