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Best Paper Marketing APMMC 2013

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Best Paper Marketing APMMC 2013

  1. 1. HOW YOUNG ADULTS PERCEIVE ADVERTISING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE ETHNIC GROUPS APMMC 2013 Hiram Ting & Ernest Cyril de Run Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.
  2. 2. Introduction • Advertising by nature is a socio-cultural phenomenon (Wang & Sun, 2010). While it is commonly known to play a key role in economic development, it also stimulates societal activities, and affects even the manner people live (Pollay & Mittal, 1993; Wang, et al., 2009). • Given the rapid development of internet and digital technology, younger generations are becoming more exposed to advertisement than those who were of the same age a decade ago (Purosothuman, 2008; Tai, 2007). • This study is aimed to investigate the attitude of young adults towards advertising in the contemporary setting. As culture is embedded in ethnicity, how young adults from different ethnic groups perceive advertising will be looked into respectively. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  3. 3. Literature Review Attitude towards Advertising • For many years, the topic of attitude towards advertising has received substantial attention in the marketing literature (Ha, et al., 2011; MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989; Mehta, 2000; Mittal, 1994; O'Donohoe, 1995). Attitude towards advertising is largely known as “a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner to advertising in general” (Lutz, 1985, p. 16). • In order to articulate the formation of attitude towards advertising, past studies have also delved into its antecedents in order to assess their relationships. One of the most recognized variables found in earlier empirical studies is the beliefs about advertising. They are described as specific statements about the attributes of objects (Brackett & Carr, 2001; Ducoffe, 1996; Pollay & Mittal, 1993; Wang, et al., 2009), and are able to provide explanation to attitude towards advertising. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  4. 4. Literature Review (cont.) Theoretical Consideration • As such the theory of reasoned action (TRA) developed by Fishbein and Azjen (1980) is adapted to provide a theoretical basis to assess beliefs and attitude towards advertising. • Despite having various compositions of beliefs about advertising in earlier studies, the seven-factor belief model by Pollay and Mittal (1993) is regarded as one of the most comprehensive works (Korgaonkar, et al., 2001; Munusamy & Wong, 2007; Ramaprasad & Thurwanger, 1998). Hence it is adopted to decompose behavioral belief and explain attitude in TRA. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  5. 5. Literature Review (cont.) Culture and Ethnicity • Culture reveals group-wide patterns of human thoughts and relations (Drake, 1994; Lau, et al., 2001; Legoh´erel, et al., 2009). Hall (1976) defined it as “the way of life of people, for the sum of their learned behavioural patterns, attitudes, and material things” (p. 20). • Ethnicity, in turn, involves a common cultural heritage, a sense of belongingness that is passed from one generation to another (Renzetti & Curran, 1998). As ethnicity is a dominant embodiment of culture (Usunier, 2000), it is apparent that the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours of individuals are very much dependent upon the ethnic groups that they belong to (Legoh´erel, et al., 2009). Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  6. 6. Research Framework Product Information Social Image/Role Pleasure/Hedonism Good for Economy Materialism Falsity/No Sense Corrupting Value Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) Attitude towards Advertising
  7. 7. Research Problem • Notwithstanding the profound effect of culture, the meteoric rise and use of technological products especially among the young adults, and its impact on them cannot be overlooked (Eze & Lee, 2012; Waller & Fam, 2000). This phenomenon is believed to have increased worldwide exchanges of national and cultural resources (Al-Rodhan, 2006), thus intensifying human interaction and conformity. • Despite having marketing-related studies using ethnic groups in Sarawak as samples under study (De Run, 2007; Ting & De Run, 2012b; Ting, et al., 2012), little is known about the influence of culture on attitude of young adults towards advertising. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  8. 8. Hypotheses Development • H1: Beliefs about advertising among the young adults across three ethnic groups will be significantly different. • H2: Attitude towards advertising among the young adults across three ethnic groups will be significantly different. • H3: The effect of beliefs about advertising on attitude towards advertising among the young adults across three ethnic groups will be different. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  9. 9. Methodology • One specific group of young-adult population in Malaysia is university students (De Run, et al., 2010; Mokhlis, 2009). Students from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) and Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak (SUTS) constituted the population of the study. • Purposive and snowball sampling approaches were used. • A total of 400 copies were distributed on the two campuses concurrently, and 316 usable copies were later collected. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  10. 10. Findings Respondents Profile Gender Ethnic Age Variable Male Female Iban Chinese Malay 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Frequency 132 184 118 105 93 21 64 81 40 40 32 38 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) Percent 41.8 58.2 37.3 33.2 29.4 6.6 20.3 25.6 12.7 12.7 10.1 12.0
  11. 11. Findings (cont.) Mean and Reliability Values by Ethnicity Factor It Information 3 Social Role Overall M S.D. Iban Chinese M M S.D. α M S.D. 5.52 1.03 5.48 1.00 5.48 1.04 5.62 1.07 79.6 3 4.81 1.21 4.86 f 1.34 4.54 1.03 5.04 1.19 78.3 Hedonism 3 4.97 1.16 5.01 1.17 4.89 1.11 5.03 1.19 72.9 Economy 3 4.92 1.15 4.89 1.23 4.78 1.10 5.10 1.07 79.5 MaterialismR 4 3.29 1.39 3.23 1.53 3.31 1.27 3.36 1.35 86.4 FalsityR 3 3.47 1.35 3.42 1.39 3.54 1.37 3.46 1.29 84.6 CorruptionR 2 3.57 1.30 3.51 1.28 3.62 1.32 3.60 1.31 78.8 Attitude 3 4.92 0.93 4.90 0.95 4.86 0.88 5.02 0.96 73.6 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) S.D. Malay
  12. 12. Findings (cont.) Differences in Belief and Attitude towards Advertising by Ethnicity Factor Iban (Mean) Chinese (Mean) Malay (Mean) F value Information 5.48 5.48 5.62 0.622 Social Role 4.86 4.54a 5.04b 4.491* Hedonism 5.01 4.89 5.03 0.464 Economy 4.89 4.78 5.10 1.972 MaterialismR 3.23 3.31 3.36 0.228 FalsityR 3.42 3.54 3.46 0.193 CorruptionR 3.51 3.62 3.60 0.248 Attitude 4.90 4.86 5.02 0.708 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  13. 13. Findings (cont.) Effect of Belief on Attitude towards Advertising by Ethnicity Factor Information Social Role Hedonism Economy MaterialismR FalsityR CorruptionR F value R2 Adjusted R2 Iban (Beta) 0.091 0.174* 0.235** 0.294** 0.278** -0.003 0.038 11.613 0.425 0.388 Attitude Chinese (Beta) 0.429** 0.000 0.106 0.201* -0.081 0.294** 0.123 13.329 0.490 0.454 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) Malay (Beta) 0.300** -0.021 0.219* 0.278** -0.056 0.059 0.013 9.107 0.429 0.382
  14. 14. Discussions • The findings show there is no significant different of beliefs and attitude towards advertising across the Iban, Chinese and Malay young adults, except for the belief about advertising portraying social image between the Chinese and Malay. • As such the first hypothesis is partially supported and the second hypothesis is not supported. • What sets them apart is the effect of beliefs about advertising on attitude towards advertising. While social image and materialism affect the attitude of Iban towards advertising, falsity and hedonism affect the attitude of Chinese and Malay towards advertising respectively. As such the third hypothesis is supported. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  15. 15. Conclusion • Given this scenario, managers and marketers need to devise marketing strategy and advertising campaign to young adults meticulously to promote what is shared across ethnic groups, and preclude what is not. • This study is limited in a sense that it only looks at attitude towards advertising in general. Moreover it is conducted only in the state of Sarawak. • Future studies: nationwide, attitude towards specific advertising and comparison between younger and older cohorts. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  16. 16. THANK YOU Hiram Ting PhD Student Faculty of Economics and Business Universiti Malaysia Sarawak 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia E-mail: hiramparousia@gmail.com

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