Does Good Indoor Air Quality Really
Improve Workplace Productivity?
FMP and Property Event – 29 & 30 April 2014
Ammar Al-S...
Contents
• Why the need for good indoor air?
• HVAC Systems
• Productivity in the Workplace
• Case Study
Why the need for good indoor air?
Estimated that inefficient buildings cost British business £135bn
per year in lost oppor...
(Bartlett, 2006)
Definition of Indoor Air Quality?
The environmental characteristics inside buildings that may
affect human health, comfort...
Major Source of Contaminants
Contaminants Major Source
Particles Dust (generated inside and outside), smoking,
cooking
All...
HVAC Systems
Objectives of the HVAC system
To control:
1)Air temperature
2)Humidity
3)Air circulation
4)Air quality
(ASHRA...
Achieving Efficiency
HVAC Selection Parameters
Commissioning of HVAC
System
HVAC Maintenance and
Cleaning
National Air Duc...
Productivity in the Workplace
Factors Influencing Comfort
(McDowall, 2007)
Factors Affecting Workplace
Productivity
(Hedge...
Measuring Productivity
McCartney &
Humphreys (2002)
Lorsch and
Abdou (1994)
Wyon (1996)
A- Simulated work
B- Diagnostic te...
CASE STUDY
The Facility
Methodology
CASE STUDY
Improvement Measures
HVAC System Assessment
CASE STUDY
PPM Programme
Sr. # Item Parameter
Satisfied
Parameter not
Satisfied
1 Filters and air cleaning devices

2 Outdoor air da...
Comfort Conditions
CASE STUDY
Parameter Condition
Satisfied
Condition not
Satisfied
Basic Thermal Comfort    
• Consider h...
Facility Cleanliness
CASE STUDY
High VOC
Indoor Air Quality Investigation
CASE STUDY
On-Site Improvements
 Changing cleaning material and
detergents to green materials that
are more environmental friendly.
...
Indoor Air Quality Test
CASE STUDY
Direct Instrumental
Method of Analysis
8 hours
Survey Questionnaire
CASE STUDY Survey Question(s) Air Quality Parameter
(HAAD Standard)
Effects Source
3 - PM10 and TSP T...
Absenteeism Records
CASE STUDY
Cause of absence that is related only to
respiratory, allergy, headache…etc
problems was ta...
Results
CASE STUDY
IAQ Test & Survey Questionnaire
Parameter Averaging
Time
HAAD
Limit
Unit Detection
Limit
Results
Min. Max. Ave.
Air Temper...
Conclusion
36%
Savings over 1 year upon implementing
improvement measures
1000 £
CASE STUDY
The Pathway Ahead
1
a)HVAC System technical issues
b)Facility Cleanliness Considerations
c)Indoor Air Quality Investigatio...
SO…..
Does Good Indoor Air Quality Really Improve
Workplace Productivity?
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION…
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Ammar Al-Shemery, Associate Director of the Abu Dhabi Campus at INSEAD Business School - Does good indoor air quality really improve workplace productivity?

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Ammar Al-Shemery, Associate Director of the Abu Dhabi Campus at INSEAD Business School spoke at the FMP Event April 2014

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Ammar Al-Shemery, Associate Director of the Abu Dhabi Campus at INSEAD Business School - Does good indoor air quality really improve workplace productivity?

  1. 1. Does Good Indoor Air Quality Really Improve Workplace Productivity? FMP and Property Event – 29 & 30 April 2014 Ammar Al-Shemery Associate Director of the Abu Dhabi Campus Head of Operations and Campus Services
  2. 2. Contents • Why the need for good indoor air? • HVAC Systems • Productivity in the Workplace • Case Study
  3. 3. Why the need for good indoor air? Estimated that inefficient buildings cost British business £135bn per year in lost opportunity (Glensler, 2005) 1-2% improvement in productivity has a larger economic return than 100% saving in energy costs” (CIBSE1999) Indoor air pollution is the 8th most important in the range of risk factors in the global burden of disease and responsible for 2.7% of it (WHO, 2005) 50% of all illnesses are either caused or aggravated by polluted indoor air. (The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, ACAAI, 2009) The total annual cost of poor IAQ to U.S. employers is $15 billion due to worker inefficiency and sick leave (OSHA, 2008)
  4. 4. (Bartlett, 2006)
  5. 5. Definition of Indoor Air Quality? The environmental characteristics inside buildings that may affect human health, comfort, or work performance. IAQ characteristics include the concentrations of amounts of pollutants in indoor air, as well as air temperature and humidity. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2011) Air within a building occupied for at least one hour by people of varying states of health. This can include the office, classroom, transport facility, shopping centre, hospital and home. National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC)
  6. 6. Major Source of Contaminants Contaminants Major Source Particles Dust (generated inside and outside), smoking, cooking Allergens (a substance that can cause an allergic reaction) Molds, pets, many other resources Bacteria and viruses People, moisture, pets Carbon dioxide (CO2) Occupants breathing, combustion Odoriferous chemicals People, cooking, molds, chemicals, smoking Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Construction materials, furnishings, cleaning products Tobacco smoke Smoking Carbon monoxide (CO) Incomplete and/or faulty combustion, smoking Radon (Rn) Radioactive decay of radium in the soil Formaldehyde (HCHO) Construction materials, furniture, smoking Oxides of Nitrogen Combustion, smoking Sulfur dioxide Combustion Ozone Photocopiers, electrostatic air cleaners McDowall, 2007
  7. 7. HVAC Systems Objectives of the HVAC system To control: 1)Air temperature 2)Humidity 3)Air circulation 4)Air quality (ASHRAE, 2004) Energy Analysis and Comfort Solutions Inc., 2006
  8. 8. Achieving Efficiency HVAC Selection Parameters Commissioning of HVAC System HVAC Maintenance and Cleaning National Air Duct Cleaning Association, NADCA , 2005 Building Use Classification Air Handling Unit Supply Ductwork Return Ductwork/Exhaust Industrial 1 year 1 year 1 year Residential 1 year 2 years 2 years Light Commercial 1 year 2 years 2 years Commercial 1 year 2 years 2 years Healthcare 1 year 1 year 1 year Marine 1 year 2 years 2 years HVAC Cleanliness Inspection Schedule HVAC Systems
  9. 9. Productivity in the Workplace Factors Influencing Comfort (McDowall, 2007) Factors Affecting Workplace Productivity (Hedge, 2004) 17%
  10. 10. Measuring Productivity McCartney & Humphreys (2002) Lorsch and Abdou (1994) Wyon (1996) A- Simulated work B- Diagnostic tests C- Embedded tasks D- Absenteeism records E- Self-assessment F- Use of existing measures D- Absenteeism records Productivity in the Workplace
  11. 11. CASE STUDY The Facility
  12. 12. Methodology CASE STUDY
  13. 13. Improvement Measures HVAC System Assessment CASE STUDY
  14. 14. PPM Programme Sr. # Item Parameter Satisfied Parameter not Satisfied 1 Filters and air cleaning devices  2 Outdoor air dampers and actuators  3 Humidifiers  4 Dehumidification coils  5 Drain pans and other adjacent surfaces subject to wetting  6 Outdoor air intake louvers, bird screens, mist eliminators and adjacent areas  7 Sensors used for dynamic minimum outdoor air control  8 Air handling systems except for units under 2000 cfm  9 Cooling towers  10 Floor drains located in plenums or rooms that serve as air plenums  11 Equipment component accessibility  12 Visible microbial contamination  13 Water intrusion or accumulation  Total 8 5 Percentage 61.5% 38.5% Minimum Maintenance Activity and Frequency CASE STUDY
  15. 15. Comfort Conditions CASE STUDY Parameter Condition Satisfied Condition not Satisfied Basic Thermal Comfort     • Consider humidity, air velocity, radiation    • Consider occupant clothing and metabolic rate    • Use ASHRAE Thermal Comfort Tool (ASHRAE 1997) or equivalent to select indoor  design    • Design for part-load conditions    • Select thermostat locations carefully    • Educate occupants regarding clothing adaptation    Zoning and Occupant Control     • Use separate zone for each unique microenvironment    • Educate occupants about thermostat settings and HVAC operation    • Expand comfort envelope using personal cooling/ventilation    • Expand comfort by occupant control over natural conditioning    • Use operator control in case of “thermostat wars”    Thermal Radiation     • Use radiation (hot or cool) to expand the thermal comfort envelope    • Shade excessive solar radiation    Air Movement     • Achieve the minimum velocity     • Expand the upper thermal limits using air movement    • Address drafts by selection of diffusers and heat location    Part-Load Control     • Maintain air velocity    • Control humidity    Operation Capabilities     • Design to allow flexibility that can retain satisfaction levels    • Adjustable set points allow response to occupant expectations    HVAC System Checklist for Comfort Conditions
  16. 16. Facility Cleanliness CASE STUDY High VOC
  17. 17. Indoor Air Quality Investigation CASE STUDY
  18. 18. On-Site Improvements  Changing cleaning material and detergents to green materials that are more environmental friendly.  Adjusting air dampers for better ventilation rates  Adjusting VCDs (volume control dampers) towards better air movement.  Installing a temporary fan near the 9th floor corridor door to balance air pressure.  Placing lockable plastic covers on thermostat controls  Implementing “Zone Operating Schedule”  Sealing window gaps to avoid infiltration and enhance building envelope. CASE STUDY
  19. 19. Indoor Air Quality Test CASE STUDY Direct Instrumental Method of Analysis 8 hours
  20. 20. Survey Questionnaire CASE STUDY Survey Question(s) Air Quality Parameter (HAAD Standard) Effects Source 3 - PM10 and TSP The lower region of the respiratory tract. Dust 4 & 5 - Air temperature - Relative humidity Thermal comfort HVAC system 6 - Yeast and mould Sensitive people to allergenic reactions. HVAC system, high humidity, reduced ventilation and HVAC system condensation. - Formaldehyde Causes watery eyes, burning sensations in the eyes and throat, nausea, and difficulty in breathing. Carpet glue, insulation material, furniture. - Co Reduces the oxygen supply to the body causing suffocation. Vehicles exhaust entry to the building. - Co2 Thermal comfort Ventilation rate (HVAC system) 7 - VOC Eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination and central nervous system Paint, cleaning material, adhesive, cosmetics and carpets 8 - TSP & PM2.5 Respiratory system Cigarette smoke 9 - General perception of air chemicals’ effects on general health Various external and internal pollution sources 10, 11, 12, 13 & 14 High level of concentration for most parameters Sick building syndrome (SBS) Ventilation, poor HVAC system causing contamination.
  21. 21. Absenteeism Records CASE STUDY Cause of absence that is related only to respiratory, allergy, headache…etc problems was taken into consideration
  22. 22. Results CASE STUDY
  23. 23. IAQ Test & Survey Questionnaire Parameter Averaging Time HAAD Limit Unit Detection Limit Results Min. Max. Ave. Air Temperature 8 hours Summer 24.5 ± 1.5˚C - - 25.2 26.4 25.8 Relative humidity 8 hours 30 – 60 - - 38.1 42.5 40.3 Particulate matters (PM2.5) 8 hours 0.025 mg/m³ 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.002 Particulate matters (PM10) 8 hours - mg/m³ 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 Total suspended particles (TSP) 8 hours - mg/m³ 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.003 Formaldehyde 8 hours 0.1 mg/m³ 0.01 0.013 0.03 0.021 Carbon dioxide 8 hours 1,000 ppm 1 488 580 534 Carbon monoxide 8 hours 9 ppm 0.001 0.533 0.0 0.72 Ozone 8 hours 0.1 ppm 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 Volatile organic compound (VOC) 8 hours 100 ppb 10 153 245 199 Total bacterial count (TBC) 8 hours ≤ 1000 cfu/m³ - 356 Yeast and mould 8 hours ≤ 1000 cfu/m³ - 490 HAAD Standard (2009) Occupational and Indoor Air Quality, Health Authority Abu Dhabi, UAE Results CASE STUDY
  24. 24. Conclusion 36% Savings over 1 year upon implementing improvement measures 1000 £ CASE STUDY
  25. 25. The Pathway Ahead 1 a)HVAC System technical issues b)Facility Cleanliness Considerations c)Indoor Air Quality Investigation d)Indoor Air Quality Test e)Survey Questionnaire f)Interviews 2 On-site improvements 3 Indoor air quality test 4 Absenteeism records
  26. 26. SO….. Does Good Indoor Air Quality Really Improve Workplace Productivity?
  27. 27. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION…

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