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MALAYSIAN ADOLESCENTS VIEW OF CONTROVERSIAL ADVERTISING     Professor Dr. Ernest Cyril de Run         Faculty of Economics...
INTRODUCTION • Malaysia • 10% of Malaysians are teenagers • Globalization • Increase media use and coverage to cut through...
LITERATURE REVIEW• Controversial advertising denotes 2 things:   • the advertising of a product or service that is deemed ...
LITERATURE REVIEW (CONT) Others suggest a different typology, based on products, services,   and concepts (Willson., Aubre...
LITERATURE REVIEW (CONT) Adolescents are defined by age group cohorts. Agents of change (Spero and Stone, 2004). Teenagers...
METHODOLOGY• There are 2,335,693 teenager’s (15 to 19 years) in Malaysia  (Department of Statistic Malaysia, 2003).• 300 q...
FINDINGS    Table 1: Respondents Profile                                       Overall            Male              Female...
FINDINGS      Table 2: Means of Offensive Matter for Malaysian Teenagers                                           Overall...
FINDINGS (CONT)  Table 3: Means of Offensive Manner for Malaysian Teenagers                                   Overall     ...
DISCUSSION• Top three products/services seen as when advertised to be  offensive are alcoholic products, condoms and gambl...
DISCUSSION (CONT) • Top three reasons why advertisements are offensive are nudity,   indecent language and violence. Anti-...
CONCLUSION•   This article set out to look at the relationship between what    and why advertisements are seen as controve...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT•   This paper is based on research at Universiti Malaysia    Sarawak under grant number NF(F01)/14/2008(07...
Thank you      Professor Dr. Ernest Cyril de Run        Faculty of Economics and Business    Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (...
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MALAYSIAN ADOLESCENTS VIEW OF CONTROVERSIAL ADVERTISING

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Transcript of "MALAYSIAN ADOLESCENTS VIEW OF CONTROVERSIAL ADVERTISING "

  1. 1. MALAYSIAN ADOLESCENTS VIEW OF CONTROVERSIAL ADVERTISING Professor Dr. Ernest Cyril de Run Faculty of Economics and Business Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia Abdul Mukmin b Alias Bank Islam Bhd
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Malaysia • 10% of Malaysians are teenagers • Globalization • Increase media use and coverage to cut through the clutter • Need to be aware of: • What is controversial, and • Why is it controversial Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  3. 3. LITERATURE REVIEW• Controversial advertising denotes 2 things: • the advertising of a product or service that is deemed to create awkwardness, humiliation, displeasure, aversion, outrage or repugnant to a section of society (Waller, 2005) • the execution of an advertisement, be it for an acceptable product or one that isn’t, that is seen as controversial (Barnes & Dotson Jr, 1990).The list includes Cigarettes, condoms, contraceptives and alcohol products (Schuster & Powell, 1987; Willson., Aubrey., & West., 1981), products directed at children and health/sex related products (Fahy, Smart, Pride, & Ferrell, 1995), feminine Hygiene Products (Rehman & J.R. Brooks., 1987).Have been grouped into: 1. Gender / Sex related products, 2. Social / Political groups, 3. Addictive products, and 4 Health and Care products (Fam, Waller, & Erdogan, 2004). Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  4. 4. LITERATURE REVIEW (CONT) Others suggest a different typology, based on products, services, and concepts (Willson., Aubrey., & West., 1981). The product list includes Personal hygiene, birth control, warfare, and drugs for terminal illness. Services includes Abortion, sterilization, venereal disease (VD), mental illness, funeral directors, and artificial insemination while concepts include Political ideas, palliative care, unconventional sexual practices, racial/religious prejudice, terrorism, alcoholic products, charities / fund raising, cigarettes / tobacco, condoms, female contraceptives, female underwear, feminine hygiene products, funeral services, gambling, guns and armaments, male underwear, pharmaceuticals, political parties, racially extremist groups, religious denominations, sexual diseases, and weight loss programs (Shao and Hill, 1994a, Shao and Hill, 1994b, Waller et al., 2002). Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  5. 5. LITERATURE REVIEW (CONT) Adolescents are defined by age group cohorts. Agents of change (Spero and Stone, 2004). Teenagers are an attractive markets segment because they influences their parents’ spending, spend their own money currently, and will spend more in the future, and are usually trendsetters (Shoham A. and Dalakas V. , 2003). Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  6. 6. METHODOLOGY• There are 2,335,693 teenager’s (15 to 19 years) in Malaysia (Department of Statistic Malaysia, 2003).• 300 questionnaires distributed with the help of school teachers• The questionnaire was developed based on previous studies (Waller et al., 2002, Shao and Hill, 1994b, Shao and Hill, 1994a).• 5 point Likert Scale, 1 - not at all controversial to 5 extremely controversial or 1 - not at all agree to 5 extremely agree Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  7. 7. FINDINGS Table 1: Respondents Profile Overall Male Female Variables Freq % Freq % Freq % Gender Male 117 49.0 117 100 - - Female 122 51.0 - - 122 100 Age 15 33 13.8 17 14.5 16 13.1 16 39 16.3 23 19.7 16 13.1 17 37 15.5 17 14.5 20 16.4 18 47 19.7 18 15.4 29 23.8 19 83 34.7 42 35.9 41 33.6 State Sarawak 34 14.2 15 12.8 19 15.6 Sabah 30 12.6 18 15.4 12 9.8 Johor 57 23.8 23 19.7 34 27.9 Selangor 57 23.8 29 24.8 28 23.0 Kuala Lumpur 10 4.2 6 5.1 4 3.3 Negeri Sembilan 3 1.3 1 .9 2 1.6 Kedah 2 .8 2 1.7 - - Melaka 2 .8 1 .9 1 .8 Kelantan 44 18.4 22 18.8 22 18.0 Religion Muslim 194 81.2 88 75.2 106 86.9 Christian 24 10.0 14 12.0 10 8.2 Hindu 9 3.8 7 6.0 2 1.6 Other 12 5.0 8 6.8 4 3.3 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  8. 8. FINDINGS Table 2: Means of Offensive Matter for Malaysian Teenagers Overall Male Female Variable Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Alcohol products 3.69 1.38 3.78 1.20 3.60 1.53 Charities/fund raising 2.03 1.21 2.09 1.22 1.96 1.21 Cigarettes/tobacco 3.32 1.42 3.27 1.38 3.36 1.45 Condoms 3.67 1.38 3.56 1.39 3.77 1.36 Female contraceptives 3.32 1.36 3.21 1.39 3.43 1.34 Female underwear* 3.31 1.45 3.12 1.42 3.49 1.46 Feminine hygiene products 2.71 1.39 2.66 1.39 2.75 1.39 Funeral services 2.20 1.37 2.22 1.40 2.18 1.35 Gambling 3.39 1.61 3.42 1.55 3.37 1.67 Guns & armaments 2.82 1.55 2.91 1.50 2.73 1.60 Male underwear** 3.10 1.46 2.79 1.38 3.39 1.47 Pharmaceuticals 1.67 1.16 1.72 1.17 1.62 1.15 Political parties 2.35 1.34 2.31 1.31 2.39 1.38 Racially extremist groups 3.32 1.56 3.31 1.58 3.34 1.55 Religious denominations 2.90 1.50 2.87 1.55 2.93 1.45 Sexual diseases 2.85 1.52 2.97 1.55 2.72 1.50 Weight loss programs 2.24 1.36 2.14 1.33 2.34 1.38 t-test output depicted as: *Sig difference at 0.05, **Sig difference at 0.01 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  9. 9. FINDINGS (CONT) Table 3: Means of Offensive Manner for Malaysian Teenagers Overall Male Female Variable Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Anti-social behavior 2.90 1.34 2.90 1.36 2.91 1.33 Concern for children 2.93 1.45 2.89 1.38 2.97 1.53 Hard sell 3.43 1.32 3.43 1.32 3.43 1.33 Health and safety issues 2.23 1.30 2.32 1.36 2.14 1.25 Indecent language* 4.12 1.11 3.95 1.26 4.29 0.92 Nudity** 4.25 1.10 4.06 1.28 4.43 0.87 Racist image 3.67 1.42 3.75 1.43 3.58 1.42 Sexist image** 3.84 1.22 3.54 1.37 4.12 0.98 Stereotyping of people 3.30 1.36 3.22 1.37 3.38 1.36 Subject too personal* 3.75 1.17 3.57 1.28 3.92 1.03 Violence 3.89 1.20 3.88 1.26 3.89 1.15 Western images 3.74 1.32 3.71 1.38 3.76 1.27 t-test output depicted as: *Sig difference at 0.05, **Sig difference at 0.01 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  10. 10. DISCUSSION• Top three products/services seen as when advertised to be offensive are alcoholic products, condoms and gambling.• Least offensive include the advertising of funeral services, charities, and pharmaceuticals.• Overall, the findings support past studies (Schuster and Powell, 1987, Willson and West, 1981).• This may be due to the fact that most respondents were Muslim, and religious practices of Islam heavily influence the mass media in Malaysia (Wee et al., 1995).• What is more apparent and important here is the general lack of distinction between male and female respondents in their views of products/services that are controversial. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  11. 11. DISCUSSION (CONT) • Top three reasons why advertisements are offensive are nudity, indecent language and violence. Anti-social behavior and health and safety issues are the least important reasons. • Male respondents seem to view that nudity, indecent language and violence are the main reasons for an advertisement to be offensive. • Female respondents do concur with the issue of nudity and indecent language but have their own view for the third reason; sexist image. • Women, even at this tender age, are more concerned of the properness of the advertisement (Pollay and Gallagher, 1990b). Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  12. 12. CONCLUSION• This article set out to look at the relationship between what and why advertisements are seen as controversial for teenagers in Malaysia.• The main products and services that were seen as offensive were alcohol, condoms, and gambling. Female respondents were also concerned of the advertising of female underwear. Nevertheless, the findings indicate an overall similarity between male and female adolescents in their views of what is controversial.• This study suggest that nudity, violence, sexist image, and indecent language are factors to be taken into account when designing an advertisement. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  13. 13. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT• This paper is based on research at Universiti Malaysia Sarawak under grant number NF(F01)/14/2008(07). The author expresses his gratitude to UNIMAS for sponsoring attendance at the conference. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  14. 14. Thank you Professor Dr. Ernest Cyril de Run Faculty of Economics and Business Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
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