Page 04 A. General Aspects
A.1. Who is acting as project proposer (ministry/organization/agency/other)?
Page 05 B. Basis on which the site proposals are presented
B.1. What is the technical basis (the published technical design) of the ESS on which the site proposal is based?
Page 06 B.2. In particular, what is the scientific impact of the choice of the long pulse option?
Page 08 C. Costing
C.1. Cost Projection and Calculation Model
C.1.1. Construction and Commissioning
Page 09 C.1.2. Operation costs
Page 10 C.1.3. Decommissioning Costs
C.2. To Which Year Does the Cost Estimate Refer?
C.3. Cost Projection Breakdown
C.3.1. Construction and Commissioning
Page 11 C.3.2. Operation Costs
Page 12 C.3.3. Site-Dependent Costs
Page 13 D. Financing Points
D.1. What is the financing model, what are the financial contributions foreseen and/or guaranteed for
Page 14 D.2. Are in-kind contributions foreseen? At what level?
Page 15 D.3. What are the financial commitments of the central and/or regional governments of the host state not
included in D1? VAT and Taxes
D.4. Are there already commitments of other countries? Which ones? At what levels? Connected with
Page 16 D.5. Are satellite infrastructure centres planned?
Page 17 E. Legal, organizational and security points
E.1. What is the national legal and political framework?
Page 22 E.2. What are the proposed legal and management plans?
Page 24 E.3. What are the important risk and insurance issues?
Page 27 F. Environment and socio-economic points
F.1. What is specific for the site?
Page 30 F.2. What is the local environment/infrastructure?
Page 36 F.3. What are the scientific environments/infrastructures?
Page 39 F.4. What are the specific risks at the site (during construction/operation/decommissioning phases)?
Page 46 F.5. What is the socio-economic impact?
Page 49 G. Additional Features
A. General Aspects
A.1. Who is acting as project proposer
The ESS-Bilbao Consortium was created through an
The ESS-Bilbao project is an initiative promoted by the Spanish
agreement established between both governments to manage
and Basque governments. The Spanish effort is conducted
the preparatory stage of the ESS to ensure that it would be set
through the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, which
up in the Basque Country and to regulate the initial financial
promotes and carries out the policy of the government in
commitment of both administrations, amounting to a total
educational and university matters, as well as issues regarding
of 10 million euros. The consortium would act as the host
the promotion and general coordination of scientific research
institution in charge of executing the commitments acquired
and technological development. The Basque effort is managed
by Spain towards the ESS legal entity, whichever form the entity
through the Department of Industry, Commerce, and Tourism
adopts as decided by the founding countries. For example, the
and the Education, Universities, and Research Department,
consortium would be responsible for receiving and managing
which is responsible for proposing and carrying out policies
the financial special purpose vehicle (SPV) described in D1.
of scientific research and technological innovation. During
The consortium is an open structure and could become the
the last three years, both governments have collaborated on
embryo of a future European consortium that other member
the project to bring the European Spallation Neutron Source
countries could join before or during the construction of the
(ESS) to Spain, and more specifically to the Basque Country.
ESS, as well as during different stages in the life cycle of the
The collaboration became official in the presentation of the
ESS-Bilbao candidature in October 2006 and the subsequent
See Annex A.
creation of a consortium in December of that same year.
STEERING COMMITEE ADVISORY
STRATEGY SCIENCE BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT
Figure A1. ESS-Bilbao chart
B. Basis on which the site proposals are presented
delivered, as stated in the 2003 Technical Report [Letchford
B.1. What is the technical basis (the published
2003], by a tandem of two H+ ion sources delivering 85 mA
technical design) of the ESS on which the site
each, and funnelled together after the two beams have been
proposal is based?
accelerated up to an energy of 20 MeV.
The ESS-Bilbao Concept
The linac design is based on a sequence of drift tubes and
The current ESS-Bilbao proposal complies with the basic coupled cavities operating at 560 MHz and a superconducting
machine specifications contained in the ESFRI 2006 Roadmap on section composed of a low beta (β = 0.8) set of four cavities,
Research Infrastructures [ESFRI 2006]. Accordingly we propose each composed of six cells, and operating at a frequency of
a phased approach in which the first target station would be 1.120 MHz.
long pulse source (LPSS) based on the construction of a linear
accelerator that provides 2-ms pulses of 1.334-GeV protons Current Development Activities
which impinge on a liquid metal target with an average beam
Activities during the last few years within CARE (Coordinated
power of 5.1 MW, 16.67 times per second. A maximum of 20
Accelerator Research in Europe) and EUROTRANS
instruments could be accommodated around the equatorial
(TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator
plane of this target station.The latter is by design optimized for
Driven System) have resulted in significant advances in both ion
the production of long-wavelength neutrons, enabling studies
source and low-energy acceleration technologies that will surely
of systems exhibiting complex hierarchical structures and
have a relevant impact on the proposed accelerator design. In
a wide range of dynamics with applications in most areas of
consideration of these developments, our current development
condensed matter sciences.
activities are focused on the following studies:
A second target station, capable of feeding another 20 beam
• Use of a single proton source capable of delivering proton
lines, would be built during a second construction phase. In the
currents of 150 mA or above. Prototypes of such a
initial ESS study this second station was designed to be a short
proton injector, delivering some 5.000 hours/year with low
pulse station (SPSS) consisting of a liquid metal target fed by
downtimes, have been reported in the literature [Lazarev
2-x 0.6-µs pulses at a frequency of 50 times a second and
96]. Proton sources such as SILHI at CEA have already
similar beam energy and power. Such a SPSS would provide
produced currents of 130 mA at low duty factors [Scrivens
higher intensities and much lower backgrounds than achievable
04]. The rationale behind pursuing such an effort stems
in current short-pulse sources and would be ideally suited to
from the possibility of avoiding the use of the funnel section,
studies of matter in transient states or subjected to extreme
which constitutes one of the most complicated parts of the
environments (pressure, temperature, and magnetic, electric,
accelerator. In fact, although the principles of the proposed
laser fields etc.).
funnel scheme were once considered advanced, there is no
similar piece of equipment operating in the world today. In
Although the final design of the second target station will
order for the funnel section to perform as required, several
be driven by emerging scientific applications and will require
effects (space charge, beam rigidity, etc.) will have to be
further consultation with the scientific research community
mitigated. Hence the development of the funnel concept
the ESS-Bilbao team is following an R&D program that would
will involve a substantial research and development (R&D)
allow the second phase of ESS to be constructed as either a
effort that could be readily avoided if a single proton source
LPSS or a SPSS.
The Baseline ESS-Bilbao Linac
• Use of superconducting cavities (spokes, quarter-wave,
etc.) for medium-energy (40 to 100 MeV) acceleration.
The baseline design for the ESS-B linear accelerator (linac)
The technology has already been developed, mostly geared
adheres to suggestions made by ESS-I and consists of a machine
towards applications within the IFMIF and SPIRAL2 projects,
based on a 150 mA, proton beam. Such intensity would be
and could provide a cost-effective substitute for the copper emittance characteristics of both ECR proton and -H arc-
cavities both in terms of fabrication and operation. discharge sources, such as the Penning trap used at ISIS; RF-
driven sources, such as the multicusp -H source in use at SNS
• Behaviour of beams extracted from present-day proton [Mason 2006]; and a caesium-free, multicusp source, such as
sources at medium and high energies. Present-day electron that developed by DESY [Peters 2008].
cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton sources typically deliver
beams with a proton fraction somewhat less than 0.9. Over the next three years we plan to construct a complete
Beam dynamics simulations using realistic conditions are accelerator capable of diagnosing ion beams generated by
now being planned to obtain a better understanding of the the aforementioned ion sources. This R&D endeavour will be
transport of the intense, multispecies beams. financed by both the Basque and Central governments.
As a result of the collaboration established between the Spanish
B.2. In particular, what is the scientific impact
Ministry for Science and Innovation and the ISIS new Front-
of the choice of the long pulse option?
End-Test-Stand [Letchford 2007], the ESS-Bilbao project team
is gaining actual work experience in developing an accelerator
front end. In addition, a collaborative research group is being set The scientific impact of a high intensity, long pulse spallation
up between the project team and the CEA/CNRS SUPRATech neutron source has been well documented in a number of
platform with the goal of developing the baseline specifications recent reports [The ESS Project, Vol. II, New Science and
for the ESS-Bilbao superconducting cavities. Technology for the 21st Century, The European Spallation
Source Project, 2002, available at http://neutron.neutron-eu.
The ESS-Bilbao Ion Source: Current Developments net/n_documentation/n_reports/n_ess_reports_and_more/102.;
A Second Target Station at ISIS, RAL-TR-2000-032, 2000,
The most prominent activity dealing with technical issues carried available at http://ts-2.isis.rl.ac.uk/scienceCase/.; Medium to
out within the realm of ESS-Bilbao concerns development work Long-Term Future Scenarios for Neutron Based Science in
on ion sources. As is well known, because the radio-frequency Europe [ESFRI 2003]]
quadrupole (RFQ) transmission decreases rapidly with
increasing emittance and increasing beam current, the beam Furthermore the scientific potential of instrumentation
current required from the ion source and low-energy beam based on a long pulse design was evaluated in the Engelberg
transport (LEBT) system depends strongly on beam emittance. [Engelberg 2002] and Rencurel [Rencurel 2008] workshops.
In fact, the requirement of a 150-mA current at the beginning of
the medium-energy beam transport (MEBT) system requires The rationale for choosing a long pulse option for the first target
an RFQ input current between 85 and 95 mA for a normalized station of ESS is based on a number of technical advantages:
rms emittance between 0.20 and 0.35 π.mm.mrad. In other
words, development of a low-emittance source is essential. In • The use of long pulses (of the order of a millisecond)
addition, as recognized by various ESS documents [Letchford reduces significantly the effects of cavitation in the mercury
2003], improving the reliability of high-power, high-duty cycle target even at the high energies per pulse set forth in the
+H ion sources is a necessity if the design specification of the reference design (~300kJ per pulse).
ESS accelerator is to be met within a reasonable lapse of time.
To meet the requirement of producing 60-mA peak current • A long pulse target station eliminates the need for an
in the MEBT section, our research programme is aimed at accumulator ring and associated beam chopping and hence
developing a high-current, low-emittance ion source and an allows more power to be delivered to the target. This is
LEBT that induces minimal emittance growth. The first phase also more cost effective.
of this programme, which is financed through the ministries of
Industry and Education & Science [ITUR 2007], is well under • The long neutron pulse also allows greater flexibility for the
design of scattering instrumentation using appropriate band
way and consists of a test stand capable of comparing the
at distances up to 1 micron). This order-of-magnitude range
width selection and repetition rate choppers to optimize
extension will lead directly to new insights into forefront
to the required resolution.
highly complex and difficult problems, for example elucidating
• The long-proton pulse also provides better optimization the detailed processes and molecular drivers leading to the
of the target-moderator-reflector configuration that lead folding of proteins that is essential for them to carry out their
to additional increases in the neutron beam intensities in biological role.
particular for cold neutrons.
Another example can be found in the field of neutron
The reports referenced above show three major themes reflectometry, which has long been a unique and powerful
appearing throughout the discussions of forefront science. tool for probing the atomic or magnetic density normal to
The first is the desire to extend current capabilities to be surfaces and layered materials. In principle, lateral structures in
able to answer more difficult questions. These may involve such systems can also be probed on neutron reflectometers,
extending measurements to higher resolution, performing
using grazing-incidence techniques such as grazing-incidence
the measurements in the presence of a more difficult sample
diffraction or grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering
environment and concomitant restrictions to smaller samples,
(SANS). However, the extremely weak signals have made the
or measurements made to higher precision to look for subtle
use of such techniques very difficult, if not impossible, with
intensity variations or line shape effects. The second is the
the neutron beam intensities that have been available up to
desire to extend most types of measurements to parametric
now. The much higher intensity of cold neutrons, coupled with
studies exploring ranges of compositions, external fields such
emerging new techniques such as spin-echo resolved grazing-
as temperature or pressure, or time scales, as in kinetic studies.
incidence scattering, will enable the full capabilities of neutrons
The third is the general tendency toward the study of systems
(isotopic sensitivity, magnetic moment) to be brought to bear
exhibiting greater complexity, such as the complex chemical
in the study of such lateral surface structures at length scales of
systems that occur in many soft matter studies, aspects of
about 10 to 1.000 nanometers or more.This exciting prospect
macromolecular functionality important in biology that can
will open up broad forefront scientific areas to study with
be explored using neutron scattering, or the multi-component
neutrons, including lateral structures in lubricating or adhesive
systems important to the geophysical properties and functions
layers, wetting phenomena, block copolymer or liquid crystal
relevant to earth sciences. These trends are all evident today
layers on surfaces, artificial biomembranes or biomimetic
as scientists stretch the capabilities of existing neutron sources
systems, self-assembly of nanoparticles on surface templates,
and instrumentation to try to extend their measurements
and perhaps even real biological membranes.
into some of these areas. The long pulse ESS will provide
major new capabilities that support these three themes and
A third example of new capabilities lies in the use of very
significantly extend the types of scientific problems that can
highly focused neutron beams. At present, neutron focusing
be fruitfully addressed with neutron scattering. By focusing
devices easily achieve focused beam sizes of <100 microns,
on and optimizing for the production of cold neutrons this
and focused neutron beams ~10 microns in size will be
new facility will provide much higher cold-neutron intensities
possible in the near future. The neutron intensity that will be
than heretofore available on any pulsed neutron source. These
available in such focused beams will be enough to measure the
higher fluxes translate into the ability to study much smaller
very weak absorption or scattering produced by the relatively
samples, more-weakly-scattering processes, and/or higher-rate
small number of sample atoms illuminated by a beam of this
kinetic behaviors. They also translate into the ability to extend
size. This, of course, will permit the study of such very small
measurements to study of larger length scales and slower
samples, and should also create opportunities to develop
instrumentation for various types of scanning neutron probes
for exploring minute regions of larger samples. The availability
For example, higher intensities permit tightening the resolution
of intense neutron beams of this size will generate new
to provide an order-of-magnitude extension of neutron
techniques that will open up totally new scientific fields with
scattering dynamical studies to probe longer time scales (slower
motions) at longer length scales (times up to 10 microseconds an ultimate potential that is at present only dimly imagined.
C.1. Cost Projection and Calculation Model
As a final example of new scientific capabilities provided
by the ESS, we mention the area of kinetic studies. The
C.1.1. Construction and Commissioning
unprecedented fluxes will allow all structural and dynamical
measurements to be made much faster. This will, of course,
facilitate parametric measurements probing material structures Updating the ESS 2002 Project costs to 2008-year prices, the
and dynamics as functions of environmental conditions such as estimated construction and commissioning cost of locating the
temperature, pressure, applied magnetic or electrical field, or ESS 5-MW LP in Bilbao is 1.284 MEur, including a contingency
provision of 15%. This cost corresponds to work packages
changing chemical composition of the environment. However,
or subsystems 1.1 to 1.8, in accordance with the ESS Project
perhaps even more exciting, these rapid measurements will
Work Breakdown Structure presented in the ESS Volume III
allow structural measurements (at length scales ranging from
hundreds of nanometers down to fractions of one nanometer)
to be made in a few seconds or less, allowing the kinetics of
Additionally, although the following two concepts were
relaxation processes or the approach to chemical equilibrium
considered but not costed in the aforementioned report, we
to be followed on such time scales.This will enable much more
have costed them with the following result:
extensive neutron exploration of the behavior of systems far
from equilibrium and the approach to equilibrium than has
• Construction of a waste management facility estimated at
previously been possible. In favorable cases pump-probe or
other sample modulation techniques can extend these types
of measurements down to a few microseconds, allowing
• Site conditioning required to meet the ESS Project
much more detailed study of the initial relaxations in far-from-
specifications estimated at 88 M€.
equilibrium conditions in a wide variety of systems.
Subtotal Cost (M€)
In summary, the quantum jump in performance brought by the
Updating of ESS 2002 Project costs 1.284,0
ESS will provide researchers with the means to probe distance
Waste Management Facility 18,5
and time scales that have hitherto been unavailable, but are
Site conditioning 88,0
critical to answering some of the grand challenge questions
facing our society. Extending the range of measurement to Table C1. Total construction cost estimate
longer distances and slower time scales enables the study of
systems exhibiting greater complexity, such as the complex Updating the ESS 2002 Project costing results in a 30%
chemical systems that occur in many soft matter studies, aspects increase with respect to the 989 M€. quoted for the ESS Stage
of macromolecular functionality important in biology that can 1 in the ESS Volume III Update Report. The increase is driven
be explored using neutron scattering, or the multi-component mainly by the increased costs of certain raw materials such as
systems important to the geophysical properties and functions steel, copper, and niobium, which are well above the general
relevant to earth sciences. Furthermore the unprecedented Consumer Price Index (CPI) evolution.
high intensities will also enable very short measurement times
with the routine use of parametric studies to explore systems
far from equilibrium, in transient states, or in approach to 30%
1.200 19% (CPI)
equilibrium. In addition to these unique capabilities, the high 1.000 0%
intensities of cold neutrons will enable smaller samples to
be measured, under more complex environments, thereby 400
providing information on materials under extreme conditions
hitherto unattainable. ESS Project (2002) ESS Bilbao (2008)
Fig C1. 5-MW LP ESS construction cost increase
See Annex B. with respect to 2002 costing
Updating of the cost projection, based on the 2002 ESS Project provided in the ESS 2002 Project (Vol III and Volume III
costing, has been performed as follows: Update). In addition to updating estimates to 2008-year
costs for the Bilbao area, technical support and project
• Machine costs have been revised and updated based management staffing costs for the design and construction
on identification of the principal cost drivers for each of the conventional facilities has been added.
major part, with special attention to the linac, target, and
instrumentation, and an analysis of price evolution in Europe Cost estimates have been cross-checked with SNS and ISIS
from 2000 to 2008 for different parts. Site-dependent data.
considerations were not included.
• Estimation of the capital costs for conventional facilities was
C.1.2. Operation costs
performed by quoting the works and installations described
in Design and Cost Calculation Report for Conventional
Facilities by DP21 Engineering (2002). The new estimate At 2008-year prices, the total operation budget is estimated at
was obtained by applying 2008 construction prices for the 116,5 MEur/year. The cost is split as follows:
Operation Costs M€ 2008
General costing terms considered in the ESS 2002 Project
were also used for the cost projection quoted herein: ESS 2002 Project costing update 116,5
Insurance (see section E3) 2,5
• Construction costs include all costs from project approval Emission and Waste Management 1,0
to fabrication, assembly, testing, and commissioning. Table C.2 ESS 5-MW LP annual operation budget
at 2008-year prices
• Preproject costs for project definition, preplanning,
baselining, construction preparation, prototyping, and The ESS 2002 Project costing update (116,5 M€ for
project approval are not included. consumables, personnel, and maintenance and instruments)
was derived on the same basis as the update of the machine
• Costs do not include value-added taxes or customs duties construction budget. The following points should be noted:
and are based on the assumption that the purchasing
procedure will be based on a “best value for money” • Consumption of up to 70 MW (total installed power) was
policy. computed as an upper bound for the LPSS instead of the 36
MW originally considered. This is the main reason for the
Other comments regarding the basis for costing: large increase (up to 42%) with respect to the operation
costs computed in ESS 2002 Project Vol III Updated Report
• The potential savings derived from a new linac configuration, for ESS Stage 1.
optimized for the LPSS (H+ beam and others) and
including the latest advances in SC technologies, has not • The personnel cost, estimated for a workforce of 412
been considered because further development work and employees, was updated according to the CPI evolution
baselining design is required for a reliable assessment of in Europe from 2000 to January 2008. Potential savings
these savings. from the site impact on salaries (especially for general
administration and routine maintenance operations) was
• The available information on the costing of the conventional not considered.
facilities (by DP21 Engineering) provides an estimate for
the capital cost of the conventional facilities, which is almost Operation costs were cross-checked with data from other
coincident with the total cost of the conventional facilities neutron source facilities such as ILL and ISIS.
C.1.3. Decommissioning Costs The ESS 2002 Project costing shows a slightly different split of
costs, mainly due to the following:
A preliminary cost assessment for decommissioning is
• Site dependence of conventional facilities cost. With respect
estimated at 170 M€.
to the European average, Spain and the Bilbao area offer
C.2. To Which Year Does the Cost Estimate competitive prices both for materials and labour. Hence
Refer? the contribution of conventional facilities to the total cost
decreases from about 35% to 32%, despite the addition of
All estimates refer to March 2008 prices except for the CPI,
staff costs, which were not computed in the Cost Report
for which December 2007 data were used.
by DP21 Engineering.
C.3. Cost Projection Breakdown
• For main equipment in the machine subsystems, increase
C.3.1. Construction and Commissioning in capital costs above the CPI growth value. Thus, the
linac subsystem contribution to the total price increases
Updating of ESS 2002 Project Costing: (from about 38% to 42%). The contribution of the target is
maintained within 10% because of the higher ratio of staff
The following table shows a basic breakdown of construction
costs to capital costs of this subsystem.
costs, which is based on the original classification used for the
ESS 2002 Project costing. The ring & achromat subsystem (1.4)
The split of the overall cost in capital and staff costs gives the
was removed, as it is not being required for the 5-MW LPSS.
Major Subsystems Cost M€ 2008
1,1 Instruments & Scientific Utilization 82 100%
1,2 Target Systems 113 90%
1,3 Beam Transfer to Targets 14 80% 78,3%
1,5 Linac & Front End 465 70%
1,6 Coventional Facilities 363 60%
1,7 Controls System 38 50%
1,8 Management & Admin. Support 42 40%
Total Estimated Costs 1.116 30%
Contingency (15%) 167
Total Project Costs 1.284
Capital Costs Staff Costs
Table C3. Construction costs breakdown
Fig C3. Cost split in capital and staff costs
The following figure shows that about 42% of the total costs
are for the linac and front end, whereas conventional facilities
contribute about 32.5%.
Because of the significant increase in the price of raw materials,
& Front End Facilities the capital cost contribution to the total cost increases from
41,7 % 32,5 %
about 75% to above 78%.
3,4 % For the cost update of the machine, the cost evolution from
2000 to 2008 for staff and the most relevant raw materials and
supplies, as well as the CPI evolution in Europe, was considered.
CPI evolution can be considered as a good indicator not only
Beam Transfer Admin. Support
to Targets Target 3,8 % for the overall trend of price increases but also for salary
Systems Instruments & Scientific
Utilization 7,3 % evolution, as they are generally updated according to the
Fig C2. Cost distribution for different subsystems
Despite these additional costs and because of the lower
From 2000 to 2008, the average CPI in Europe has increased
construction material and labor costs in Spain with respect to
by about 19% (OECD data for “OECD-Europe except high
the European average, the conventional facilities cost increase
inflation countries”). Because machine subsystems would be
was kept below 20%. Thus, the relative contribution of the
acquired from different European countries and suppliers, a 1.2
conventional facilities to the total cost is lower than in previous
factor was applied for items driven by staff and manufacturing
Additional Cost Estimates:
In addition to the influence of the CPI, products made of raw
materials such as steel, copper, and niobium play a major role
The cost estimate for the waste management facility is 18.5
in the overall cost increases for several subsystems. Prices for
MEur, including a 15% contingency provision, and provides
these materials have increased as much as 60, 300, and 280%,
for a buried 60-x30-m concrete building with steel shielding,
respectively, leading to capital cost increases of up to 40 to
several manipulators, and lead glass windows.
45% for some equipment.
The Site Conditioning, quoted at 88 MEur (including
Site-dependent considerations have not been considered for
contingency), includes excavation and flattening, transportation
the costing of the machine.
of soil materials, construction of the perimeter main drainage
ditch, and the construction of a circular gallery/tunnel for local
The cost projection of the conventional facilities was obtained
by applying 2008 construction prices for the Bilbao area to the
work described in the Cost Report by DP21 Engineering, thus
C.3.2. Operation Costs
directly accounting for the site dependence of material and
ESS 2002 Project Cost Updating:
With respect to the DP21 Engineering cost report:
The following table shows the basic breakdown for operation
costs, according to the original classification used in the ESS
• Only the items related to the LPSS are quoted. The
2002 Project costing.
dimensions and consumption of the guest houses and
central office & laboratories buildings were also adapted to
the needs of the LPSS. Operation
Breakdown of Operation Costs
according to ESS 2002 Project costing update Costs M€ 2008
• No provision for piles in the target foundation was
Other consumables 18,0
considered, as it is directly supported on high bearing
strength soil. The cost reduction is estimated at 3.75 M€. Maintenance, spares 20,0
• No cost savings were considered because of potential Total 113,0
reduction in the volume and cryogenic power requirements
Table C.4 Annual operation costs breakdown
for the front-end building and linac tunnel. Estimated to be
10 MEur2000 according to the ESS 2002 Project Updated
Report, the savings should be further assessed in view of the
definitive baselining for the ESS 5MW LP configuration.
• A provision of 55 M€ was included for technical support
and project management staff.
As for the ESS 2002 Project, staff costs are estimated for a total Decommissioning: Waste Disposal,
of 412 posts, and instrument costs refer to the development, Remediation/Rehabilitation
refurbishment, or replacement of three instruments every two
years in the long term. The cost update was carried out on In accordance with Spanish regulations, it is assumed that the
the same basis previously explained for construction costs. For operating organisation will be responsible for deactivation
personnel costs, local cost effects were not considered. and cleanup of the facility. After this period, the facility would
be handed over to ENRESA, which would undertake the
Regarding energy costs, the total power installed for the ESS decommissioning activities of the installations and associated
5MW LP was considered at 70 MW, instead of the 36 MW active components. A preliminary cost assessment of 170M€
originally stated in the ESS 2002 Project costing. This fact, was determined for decommissioning and dismantling activities.
together with an increase in the unit cost for electricity from This estimate was based on management of the radioactive
0.04 to 0.05 €/kWh, led to a relevant increase in the total materials that will be generated during dismantling, one of the
energy costs. major tasks that will be undertaken by ENRESA during this
stage (See Annex C1).
The operation budget breakdown in capital, staff, and
C.3.3. Site-Dependent Costs
consumables (33, 30, and 37%, respectively) shows figures
similar to those for the complete installation at 2000 prices.
Site-dependent impact on costs was considered only for the
construction of conventional facilities. In this sense, the Bilbao
16,0 % 29,8 % area offers competitive prices with respect to the average in
Europe, as shown in the cost analysis.
The machine subsystems will be acquired from specialized
suppliers throughout Europe; thus, average European price
increases were used for cost updating.
Operation costs were also computed on an average
21,2 % Maintenance, European basis. Potential savings from local salaries of general
administration and routine maintenance operation staff were
Fig C4. Operating cost breakdown
A 15% contingency is generally included. See Annex C.
From first approximation, an insurance cost of 2.5 M€/year
is considered to be an upper bound. According to NEA and
Before continuing to the next section, please note that the
ILL information, civil liability insurance for a nuclear reactor
aforementioned costs should be considered as an upper
source covering a maximum capital of 700 M€ could amount
bound, easily reduced if improvements in linac designs, such
to this figure. Although the potential risk of radioactive release
as those referred in section B.1, come to fruition.
is much lower in the ESS case, other risks as mercury emission
in case of an accidental fire must be considered.
According to our preliminary studies, waste management costs
will be about 1 M€/year for the life of the installation.
D. Financing Points
D.1. What is the financing model, what are to its construction costs of over 15%. In order to calculate the
the financial contributions foreseen and/or site premium in a transparent way, the following assumptions
guaranteed for construction/commissioning/ about the percentage of the costs assumed by the Spanish
operation/decommissioning? candidature are made. We assume that 70% of the costs
of the conventional installations are covered by Spain. The
We have developed a possible financing system for the source, remaining 30% of these costs will be divided among those
which is sustainable for the Basque and Spanish Governments countries participating in the construction phase of the ESS
and is also attractive for potential collaborations with third project. Likewise, the costs of the remaining work packages
party countries. In order to do this, the input and output flows (instruments, target, accelerators, controls and networks,
involved in the construction and operation of the spallation management and administrative support) would be divided
among the aforementioned countries and Spain, the portion
neutron source have been analysed.
corresponding to Spain being calculated as the ratio between its
Regarding the output flows, we have considered the costs contribution to the European GDP vs that of all the countries
included in Section C of this report, that update the estimations considered. Once the source has been built, operating costs
made by Bohn et al. in the ESS Project Volume III, Technical will be divided based on the property rights, in other words,
Report (2003). The total budget amounts to 1284 million Spain with 15% of the property, would assume 15% of the
2008 euros to construct the source and 116,5 million 2008 operating costs.
euros per year for its maintenance. All the results discussed
below are expressed in 2008 euros, which must be adjusted Calculated in this way, the contribution of ESS-BILBAO would
according to the corresponding inflation in order to convert amount to 375.69 million 2008 euros of the total of 1.284
them into euros of the year in which construction begins. The million euros which the construction of the source would
annual outlay implied by the source has been broken down cost, in other words, 29.25% of the total cost. Thus, the site
in time over a period of 20 years, in accordance the cost premium would represent 14.25% of the total costs. The
estimation of Section C, and using information from the SNS Spanish contribution to the annual operating costs would be
17 million 2008 euros, 15% of the total operating costs.
The Spanish contribution of the ESS-BILBAO would be
With regard to input flows, initially the contribution from the
financed through the General State Budget and the Basque
ESS-BILBAO candidature will be used. This contribution is
Government Budget. The increase in tax revenue due to
calculated in accordance with the basic assumption that the aim
a greater economic activity during the construction and
of the ESS-BILBAO consortium is to keep 15% of the property
operation of the Spallation Neutron Source (see heading F.5)
rights and consequently 15% of the right of use. Keeping 15%
justifies this investment. Use of a part of the structural funds
of the rights of use of the source would involve an ambitious
assigned to Spain for this purpose is not envisaged.
expansion project of activities relating to neutron sciences,
taking advantage of the synergies that would arise from the
The remaining funds required for the construction and operation
installation of the source in Bilbao (see heading D.5). It seems
of the source would be obtained from other countries or
especially important to foster the use of neutron research by
entities. In principle, the contribution of other countries in
private companies by means of public-private partnerships.
kind (through the construction of instruments, accelerators,
Due to the fact that a major part of the economic benefits etc.) would be perfectly feasible during the construction phase
(see the results of the socio-economic analysis) resulting from and it is considered that this may amount to 70% of the total
the installation of the source would come to the Basque costs (corresponding to the non-conventional part of ESS).
Country and Spain, we assume that the contribution of the However, the feasibility of a contribution of this type would
Spanish candidature should include a premium, in the form of be examined according to the merits of each individual case.
an increased share of the construction costs. In other words, During the operation phase, the participation of countries
15% of the rights to use the source would mean a contribution not having contributed to the construction of ESS is also
foreseen, similarly to the ILL scheme, as Scientific Associate This scheme will only be put into operation when a sufficient
Members. These would have to pay a fixed amount annually number of countries, accounting for a substantial % of total
for compensation of past investments, as well as a percentage construction cost, formalise their commitment to participate.
of the annual operating costs of the facility according to their
beam time usage. In view of the fact that the aim of the ESS-BILBAO candidature
is to keep 15% of the property rights of the ESS, the remaining
In addition to the ordinary contribution from Spain, the 85% (priced as if it were only the 71,75% given the site
ESS-BILBAO offer includes a powerful tool for ensuring a premium) has to be obtained from other countries through
smooth evolution of the ESS construction (by ensuring the a commitment to pay it according to a particular time table
availability of the required funds in due time according to the suitable to each country involved. In order to illustrate the
ESS construction schedule) as well as for facilitating the other SPV behaviour, an intellectual exercise has been made
ESS member countries to pay their contributions in a flexible according to certain assumptions (See the enclosed study in
way. As we have already announced in several European the corresponding annex D.1). In this exercise, a conservative
meetings, the ESS-BILBAO consortium proposes the creation assumption has been made on the way the contributions from
of an innovative financial instrument to meet the construction the other countries committed to the construction of the
costs of the source, an SPV designed in an ad-hoc manner and European spallation neutrons source are paid: we assume that
managed by the ESS-BILBAO consortium. This SPV would be the construction would begin without any contribution paid but
financed via the contributions of all the countries that wish to the Spanish one. However, little by little, during the remaining
have a share of the property of the ESS and hold it from the seven years, all the obligations relating to these property rights
first moment. Interested countries would present to the SPV over and above the 15% which the Spanish candidature wishes
their annual payment plans and in compensation they would to keep, are being honoured. With regard to the speed with
be granted the corresponding property rights over the source. which instalments by other countries do come in, we propose
Clearly, the payment plans of the different countries do not a linear scenario in which 85% of the property comes in at a
necessarily need to coincide with the annual expenditure uniform annual rate.
forecasts in order to meet the costs of the construction. In this
sense, the ESS-BILBAO will receive from the Spanish National Annex D.1 explains carefully the details of this scheme. The
Science and Technology Fund the funds required to adapt the role played in the SPV by the National Science and Technology
money inputs generated by the annual contributions of the Fund would make it unnecessary for countries interested in
participating countries to the money outputs required by the acquiring part of the ownership rights of the source before
construction of the Source, and in this way, the availability of the start of the construction to resort to external resources,
the annual funds required to meet the costs of the construction including European Investment Bank (EIB) credits. For the
is guaranteed. simulation presented above that would imply between 88,7
and 108,4 million euros saving for the interested countries,
In other words, the countries participating to the construction
assuming a interest rate of 4.5% or 5.5% Moreover, this
of the ESS in Bilbao may choose between these two options
instrument would allow interested countries to present
for paying their contributions:
flexible annual contribution profiles in accordance with their
own budgetary limitations and restraints. See Annex D1.
• Regular contributions, in cash or in kind, according to the
D.2. Are in-kind contributions foreseen? At
• Delayed contributions, in cash, in a flexible way.
The rights and benefits for a given country would be identical
whichever option is chosen, as long as the commitment to In kind contributions are foreseen to be major part of partners’
contribute to the ESS is formalised before the start of the contributions. The calculation of the value of these contributions
construction phase. should be based in a common evaluation of the cost.
D.3. What are the financial commitments of people and professionals of third-party countries involved in
the central and/or regional governments of the ESS operation.
the host state not included in D1? VAT and
Taxes To obtain a VAT refund, the taxpayer must not be engaged
in VAT-exempt economic activities. In this sense, it is not
expected that the economic activity of the ESS will be exempt
Commitment of local Government
with regard to the realisation of its internal operations. In the
As mentioned in D1, the Spanish and Basque governments case of certain tax-exempt real estate operations, it might be
assume the possibility of using the Spanish Science and possible to renounce or claim exemption from VAT, and in
Technology Fund for financing the construction and costs these cases, refunds would also be applicable.
associated with the site and its preparation. The contribution
of the Spanish and Basque governments would amount to: Taxes, Exemptions, Refunds
• At least 375.69 M€ of the total 1.284 M€ which the We understand that the subjective exemption stipulated in
construction of the source would cost article 5 of the provincial Economic Activities Tax regulations,
• 17 M€, 15%, of the total annual operating costs according to which public research bodies (section e of
• Land the aforementioned article) are declared exempt from
• Site preparation the aforementioned tax without any kind of clarification or
• R&D Center limitations, is applicable.
With regard to income tax, we should point out that there
VAT Refunds; General Regime and Nonestablished Third are discounts as a measure to promote and attract talent.
Specifically, those persons who take up residence in the
Basque Country can pay taxes during a number of years as if
The Treasury Department of the Provincial Council of Bizkaia, in
they were not resident and in this case they will be only liable
virtue of the regulations contained in the Economic Agreement,
to 24% income tax.
the statute of autonomy, and the Spanish Constitution, has
the authority to draw up its own tax regulations. Likewise,
With regard to any possible technological surcharges or taxes,
regardless of the authority to regulate and manage taxation, it
within the territory of Bizkaia there are tax deductions and
should be pointed out that with regard to VAT, regulations are
discounts for a number of different activities in favour of the
harmonised at a European level; therefore, all provisions and
protection of the environment, apart from the obvious need
processes come within this common European framework.
to comply with environmental regulations. However, there is
Both the provincial and state governments are currently seeking
no tax in the provincial or state taxation regulations levied
new exemptions to facilitate and promote the ESS facility.
exclusively on certain activities that could have a damaging
effect on the environment in the foreseeable future.
All taxable persons subject to VAT, established in the
territory in which the tax is applied, can obtain VAT refunds
With regard to legal security within the field of taxation,
or compensation by ordinary procedure. This can occur once
there are mechanisms —such as binding taxation enquiries—
an activity has begun or even before, which is important with
which guarantee this. Furthermore, proposals made before
regard to the acquisition of capital goods.
taxation, through which taxpayers are allowed to consult the
Administration in the case of certain operations of special
Even business people and professionals not established in the
complexity, are a favourable instrument for the operation
territory in which the tax is applied may exercise their right
of the ESS, as the amount of the tax debt can be quantified
to a refund of any VAT that they have paid or, if appropriate,
previously and in a binding manner. See Annex D3.
collected in the aforementioned territory. This regime might
be of interest in the case of operations carried out by business
D.4. Are there already commitments of to-long term development of capabilities in strategic areas of
other countries? Which ones? At what levels? research and, at the same time, supporting the development
Connected with preferential treatment? of a new high technology industry in the Basque Country. It is
expected that these Centers will be important satellites of the
ESS, making use of the facility and attracting users.
The ESS-Bilbao candidature recognizes the importance of
both the technical and scientific challenges involved in the
In addition a new research center focused on accelerator
construction and operation of the future ESS and the role to
physics and spallation technologies is being established based
be played by this large infrastructure, as detailed in the ESFRI
on agreements between the Spanish Science Higher Research
roadmap, for international neutron research. Since it is clear that
Council (CSIC) and the University of the Basque Country. The
many facets of the ESS project will be updated and modified
main purpose of the center will be to help to establish and grow
during the preparatory stage of the project, irrespective of the
an industrial pole close to the ESS site, capable of providing
location, including the design of the administration model of
ready assistance during both construction and operations. The
the ESS, what its legal status is to be, as well as the specification
center is also intended as a tool to integrate the industrial and
of certain technical parameters, attempts have been made
academic communities and serve as a resource for emergent
to collaborate with both the Scandinavian and Hungarian
candidates during this initial definition phase. The ESS-Bilbao
candidature has signed a cooperation agreement with the
The activity of the aforementioned center will initially be
Hungarian candidature, which provides for the combination
focused on the development of a reliable accelerator front
of resources, creation of synergies, and the coordination of
end capable of providing uninterrupted service for periods
activities not only during the current stage of the candidature
well in excess those currently achieved (about 20 days). Such
but also in successive stages, once the location of the ESS
an endeavor will be financed in part by funds from the central
has been decided. This collaboration also includes sharing of
administration as well as from the Basque Government. Both
technical experts where this makes sense. Furthermore a joint
parties have already agreed to finance a joint effort launched
International Advisory Board has been formed to advise both
by a cluster of companies and technology centers, together
teams during this phase of the project. This bilateral agreement
with university and CSIC personnel. The effort comprises two
has the advantage of being open and extendable to other
well-differentiated projects: ion source development (ITUR)
countries. This step has been well received by the international
and full integration into a complete accelerator front end
political and scientific community. It has also been agreed to
interchange methodologies used in each country to carry out
the socio-economic impact study of such an infrastructure,
Furthermore there are important synergies being exploited in
update the costs of the facility, etc.
relation to activities focused on nuclear fusion technologies with
D.5. Are satellite infrastructure centres the National Laboratory for Fusion by Magnetic Confinement
planned? hosted by CIEMAT. In particular, efforts are under way to
develop expertise with the superconducting accelerator and
the RF systems, which are being carried out within the IFMIF
For more than 25 years the Basque region has followed an
and SPIRAL2 projects.
aggressive plan to develop a research infrastructure which is
closely linked to local industry. The region has 18 Technological
Other user research facilities in Spain include the Alba
Centres, 6 Cooperative Research Centres, and 3 Technology
synchrotron facility under construction near Barcelona, and
Parks (3 more are under construction).
two supercomputer centers in Galicia and Barcelona. Linked
by major high speed data networks throughout Europe, these
Noteworthy among these Cooperative Research Centres,
facilities will provide the means of constructing a powerful
are the CIC Biogune, CIC Biomagune and CIC Nanogune, all
distributed network for data management and analysis.
multi-party cooperation platforms engaged in the medium-
E. Legal, organizational and security points
E.1. What is the national legal and political procedures, and creating the Technical Body for Nuclear
framework? Safety and Radiological Protection.
• National Electric System Law: This law regulates the
Spain has been a member of the European Union since 1986;
operation of electricity and also applies to certain areas of
consequently, European regulations are in force in Spain,
the nuclear industry since its additional provisions modify
and the Council Directives must be transposed to national
the Nuclear Energy Act and the law creating the CSN. It
regulations. In addition, Spain has ratified the Convention on the
updates the enforcement framework, introducing a new
Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context,
definition of radioactive waste and an additional provision
the Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and
regarding the financing system of radioactive waste
the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, the Nuclear
Safety Convention, and other relevant conventions. Annex
E1.1 gathers all legal aspects related to installations such as
• Law on Public Fees and Prices for services rendered by the
the ESS in Spain. The main issues of the legal framework are
CSN (L 14/1999): The objective of this law is to update
the financial regime of the CSN, initially established by Law
15/1980, adapting it to cover a series of new functions
undertaken by the CSN that were not previously specified.
Through this law, the dismantling of nuclear and radioactive
In this context, the legislation is composed of a number
installations are detailed for tax purposes, and the
of national acts and international conventions ratified by
performance of studies and drawing up of reports relating
Parliament. The following acts are directly applicable.
to the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive
waste are also considered. According to this law, the CSN
• Environmental Impact Assessment Law: This basic law
may issue instructions itself.
1405/2008, recasting that in the interests of the principle
of legal certainty, regularized, clarifies and harmonises the
• Environment Impact Assessment Royal Legislative Decrees:
current provisions on environmental impact assessment of
These decrees, with character of national basic legislation,
incorporate the Directives 85/337/CEE and 97/11/CE
respectively, stating that any industrial project that could
• Nuclear Energy Law: The basic Law 25/1964, regulating
impact on the environment must have an environment
the use of the nuclear energy and radioactive substances,
impact declaration. Projects specified in the annexes
established the responsibilities and the regulatory
include those related to nuclear power plants (NPPs),
framework for the licensing of nuclear and radioactive
spent fuel treatment and storage facilities outside NPPs,
installations, defined measures for the safety and protection
and radioactive waste disposal.
against ionising radiation, and contained provisions for civil
liability derived from nuclear damage and penalties and
• Regulations on health protection against ionizing radiation:
administrative sanctions. This Law stipulated that nuclear
This Royal Decree 783/2001 establishes the radiation
and radioactive installations should have special facilities for
protection system based on ICRP recommendations and
handling, storage, and transport of radioactive waste. The
constitutes the transposition of the EU Directive 96/29/
Nuclear Energy Law has been modified and developed by
other laws, royal decrees, and ministerial orders.
• Regulations for nuclear and radioactive facilities: The
• Creation of CSN Law: This law created the CSN as the
Royal Decree 35/2008, which amends Royal Decree
sole competent authority for nuclear safety and radiation
1836/1999, defines and classifies nuclear and radioactive
protection, independent from the government and from
installations and details the authorisations for these types of
the rest of the administration, and established its collegiate
installations: preliminary or site authorisation, construction
composition, defining its functions, actuation, and financing
permit, operating permit, authorisation for modifications Among its functions that are of interest to the ESS are the
to the installation, authorisation for decommissioning and following:
dismantling, and authorisation for change of ownership.
• “To propose the necessary regulations regarding nuclear
• Transport regulations: The safety aspects of transport of safety and radiological protection to the Government, as
radioactive waste are covered by various royal decrees well as the revisions that it considers advisable. Within this
and regulations (road, railway, maritime, and aerial) used to
regulation, the objective criteria for the selection of sites for
develop the Nuclear Energy Law and implement the IAEA
nuclear and first category radioactive installations shall be
and the EU radioactive material transport regulations:
established, following the reports from the Autonomous
Communities, in the manner and within the deadlines
1. Rail Transport-European Agreement concerning the
determined by regulations.”
International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
(RID) (BOE 21/01/2005) and R.D. 412/2001
• “To issue reports to the Ministry of Industry and Energy,
2. Road Transport-R.D. 2115/1998 and European
on nuclear safety, radiological protection, and physical
Agreement concerning the International Carriage of
protection issues,… all activities related to the manipulation,
Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR ) (BOE 22/03/2002)
processing, storage and transportation of nuclear and
3. Maritime Transport-International Maritime
Organization (OMI) (BOE 5/12/2003).
4. Aviation Transport-Real Decreto 1749/1984
• “To carry out all types of inspections in nuclear or radioactive
amended by Ministerial Decree 28/12/1990
installations, during the different project, construction and
The national legislation, incorporating the EU Directives 85/337/
CEE and 97/11/CE, states that any industrial project that could • “To carry out the inspection and control of nuclear and
impact the environment must have an environment impact radioactive installations during their operation and until
declaration. Projects specified in the Annexes include those their closure…”
related to nuclear power plants (NPPs), spent fuel treatment
and storage facilities outside the NPPs, and radioactive waste • “To control the measures for the radiological protection
disposal. of workers that are professionally exposed, and of the
public and the environment. To monitor and control the
Other aspects of the RWM activities and facilities, such as civil doses of radiation received by the operating personnel
liabilities, industrial risk prevention, non-radiological hazards,
and the offsite radioactive material discharges from nuclear
and mining safety, are regulated by specific regulations, outside
and radioactive installations, as well as their incidence,
of nuclear regulatory system.
specific or accumulative, in the areas of influence of these
ESS regulatory framework
• “To carry out the studies, evaluations, and inspections of
The ESS, as any facility with a potential significant radiological
the plans, programmes, and projects necessary in all the
impact, is subject to the following regulatory framework.
phases of radioactive waste management.”
The CSN was created in 1980 (Law 15/1980, of 22nd April
The Spanish legislation provides both the classification of the
and amended by Law 33/2007, of 7th November), as the
facility and the type of documentation required for licensing
sole body in Spain, with responsibility for nuclear safety and
and exploitation, as well as for treatment of contaminated
radiological protection matters. This body is independent of
the state administration and reports directly to Parliament. areas during operation.
According to RD 35/2008, which amends RD 1836/1999 Article 76 of the RD1836/1999 states that the removal
regarding the approval of the Regulation on Nuclear and and treatment of radioactive substances and/or disposal
Radioactive Facilities, the ESS installation will be classified as a of, recycling, or reuse of radioactive materials containing
Radioactive Facility of First – Class. Article 3 of RD 35/2008, radioactive substances from any nuclear or radioactive facility
which amends Title III of Regulation (RD 1836/1999), classifies is subject to approval by the Directorate General for Energy
as a Radioactive Installation of First-Class those “complex before submission to the CSN.
installations in which they handle very high inventories of
radioactive substances or very high fluency beams take • In addition, the “Contaminated Areas” chapter in RD
place, so that the potential radiological impact of the facility
35/2008 includes a new Article 81, condensed as follows:
is significant”. Note that ESS-Bilbao is not considering using
The state administrations or the owners of the facilities
the residual heat recovered from the target cooling water as
or activities, being or not submitted to the regime of
an energy source for domestic and/or industrial use, as this
authorizations provided for in these regulations [?], shall
would necessitate classifying the facility as nuclear.
inform the CSN of all incidents potentially resulting in
radiological contamination of land or water resources.
RD 35/2008 also amends Article 38 concerning requests,
which requires the following documentation:
• Plans for mitigating the effects of, or decontamination of,
the affected land or water resources, development of
• Descriptive report of the facility.
which resulted from actions of the facility owners, will be
submitted to the CSN for assessment. After corrective
• Safety assessment.
actions have been taken, the CSN will proceed to inspect
and reassess the radiological conditions in the area and may
• Verification of the facility.
issue a report containing a determination of whether the
• Operation rules, including the envisaged staff, projected derived constraints for the land use or resources affected
organization, and definition of the responsibilities of each must proceed, transferring the land or resources to the
job. corresponding autonomous region.
• On-site emergency plan. • The CSN will draw up an inventory of the land or water
resources affected by radiological contamination and submit
• Forecasts for foreseen closure and economic coverage. it to the relevant authorities for appropriate action.
• Budget for the proposed investment.
This new Article 81 will clearly be applied to the ESS, as its
operation will involve activation of the surrounding soil and
In addition, status as a first-class facility requires submission of
water resources. Annex E1.1 includes references to guidance
recommendations issued by the CSN, as well as the current
status of the radioactive waste management system in Spain.
• Site description containing information about the site and
• Operating rules containing the quality assurance manual.
• Radiological protection manual.
• Operational technical specifications.
• Physical protection plan.