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  1. 1. Running head: TREATMENT OF AIDS 1 Treatment of Aids Name: Course: Professor Name: (March 17, 2012) .
  2. 2. TREATMENT OF AIDS 2 Treatment of Aids The HIV drugs are divided into five classes, with over 22 drugs licensed and used forthe treatment of HIV. The drugs are divided depending on how they attach HIV. It’s usuallyadvisable to at least combine drugs from two different classes of drugs so as to avoid creatingstrains of HIV that are immune to single drugs. The first class is the Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The drugs inthis class include AZT (zidovudine, Retrovir), ddl (didanosine, Videx), 3TC (lamivudine,Epivir), d4T (stavudine, Zerit), abacavir (ziagen), and FTC (emtricitabine, Emtriva). Therealso exists a nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor called tenofovir (viread).The AZT and 3TC drugs are available in a combined pill called Combivir and AZT, abacavirand 3TC are available in a combined form called Trizirvir. There also exist a single pill ofAZT and abacir called kivexa. Also a single pill combing FTC and the nucleotide analoguetenofovir called Truvada is also available in the markets. A single pill called Sustiva which isa combination of NNRTI, FTC and tenofovir is also available (Kane, 2008). The second class is Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI, or non-Nukes). Drugs in this class include: efavirenz (Sustiva), etravirine (intelence) and nevirapine(Viramune). It also has some combines which include: Atripla, which is a combination ofNRTI, FTC, tenofovir and the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The third class is theProtease inhibitors (PIs). The drugs in this class include: atazanavir (Reyataz), darunavir(Prezista), fosamprenavir (Telzir), indinavir (Crixivan), lopnavir (kaletra), nelfinavir(Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir), saquinavir (Invirase) and tipranavir (Aptivus). Persons whotake protease inhibitors are recommended to take small dose of ritonavir. The fourth class isthe Fusion, entry. They include: enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) and maraviroc (Selzentry). The lastclass is Integrase inhibitor, they include: Raltegravir (Isentress). It works by disablingintegrase, a protein that HIV uses to insert its generic material into CD4 cells (Kane, 2008).
  3. 3. TREATMENT OF AIDS 3 The patients should start taking treatments at various stages. One of the reasons youshould start treatment is when there are severe HIV symptoms. Also when the CD4 count isbelow 500 treatments should start. For women, when one is pregnant the treatment shouldstart immediately. Also, if you have HIV-related kidney disease then treatment shouldcommence. If also diagnosed with hepatitis B treatment should also start. Before adapting to the drugs there are many difficulties that are associated with theusage of the drugs. The drugs are taken with multiple pills at specific times every day and thisgoes on for the rest of the person life. This comes with many side effects which include:Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, abnormal heartbeats, shortness of breath, shortness of breath,skin rash, weakened bones, and bone death, particularly in the hip joints (Mak & Chaddah,2005). The response time is usually measured by the viral load and the CD4 counts. At thestart of every treatment the viral load should be tested and every three to four months whileundergoing therapy. The CD4 count on the other hand should be checked every three to sixmonths. A successful treatment should reduce the viral load to an undetectable level; thisdoes not necessarily mean that HIV is gone. This means that the test done is not sensitiveenough to detect, and thus one can transmit the virus to others. The treatment also reduceschances to attack by opportunistic diseases (Mak & Chaddah, 2005).
  4. 4. TREATMENT OF AIDS 4 ReferencesKane, B.M. (2008). HIV/AIDS Treatment Drugs. New York: Infobase PublishingMak, T.W., & Chaddah, M.R. (2005). The Immune Response: Basic and Clinical Principles. New York: Academic Press