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  1. 1. Surname 1Name:Tutor:Course:Date: Canada’s 9/11”: the bombing of Air India Flight 182 Importance of Air India to Canada Due to the fact that there is bilateral trade between India and Canada, which has beenincreasing since the two countries came into good terms, for instance, in 2010, the traderesulted to about four billion US dollars. As a result, Air India is of great importance toCanada as it facilitates/ transports many exports from India to Canada and many importsfrom Canada to India. As a result, the airline is very important to Canada. Major exportsfrom India to Canada include garments, engineering goods, and foods, among other products.Moreover, there are goods transported from Canada to India by Air India. For this trade to beeffective, Air India plays a very important role in transportation. Moreover, there are many Canadian investments in India, as well as many Indianinvestments in Canada. Most Canadian investments in Canada in India are in banks,insurance, and other sectors in financial services. This investment increases Canadian GDPand GNP, which are important indicators of a country’s economic development. As a result,for these investments to take place, people have to move from India and from Canada toIndia or to Canada. One major airline used in this process is Air India. Apart fromtransporting individuals to make investments, Air India itself has made significantinvestments in Canada, such investments employ Canadian people, is being taxed byCanadian , and using Canadian resources at a cost. As a result, Air India is very important infacilitating investments. Moreover, there are other Social Cooperate Responsibility activities
  2. 2. Surname 2being carried out by Air India in Canada. This is for instance offering scholarships toCanadian Students to learn in India (, par 4). There are many Canadian students in India, and many Indian professionals in Canada.For such individuals to receive either teaching materials, or reading materials withouttravelling themselves, Air India offers document delivery to such individuals. In general, AirIndia is very important to Canadian government and the entire society. Ramifications Government Inquiry After some time, an investigation concerning Sikh separates connectivity to theincident started. This is because; the separates had given lots of threats and had alreadycommitted several violence acts in reprisal against Hindus. In other investigations around theworld that went on to about six years, there were many plots concerning the incident thatwere brought into light. After recovery remains, human bodies, and recorders, it was foundthat recorders as well as voice were all cut simultaneously. Moreover, damages to recoveredparts from Cargo bay established that there was higher probability that the cause of theincidence was a bomb, which was placed close to forward cargo. This incidence was thenlinked to earlier Japan bombing which was also as a result of a Vancouver. This is based onthe fact that, the two flights’ tickets were bought by the same individual and at the same time.Moreover, in the two cases, the planes were carrying the bags without the individual whobrought them (Weismiller, par 4). However, there was no any part of the bomb that was recovered, but Tokyo’s blastinvestigation showed that, a bomb was put in Sanyo stereo of a series, whose destination wasCanada at Vancouver. Later, it was discovered that, the recent sale was to mechanic Reyat inDuncan B.C. further inquiries indicate that wiretaps indicated the presence of Reyat togetherwith Parmar at the site where the bomb was tested. Further investigation lead to the discovery
  3. 3. Surname 3of Sanyo Turner of FMT-611K model receipt, telephone number, as well as bombcomponents purchase. It was concluded in 1986 by the Canadian Aviation Board that thebomb explosion occurred in the forward cargo. The supreme court of India ended uppresenting an inquiry report in February in 1986. Moreover, it was concluded that the bombthat brought lead to blowing of Air India originated from Canada. Based on evidences likewiretap, searches as well as arrest of suspects, the mastermind of the bomb are at least twogroups of Sikh terrorists from Canada, US as UK as well as India. Their aim was to revengeagainst the government’s move of assaulting the Golden Temple in 1984. Trials At first, there was no enough evidence to convict Reyat to Air India blast. However,he ended up pleading guilty 1986 that he was in possession of explosive compounds as wellas illegal firearm. His fine was only 2000 US dollars. Afterwards, it was discovered byRCMP and Japanese investigators found that there was a link between the recovered parts ofthe bomb, with bomb components that were purchased by Reyat. After lacking murdercharge evidence, prosecutor Jardine ended up recommending two manslaughter chargesalong with five counts related to explosives. Reyat was then found guilty of twomanslaughter charges, as well as two explosive charges. He was imprisoned for ten years. After 15 years, Malik and Bagri were arrested by RCMP; they were charged first-degree murder amounting to 329 individuals that died in Air India 182, murder conspiracy,attempted murder of Air crews and passengers who were killed in Canadian Pacific flightthat occurred in Tokyo, along with murder charges of two cargo handlers in Naritainternational Airport. Reyat was arrested again in 2003 on charges of conspiracy andattempted murder. He pleaded guilty in to manslaughter along with a charge that heparticipated in bomb construction. As a result, he was give five years imprisonment.
  4. 4. Surname 4However, Malik and Bagri were found not guilty as there was no enough evidence(Milewski, par 5). Media There were many documentaries made about the incident, and were made availablefor audience of Canadian television. Moreover, many journalists talked about it and are stilltalking about it till now. Just after eight month, Jiwa Salim, one of the Province newspaperpuiblished a story called ‘Death of Air India Flight 182’. Other headlines include Loss ofFaith: How the Air-India Bombers Got Away With Murder by Vancouver Sun, a reporter ofreporter Kim Bolan Precursors of Air India Flight 182 The Bagri speech in the meeting held by World Sikh Organization in New York;where they committed to strive for an independent homeland through peaceful means. This iswhere he said that they will kill 50,000 Hindus. In 1984, the authority was informed byinformants about Air India 182 bomb that aborted. In the same year, the Canadian authoritiesCSIS and RCMP were informed about air flight bombing in Montreal, but they dismissed thereport. April 1985, Reyat inquires the amount of dynamite that has the ability of blowing atree stump. In May, he bought a digital automatic clock. It was this time that Rayet wasincluded in the list of terrorist, as he was making lots of calls with parmar. In mid May, the12 volt device was tested by Reyat, and the real bomb tested in early June. Still in June,international youth foundation leader announced that though there was no one dead, butsomething was going to happen. Then later, the extremists were warned not to use Air India,as it was unsafe for them. On 14th, Muslim extremists hijacked TWA Flight 847 but the dealended in Beirut.
  5. 5. Surname 5 Bomb suspect bought tickets using pay phone and all communications were coded.On 22 June, some declined an alternative when he was told he was still on reservation list.The agent reluctantly accepts to move the dark-brown suitcase to Air India Flight 182. Andthis was how the bomb got into Air India 182. Due to insecurity, Air India had requested formore police officer and intenfied their checks. However, on that particular day, the X-raymachine had broken down. (Rae, par 5) The Transaction of the Terrorist Event Though the figures of money received and spent are not indicated, but it has be shownthat Babbar Khalsa Society was one of the financiers of this incidence. Such organization onthe other hand was issuing out cash in the name of charitable services. Moreover, some fundswhich were being collected in the name of supporting Canadian Sikh temple was sent tomilitants to carry out the attack. It has been indicated that the terrorists used prepaid cardsand cell phones in purchasing items as well as transferring money from one person to theother (Weismiller, par 6). For instance, the suspects who participated in Air India attack paidtickets as well as other transactions through pay phone. However, there are no exact figuresto indicate how much they were receiving and sending. However, they also used cash insettling their debts, for instance, someone paid two tickets amounting to $3,005 in cash, andthis was done at Vancouver CP ticket office. Moreover, there were some transactions whichwere made in hiring vehicles to transport the explosives to the airport, 12 volt batteries andother electronic appliances. . Government Inability Different government agencies like RCMP, Transport Canada as well A Air Indiawere not working in harmony. Such agencies were not ready to share available information,every agency wanted to go on with the investigation singlehandedly about the extremistattack. Moreover, if bags could have been reconciled with the owners, then it could have
  6. 6. Surname 6been identified that the explosive owner was not in the plane, and could have resulted tosuspicions. Moreover, the government had not ensured efficient sensor systems, for instancesniffer dogs and effective scanners. As a result, though there were suspicions concerning thebags, but no one took a step further to investigate them. There were early warning from the Indian government to Canadian government aboutthe possibility of bomb attack to Air India, as a result, the Canadian government could havedone its investigation to identify the risk, but it seems the government was reluctant inestablishing that. Moreover, people Aftermath, the Canadian government has changed its perception to Air India tragedy.The government has been much committed in carrying out investigations. The Canadiangovernment has carried out its instigations and admitted that these who mastermind theincident were Sikhs’ militant groups along with other militant groups originating fromCanada. As a result, many suspects have been arrested and even tried. However, due toinsufficient evidence, only one has been convicted. Moreover, the Canadian government hasconfiscated the accounts, apart from banning the operations of organizations that funded theterror event. It has been learnt that, though technologies and laws are of great importance, buthuman life is very important. This is because, though individuals might be in a hurry to reachtheir destinations it is good to follow all procedures involved in ensuring passengers’security. That is, though security checks might take time let’s not be in a risk of doing thingsin a hurry. It was also learnt that little mistakes can lead to a very disastrous event, so there isno room for assumptions (Saklikar, 6). The government has set laws and regulations aiming at dealing with crime andregulation of terrorist finances. Moreover, security committees like antiterrorism committee
  7. 7. Surname 7has been established. In addition, the RCMP and CSIS have been restructured in a mannerthat they share some information.
  8. 8. Surname 8 Work . India-Canada Relations. 2012. 01 March 2012 <>.Milewski, Terry. In Depth Air India Evidence – Part 1 Plotted in plain sight? Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2007.Rae, Bob. Lessons to Be Learned. Ottawa, Canada: Air India Review Secretariat. 2005. 01 March 2012, <>.Saklikar, Renee. The lesson from Air India Flight 182: Curiosity can save us. The Georgia Straight. 2010.March 2012. < eng.asp>.Weismiller, Bryan. Justice John Major talks Air India bombing. 2010. 01 March 2012, < air-india-bombing>.