Chap1 energy values of foods & nutrients


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  • There are many methods for measuring body fat. The skinfold measurement is relatively simple but it requires a skilled technician for accurate readings. The usual sites of measurement include the chest, abdomen, and thigh for men and the tricep, hip, and thigh for women. Other methods include hydrostatic weighing. skinfold caliper technique. dual-energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA). bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).
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  • Chap1 energy values of foods & nutrients

    1. 1. NUTRITION
    2. 2. What Is Nutrition? -The study of how your body uses the food that you eat.
    3. 3. What is a Nutrient A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. Some provide energy. All help build cells and tissues, regulate bodily processes such as breathing. No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function.
    4. 4. The six Classifications of Nutrients <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul>Sugars Starches Cellulose <ul><li>Fats </li></ul>
    5. 5. Variables which affect nutrient needs: 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Activity Level 4. Climate 5. Health 6. State of nutrition
    6. 6. Ten U.S. Dietary Guidelines: Aim for Fitness 1. Aim for a healthy weight
    7. 7. 2. Be physically active each day
    8. 8. Build a Healthy Base 3. Let the pyramid guide your choices 4. Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains 5. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. 6. Keep food safe to eat.
    9. 9. Choose Sensibly 7. Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat 8. Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars 9. Choose and prepare food with less salt 10. If you drink alcoholic beverages do so in moderation
    10. 10. Energy Values of Foods & Nutrients; Obesity; Rules for Achieving Desirable Weight Chapter 1
    11. 11. Energy <ul><li>The capacity to do work </li></ul><ul><li>Exist in various forms, each of which may be converted into any other forms; heat, light, motion, sound and electricity being form of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>To measure the amount of energy in any of its forms, it is ordinarily converted to heat energy and expressed in calories(kcal). </li></ul><ul><li>Kilocalorie is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (kg) (2.2lb) of water 1 degree Celsius. </li></ul><ul><li>The accepted SI unit of energy is the joule. </li></ul><ul><li>1 kcal = 4.18 kilojoules (kJ) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Four Basic Forms of Energy <ul><li>Chemical – for synthesis of new compound </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical – for muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical – for brain and nerve activity </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal – for regulation of body temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human are inefficient energy users because they can convert only 25% of chemical energy from the food they eat into mechanical energy (walking, typing) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Energy Needs of the Body ( 3 Factors) <ul><li>Basal metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Energy for physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Specific dynamic action (SDA) – a small amount of additional energy expended during digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Proteins and fats in the gastrointestinal tract. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Basal Metabolism <ul><li>Is the minimum amount of energy required to maintain vital functions in an organism at complete rest, measured by the basal metabolic rate in a fasting individual who is awake and resting in a comfortably warm environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – is the rate at which energy is used by an organism at complete rest, measured in humans by the heat given off per unit time, and expressed as the calories released per kilogram of body weight or per square meter of body surface per hour. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Basal Metabolic Rate <ul><li>Higher in young people </li></ul><ul><li>It increases for some months after birth, then decreases through adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>The basal metabolism of healthy men requires about 1600 to 1800 kcal daily while for women is about 1200 to 1450 kcal. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Factors that can Increase the BMR <ul><li>Muscular development </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation </li></ul>
    17. 17. Physical Activity <ul><li>Muscular activity affects both energy expenditure and heat production </li></ul><ul><li>Energy expenditure increases with muscular activity </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Activity: sitting most of the day, about 2 hours of moving about slowly or standing. </li></ul><ul><li>Light Activity: typing, teaching, shopwork, laboratory work, some walking. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate Activity: walking, housework, gardening, carpentry, cycling, tennis. </li></ul><ul><li>Strenuous Activity: pick-and-shovel work, swimming, basketball, running </li></ul>
    18. 18. Specific Dynamic Action of Food <ul><li>Is the term used to describe the expenditure of calories during the digestion and absorption of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies have shown that the heat increment, or thermogenic response, necessary to digest and absorb fat is 2%, for carbohydrate is 6%, and for protein-rich foods is about 12%. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the specific dynamic effect of diet is calculated to contribute approximately 10% of the consumed calories. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Body Composition
    20. 20. The Spectrum of Body Size, Shape and Composition
    21. 21. We All Change in Many Ways
    22. 22. What are the different ways to look at human body composition? <ul><li>Medical (health) </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropological </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul>
    23. 23. Why is knowledge of body composition so important? <ul><li>Health and Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity </li></ul>
    24. 24. What Is Body Composition? <ul><li>Body composition = the body’s relative amounts of fat mass and fat-free mass (bone, water, muscle, connective and organ tissues, teeth) </li></ul><ul><li>Essential fat = crucial for normal body functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3–5% of total body weight in males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8–12% of total body weight in females </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonessential fat = adipose tissue </li></ul>
    25. 25. Typical Body Composition
    26. 26. prepared by: R. Escudero
    27. 27. Obesity And its Associated Risk Factors
    28. 28. Definition of terms: <ul><li>Overweight – refers to excessive amounts of muscle or bone and water as well as to body fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity – concerned only with an abnormally increased amount of body fat. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Obesity An Overview <ul><li>Overweight and obesity are both chronic conditions that are the result of an energy imbalance over a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of this energy imbalance can be due to a combination of several different factors and varies from one person to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual behaviors, environmental factors, and genetics all contribute to the complexity of the obesity epidemic. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Overweight and Obesity <ul><li>The most important consideration in evaluating body weight and composition is the proportion of total body weight that is fat (percent body fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight = total body weight above a recommended range for good health </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity = severely overweight and overfat; characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat </li></ul>
    31. 31. Overview of Various Body Composition Assessment Methods
    32. 32. Overview of Various Body Composition Assessment Methods (cont.)
    33. 33. Energy Imbalance What is it? <ul><li>Energy balance can be compared to a scale. </li></ul><ul><li>An energy imbalance arises when the number of calories consumed is not equal to the number of calories used by the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight gain usually involves the combination of consuming too many calories and not expending enough through physical activity. </li></ul>Weight Gain Calories Consumed > Calories Used Weight Loss Calories Consumed < Calories Used No Weight Change Calories Consumed = Calories Used
    34. 34. Energy Imbalance Effects in the Body <ul><li>Excess energy is stored in fat cells, which enlarge or multiply. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement of fat cells is known as hypertrophy , whereas multiplication of fat cells is known as hyperplasia . </li></ul><ul><li>With time, excesses in energy storage lead to obesity. </li></ul>2009 Fat cells J La State Med Soc .2005; 156 (1): S42-49.
    35. 35. Fat Cell Enlargement Hypertrophy <ul><li>Enlarged fat cells produce the clinical problems associated with obesity, due to the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The weight or mass of the extra fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The increased secretion of free fatty acids and peptides from enlarged fat cells. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Weight Classifications A Review <ul><li>Body mass index (BMI) is a mathematical ratio which is calculated as weight (kg)/ height squared (m 2 ). It is used to describe an individuals relative weight for height, and is significantly correlated with total body fat content. BMI is intended for those 20 years of age and older. </li></ul>With a BMI of: You are considered: Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5 - 24.9 Healthy Weight 25.0 - 29.9 Overweight 30 or higher Obese
    37. 37. Mortality and Morbidity Associated with Obesity <ul><li>The effects of excess weight on mortality and morbidity have been recognized for more than 2,000 years. It was Hippocrates who recognized that “sudden death is more common in those who are naturally fat than in the lean.” </li></ul><ul><li>Today, obesity is increasing rapidly. Research shows that many factors related to obesity influence mortality and morbidity. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Mortality Weight, Fat Distribution, and Activity <ul><li>The following factors have been shown to increase mortality in individuals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional fat distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight gain patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedentary Lifestyle </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Mortality Excess Body Weight <ul><li>Mortality associated with excess body weight increases as the degree of obesity and overweight increases. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that 280,000 to 325,000 deaths a year can be attributed to obesity in the United States, more than 80% of these deaths occur among individuals with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m 2 . </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Regional fat distribution can contribute to mortality. </li></ul><ul><li>This was first noted in the beginning of the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Obese individuals with an android (or apple) distribution of body fat are at a greater risk for diabetes and heart disease than were those with a gynoid distribution (pear). </li></ul><ul><li>Android fat distribution results in higher free fatty acid levels, higher glucose and insulin levels and reduced HDL levels. It also results in higher blood pressure and inflammatory markers. </li></ul>Mortality Regional Fat Distribution Android Gynoid
    41. 41. <ul><li>In addition to overweight and central fatness, the amount of weight gain after ages 18 to 20 also predicts mortality. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study showed that a marked increase in mortality from heart disease is associated with increasing degrees of weight gain. </li></ul>Mortality Weight Gain
    42. 42. <ul><li>Sedentary lifestyle is another important component in the relationship of excess mortality to obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of death at all levels of BMI. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfit men in the BMI range of less than 25 kg/m 2 had a significantly higher risk than men with a high level of cardiovascular fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>Obese men with a high level of fitness had risks of death that were not different from fit men with normal body fat. </li></ul>Mortality Sedentary Lifestyle
    43. 43. Morbidity Associated with Obesity <ul><li>Overweight affects several diseases, although its degree of contribution varies from one disease to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, the risk of developing a disease often differs by ethnic group, and by gender within a given ethnic group. </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Obstructive sleep apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Endometrial, prostate and breast cancers </li></ul><ul><li>Complications of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual irregularities </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological disorders </li></ul>Morbidity Associated with Obesity Individuals who are obese are at a greater risk of developing:
    45. 45. Cardiovascular Disorders Associated with Obesity <ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary Artery Disease </li></ul>Obese individuals are at a greater risk of developing these cardiovascular disorders:
    46. 46. Hypertension <ul><li>Hypertension (HTN) is the term for high blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension is identified when a blood pressure is sustained at ≥140/90 mmHg. </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure is referred to as the “silent killer,” since there are usually no symptoms with HTN. </li></ul><ul><li>Some individuals find out that they have high blood pressure when they have trouble with their heart, brain, or kidneys. </li></ul>2009 NHLBI
    47. 47. Hypertension The Dangers <ul><ul><li>The heart to get larger, which may lead to heart failure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small bulges ( aneurysms ) to form in blood vessels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels in the kidney to narrow, which may lead to kidney failure . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries in the body to harden faster, especially those in the heart, brain, kidneys, and legs. This can cause a heart attack , stroke , kidney failure , or can lead to amputation of part of the extremities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels in the eye to burst or bleed. This may cause vision changes and can result in blindness . </li></ul></ul>Failure to find and treat HTN is serious, as untreated HTN can cause:
    48. 48. Hypertension <ul><li>Blood pressure is often increased in overweight individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates suggest that control of overweight would eliminate 48% of the hypertension in Caucasians and 28% in African Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight and hypertension interact with cardiac function, leading to thickening of the ventricular wall and larger heart volume, and thus to a greater likelihood of cardiac failure. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Hypertension Prevalence in the Overweight Prevalence of HTN Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in overweight U.S. adults 14.9 22.1 27.0 15.2 27.7 32.7
    50. 50. Stroke <ul><li>Normally, blood containing oxygen and nutrients is delivered to the brain, and carbon dioxide and cellular wastes are removed. </li></ul><ul><li>A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by a blocked vessel or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts. </li></ul><ul><li>Once their supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood is cut off to the brain cells, they die. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Stroke <ul><li>Sudden numbness or weakness , especially on one side of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden trouble with walking , dizziness , or loss of balance or coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden severe headache with no known cause </li></ul>The symptoms of a stroke include:
    52. 52. Stroke <ul><li>There are two forms of stroke: ischemic and hemorrhagic . </li></ul><ul><li>Ischemic stroke occurs when an artery to the brain is blocked. </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight and obesity increase the risk for ischemic stroke in men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>With increasing BMI, the risk of ischemic stroke increases progressively and is doubled in those with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m 2 when compared to those having a BMI of less than 25 kg/m 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a blood vessel in the brain erupts. </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight and obesity do not increase the risk for hemorrhagic strokes. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Coronary Artery Disease <ul><li>Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a type of atherosclerosis that occurs when the arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle (coronary arteries) become hardened and narrowed. </li></ul><ul><li>This hardening and narrowing is caused by plaque buildup. </li></ul><ul><li>As the plaque increases in size, the insides of the coronary arteries get narrower, and eventually, blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>This is critical because blood carries much-needed oxygen to the heart. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Coronary Arteries Blood Flow <ul><li>When the heart muscle is not receiving the amount of oxygen that it needs, one of two things can happen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart Attack </li></ul></ul>Angina This is the chest pain or discomfort that occurs when the heart is not getting enough blood. Heart attack This is what happens when a blood clot develops at the site of the plaque in a coronary artery. The result is a sudden blockage, which may block all or most of the blood supply to the heart muscle. Because cells in the heart muscle begin to die when they are not receiving adequate amount of oxygen, permanent damage to the heart muscle can occur if blood flow is not quickly restored.
    55. 55. Coronary Artery Disease <ul><li>Over time, CAD can weaken the heart muscle and contribute to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart Failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrhythmias </li></ul></ul>2009 Heart Failure In this condition, the heart can’t pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. Heart failure does not mean that the heart has stopped nor does it mean that it is about to. It means that the heart is failing to pump blood the way that it should. Arrhythmias Arrhytmias are changes in the normal beating rhythm of the heart. They can be either faster or slower than normal. Some arrhythmias can be quite serious.
    56. 56. Coronary Artery Disease <ul><li>Obesity is associated with an increased risk for CAD. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal fat distribution is believed to be related as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the Nurses Health Study illustrated that women in the lowest BMI but highest waist-to-hip circumference ratio had a greater risk of heart attack than those in the highest BMI but lowest waist-to-hip circumference ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional fat distribution appears to have a greater effect on CAD risk than BMI alone. </li></ul>2009
    57. 57. Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Obesity <ul><li>Colon Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Gall stones </li></ul>Obese individuals are at greater risk of developing these gastrointestinal disorders:
    58. 58. Colon Cancer <ul><li>Colorectal cancer is a term used to refer to cancer that develops in the colon or the rectum. </li></ul><ul><li>The colon (a.k.a. the large intestine) is about 5 feet long and its role in the digestive system is to continue to absorb water and mineral nutrients from food. Once this process of absorption is complete, waste matter (feces) remains. </li></ul><ul><li>The rectum is the final 6 inches of the digestive system. Feces are passed from the large intestine to the rectum, to exit the body through the anus. </li></ul>
    59. 59. Colon Cancer <ul><li>Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated to cause about 55,170 deaths during 2006. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Colon Cancer Findings Relating to Obesity <ul><li>Colon cancer has been shown to occur more frequently in people who are obese than in people who are of a healthy weight. </li></ul><ul><li>An increased risk of colon cancer has been consistently reported for men with high BMIs. </li></ul><ul><li>Women with high BMI are not at increased risk of colon cancer. </li></ul>There is evidence that abdominal obesity may be important in colon cancer risk.
    61. 61. Gallbladder Disease <ul><li>Cholelithiasis is the primary hepatobiliary pathology associated with overweight. </li></ul><ul><li>Cholelithiasis is a condition characterized by the presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, a balance of bile salts, lecithin, and cholesterol keep gallstones from forming. However, if there are abnormally high levels of bile salts or, more commonly, cholesterol, then stones can form. </li></ul>
    62. 62. Gallstones Findings Related to Obesity <ul><li>Obesity appears to be associated with the development of gallstones. </li></ul><ul><li>More cholesterol is produced at higher body fat levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 20 mg of additional cholesterol is synthesized for each kg of extra body fat. </li></ul><ul><li>High cholesterol concentrations relative to bile acids and phospholipids in bile increase the likelihood of precipitation of cholesterol gallstones in the gallbladder. </li></ul>
    63. 63. Gallstones Findings Related to Obesity <ul><li>In the Nurses’ Health Study, when compared to those having a BMI of 24 or less, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women with a BMI > 30 kg/m 2 had a 2-fold increased risk for symptomatic gallstones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women with a BMI > 45 kg/m 2 had a 7-fold increased risk for symptomatic gallstones. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The relative increased risk of symptomatic gallstone development with increasing BMI appears to be less for men than for women. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Gallstones Findings Related to Obesity <ul><li>Ironically, weight loss leads to an increased risk of gallstones-- because of the increased flux of cholesterol through the biliary system. </li></ul><ul><li>Diets with moderate levels of fat that trigger gallbladder contraction and subsequent emptying of the cholesterol content may reduce the risk of gallstone formation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bile acid supplementation can be used to lower ones risk for gallstone formation. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Metabolic Disorders Associated with Obesity <ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslipidemia </li></ul><ul><li>Liver Disease </li></ul>Obese individuals are at greater risk of developing these metabolic disorders:
    66. 66. Diabetes Mellitus <ul><li>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is strongly associated with overweight and obesity in both genders and in all ethnic groups . </li></ul><ul><li>The risk for Type 2 DM increases with the degree and duration of overweight in individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>The risk for Type 2 DM also increases in individuals with a more central distribution of body fat (abdominal). </li></ul>
    67. 67. Obesity and Type 2 DM In the United States Among people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, 55 percent have a BMI ≥ 30 (classified as obese), 30 percent have a BMI ≥ 25 or ≤30 (classified as overweight), and only 15 percent have a BMI ≤ 25 (classified as normal weight). 15% 30% 55%
    68. 68. Diabetes Mellitus Findings Related to Obesity <ul><li>The Nurses’ Health Study demonstrated the curvilinear relationship between increasing BMI and the risk of diabetes in women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women with a BMI below 22 kg/m 2 had the lowest risk of DM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a BMI of 35 kg/m 2 , the relative risk of DM increased 40-fold or 4,000% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Health Professionals Follow-up Study demonstrated a similar relationship between increasing BMI and the risk of diabetes in men: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men with a BMI below 24 kg/m 2 had the lowest risk of DM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a BMI of 35 kg/m 2 , the relative risk of DM increased 60-fold or 6,000% </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Diabetes Mellitus Findings Relating to Weightloss <ul><li>Weight loss reduces the risk of developing diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a weight loss of 5-11 kg decreased the relative risk for developing diabetes by nearly 50%. </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 DM was almost nonexistent with a weight loss of more than 20 kg (44 lbs) or in those with a BMI below 20. </li></ul>
    70. 70. Dyslipidemia <ul><li>Dyslipidemia is defined as abnormal concentration of lipids or lipoproteins in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>As BMI increases, there is an increased risk for heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>This is because a positive correlation between BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels has been demonstrated. </li></ul>
    71. 71. Dyslipidemia Findings Related to Obesity <ul><li>An inverse relationship between HDL cholesterol and BMI has been noted. </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship may be more important than the relationship between BMI & TG levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Low level of HDL carries more relative risk for developing heart disease than do elevated triglyceride levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Central fat distribution also plays an important role in lipid abnormalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive body fat in the abdominal region leads to increased circulating triglyceride levels. </li></ul>HDL
    72. 72. Liver Disease <ul><li>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the term given to describe a collection of liver abnormalities that are associated with obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>In a cross-sectional analysis of liver biopsies of obese patients, it was found that the prevalence of steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis were approximately 75%, 20%, and 2% respectively. </li></ul>
    73. 73. Liver Disease Fatty Liver <ul><li>Steatosis is the term for “fatty liver” and it is not actually a disease, but rather a pathological finding. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases of fatty liver are due to obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Other causes of fatty liver include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intestinal bypass operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein malnutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul></ul>
    74. 74. Liver Disease Fatty Liver <ul><li>A gradual weight reduction can help to reduce the enlargement of the liver due to fat, and it can normalize the associated liver test abnormalities. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to limit the amount of alcohol consumed in the diet. Alcohol can decrease the rate of metabolism and secretion of fat in the liver. </li></ul>
    75. 75. Importance of a Healthy Liver <ul><ul><li>The 300 billion cells of the liver control a process known as metabolism. During metabolism, the liver breaks down nutrients into usable products. These products are then delivered to the rest of the body through the bloodstream. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The liver also metabolizes toxins into byproducts that can be safely eliminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The liver also produces many important substances, such as: albumin, bile, cholesterol, clotting factors, globin, and immune factors. </li></ul></ul>The liver is the largest organ in the body and it plays a vital role in performing many complex functions that are essential for life:
    76. 76. <ul><ul><li>Obstructive sleep apnea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endometrial, prostate, and breast cancers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications of pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menstrual irregularities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological disorders </li></ul></ul>Other Disorders Associated with Obesity Obese individuals are at greater risk of developing these metabolic disorders:
    77. 77. Obstructive Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by repetitive upper airway obstruction during sleep as a result of narrowing of the respiratory passages. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients having the disorder are most often overweight with associated peripharyngeal infiltration of fat and/or increased size of the soft palate and tongue. </li></ul>
    78. 78. Obstructive Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Common complaints are loud snoring, disrupted sleep, and excessive daytime sleepiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with sleep apnea suffer from fragmented sleep and may develop cardiovascular abnormalities because of the repetitive cycles of snoring, airway collapse, and arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>Because many individuals are not aware of heavy snoring and nocturnal arousals, obstructive sleep apnea may remain undiagnosed. </li></ul>
    79. 79. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Findings Relating to Obesity <ul><li>Obstructive sleep apnea affects around 4% of middle-aged adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals having a BMI of at least 30 are at greatest risk for sleep apnea. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss has been shown to improve the symptoms relating to sleep apnea. </li></ul>
    80. 80. Osteoarthritis <ul><li>Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>40 million Americans currently have osteoarthritis. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a degenerative disease which frequently leads to chronic pain and disability. </li></ul><ul><li>For individuals over the age of 65, it is the most disabling disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, only the symptoms of OA can be treated; there is no cure. </li></ul>
    81. 81. Osteoarthritis Findings Relating to Obesity <ul><li>The incidence of OA is significantly increased in overweight individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>OA that develops in the knees and ankles is probably directly related to the trauma associated with the degree of excess body weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis in other non-weight bearing joints suggests that there must be some component of the overweight syndrome responsible for altering cartilage and bone metabolism, independent of the actual stresses of body weight on joints. </li></ul>Areas of the body most commonly affected by OA
    82. 82. Cancer Findings Relating to Obesity <ul><li>Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of: </li></ul><ul><li>esophageal, gallbladder, pancreatic, cervical, breast, uterine, renal, and prostate cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity and physical inactivity may account for 25 to 30 percent of several major cancers, including--- colon, breast (postmenopausal), endometrial, kidney, and cancer of the esophagus. </li></ul>
    83. 83. Endocrine Changes <ul><li>There are various endocrine changes associated with overweight. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the reproductive system are among the most common. </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular menses and frequent anovular cycles are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of fertility may also be reduced. </li></ul>
    84. 84. Endocrine Changes Associated with Obesity <ul><li>Increased cortisol production </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased sex hormone-binding globulin in women </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased progesterone levels in women </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased testosterone levels in men </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased growth hormone production </li></ul>Common hormonal abnormalities associated with obesity
    85. 85. Psychological Disorders Associations with Obesity <ul><li>Obesity is associated with an impaired quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher BMI values are associated with greater adverse effects. </li></ul><ul><li>When compared to obese men, obese women appear to be at a greater risk for psychological dysfunction. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be due to the societal pressure on women to be thin. </li></ul>
    86. 86. Psychological Disorders Weight Loss <ul><li>Intentional weight loss has been consistently associated with improved quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Severely obese patients who lost 43 kg through gastric bypass demonstrated improved quality of life scores to such an extent that their post-weight loss scores were equal to or even better than population norms. </li></ul>
    87. 87. In Conclusion <ul><li>Diabetes mellitus </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Gallbladder Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Liver Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary Artery Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrovascular disease (stroke) </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosocial Function </li></ul><ul><li>Obstructive Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul>The following conditions have been found to be associated with obesity: These diseases have been found to be associated with increased metabolic activity (secretion) of fat cells in obesity These diseases have been found to be associated with increased fat mass