ESS-Bilbao ESFRI Working Group


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Responses to the Questionnaire of the ESFRI Working Group on ESS Siting (EWESS). The ESS-Bilbao project is an initiative promoted by the Spanish and Basque governments.

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ESS-Bilbao ESFRI Working Group

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  2. 2. Index Page 04 A. General Aspects A.1. Who is acting as project proposer (ministry/organization/agency/other)? Page 05 B. Basis on which the site proposals are presented B.1. What is the technical basis (the published technical design) of the ESS on which the site proposal is based? Page 06 B.2. In particular, what is the scientific impact of the choice of the long pulse option? Page 08 C. Costing C.1. Cost Projection and Calculation Model C.1.1. Construction and Commissioning Page 09 C.1.2. Operation costs Page 10 C.1.3. Decommissioning Costs C.2. To Which Year Does the Cost Estimate Refer? C.3. Cost Projection Breakdown C.3.1. Construction and Commissioning Page 11 C.3.2. Operation Costs Page 12 C.3.3. Site-Dependent Costs C.4. Contingency Page 13 D. Financing Points D.1. What is the financing model, what are the financial contributions foreseen and/or guaranteed for construction/commissioning/operation/decommissioning? Page 14 D.2. Are in-kind contributions foreseen? At what level? Page 15 D.3. What are the financial commitments of the central and/or regional governments of the host state not included in D1? VAT and Taxes D.4. Are there already commitments of other countries? Which ones? At what levels? Connected with preferential treatment? Page 16 D.5. Are satellite infrastructure centres planned? Page 17 E. Legal, organizational and security points E.1. What is the national legal and political framework? Page 22 E.2. What are the proposed legal and management plans? Page 24 E.3. What are the important risk and insurance issues? Page 27 F. Environment and socio-economic points F.1. What is specific for the site? Page 30 F.2. What is the local environment/infrastructure? Page 36 F.3. What are the scientific environments/infrastructures? Page 39 F.4. What are the specific risks at the site (during construction/operation/decommissioning phases)? Page 46 F.5. What is the socio-economic impact? Page 49 G. Additional Features
  3. 3. A. General Aspects A.1. Who is acting as project proposer (ministry/organization/agency/other)? The ESS-Bilbao Consortium was created through an The ESS-Bilbao project is an initiative promoted by the Spanish agreement established between both governments to manage and Basque governments. The Spanish effort is conducted the preparatory stage of the ESS to ensure that it would be set through the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, which up in the Basque Country and to regulate the initial financial promotes and carries out the policy of the government in commitment of both administrations, amounting to a total educational and university matters, as well as issues regarding of 10 million euros. The consortium would act as the host the promotion and general coordination of scientific research institution in charge of executing the commitments acquired and technological development. The Basque effort is managed by Spain towards the ESS legal entity, whichever form the entity through the Department of Industry, Commerce, and Tourism adopts as decided by the founding countries. For example, the and the Education, Universities, and Research Department, consortium would be responsible for receiving and managing which is responsible for proposing and carrying out policies the financial special purpose vehicle (SPV) described in D1. of scientific research and technological innovation. During The consortium is an open structure and could become the the last three years, both governments have collaborated on embryo of a future European consortium that other member the project to bring the European Spallation Neutron Source countries could join before or during the construction of the (ESS) to Spain, and more specifically to the Basque Country. ESS, as well as during different stages in the life cycle of the The collaboration became official in the presentation of the infrastructure. ESS-Bilbao candidature in October 2006 and the subsequent See Annex A. creation of a consortium in December of that same year. SPANISH BASQUE GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT ESS-BILBAO CONSORTIUM INTERNATIONAL STEERING COMMITEE ADVISORY BOARD PROJECT TEAM STRATEGY SCIENCE BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Figure A1. ESS-Bilbao chart 4
  4. 4. B. Basis on which the site proposals are presented delivered, as stated in the 2003 Technical Report [Letchford B.1. What is the technical basis (the published 2003], by a tandem of two H+ ion sources delivering 85 mA technical design) of the ESS on which the site each, and funnelled together after the two beams have been proposal is based? accelerated up to an energy of 20 MeV. The ESS-Bilbao Concept The linac design is based on a sequence of drift tubes and The current ESS-Bilbao proposal complies with the basic coupled cavities operating at 560 MHz and a superconducting machine specifications contained in the ESFRI 2006 Roadmap on section composed of a low beta (β = 0.8) set of four cavities, Research Infrastructures [ESFRI 2006]. Accordingly we propose each composed of six cells, and operating at a frequency of a phased approach in which the first target station would be 1.120 MHz. long pulse source (LPSS) based on the construction of a linear accelerator that provides 2-ms pulses of 1.334-GeV protons Current Development Activities which impinge on a liquid metal target with an average beam Activities during the last few years within CARE (Coordinated power of 5.1 MW, 16.67 times per second. A maximum of 20 Accelerator Research in Europe) and EUROTRANS instruments could be accommodated around the equatorial (TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator plane of this target station.The latter is by design optimized for Driven System) have resulted in significant advances in both ion the production of long-wavelength neutrons, enabling studies source and low-energy acceleration technologies that will surely of systems exhibiting complex hierarchical structures and have a relevant impact on the proposed accelerator design. In a wide range of dynamics with applications in most areas of consideration of these developments, our current development condensed matter sciences. activities are focused on the following studies: A second target station, capable of feeding another 20 beam • Use of a single proton source capable of delivering proton lines, would be built during a second construction phase. In the currents of 150 mA or above. Prototypes of such a initial ESS study this second station was designed to be a short proton injector, delivering some 5.000 hours/year with low pulse station (SPSS) consisting of a liquid metal target fed by downtimes, have been reported in the literature [Lazarev 2-x 0.6-µs pulses at a frequency of 50 times a second and 96]. Proton sources such as SILHI at CEA have already similar beam energy and power. Such a SPSS would provide produced currents of 130 mA at low duty factors [Scrivens higher intensities and much lower backgrounds than achievable 04]. The rationale behind pursuing such an effort stems in current short-pulse sources and would be ideally suited to from the possibility of avoiding the use of the funnel section, studies of matter in transient states or subjected to extreme which constitutes one of the most complicated parts of the environments (pressure, temperature, and magnetic, electric, accelerator. In fact, although the principles of the proposed laser fields etc.). funnel scheme were once considered advanced, there is no similar piece of equipment operating in the world today. In Although the final design of the second target station will order for the funnel section to perform as required, several be driven by emerging scientific applications and will require effects (space charge, beam rigidity, etc.) will have to be further consultation with the scientific research community mitigated. Hence the development of the funnel concept the ESS-Bilbao team is following an R&D program that would will involve a substantial research and development (R&D) allow the second phase of ESS to be constructed as either a effort that could be readily avoided if a single proton source LPSS or a SPSS. were available. The Baseline ESS-Bilbao Linac • Use of superconducting cavities (spokes, quarter-wave, etc.) for medium-energy (40 to 100 MeV) acceleration. The baseline design for the ESS-B linear accelerator (linac) The technology has already been developed, mostly geared adheres to suggestions made by ESS-I and consists of a machine towards applications within the IFMIF and SPIRAL2 projects, based on a 150 mA, proton beam. Such intensity would be 5
  5. 5. and could provide a cost-effective substitute for the copper emittance characteristics of both ECR proton and -H arc- cavities both in terms of fabrication and operation. discharge sources, such as the Penning trap used at ISIS; RF- driven sources, such as the multicusp -H source in use at SNS • Behaviour of beams extracted from present-day proton [Mason 2006]; and a caesium-free, multicusp source, such as sources at medium and high energies. Present-day electron that developed by DESY [Peters 2008]. cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton sources typically deliver beams with a proton fraction somewhat less than 0.9. Over the next three years we plan to construct a complete Beam dynamics simulations using realistic conditions are accelerator capable of diagnosing ion beams generated by now being planned to obtain a better understanding of the the aforementioned ion sources. This R&D endeavour will be transport of the intense, multispecies beams. financed by both the Basque and Central governments. As a result of the collaboration established between the Spanish B.2. In particular, what is the scientific impact Ministry for Science and Innovation and the ISIS new Front- of the choice of the long pulse option? End-Test-Stand [Letchford 2007], the ESS-Bilbao project team is gaining actual work experience in developing an accelerator front end. In addition, a collaborative research group is being set The scientific impact of a high intensity, long pulse spallation up between the project team and the CEA/CNRS SUPRATech neutron source has been well documented in a number of platform with the goal of developing the baseline specifications recent reports [The ESS Project, Vol. II, New Science and for the ESS-Bilbao superconducting cavities. Technology for the 21st Century, The European Spallation Source Project, 2002, available at http://neutron.neutron-eu. The ESS-Bilbao Ion Source: Current Developments net/n_documentation/n_reports/n_ess_reports_and_more/102.; A Second Target Station at ISIS, RAL-TR-2000-032, 2000, The most prominent activity dealing with technical issues carried available at; Medium to out within the realm of ESS-Bilbao concerns development work Long-Term Future Scenarios for Neutron Based Science in on ion sources. As is well known, because the radio-frequency Europe [ESFRI 2003]] quadrupole (RFQ) transmission decreases rapidly with increasing emittance and increasing beam current, the beam Furthermore the scientific potential of instrumentation current required from the ion source and low-energy beam based on a long pulse design was evaluated in the Engelberg transport (LEBT) system depends strongly on beam emittance. [Engelberg 2002] and Rencurel [Rencurel 2008] workshops. In fact, the requirement of a 150-mA current at the beginning of the medium-energy beam transport (MEBT) system requires The rationale for choosing a long pulse option for the first target an RFQ input current between 85 and 95 mA for a normalized station of ESS is based on a number of technical advantages: rms emittance between 0.20 and 0.35 π.mm.mrad. In other words, development of a low-emittance source is essential. In • The use of long pulses (of the order of a millisecond) addition, as recognized by various ESS documents [Letchford reduces significantly the effects of cavitation in the mercury 2003], improving the reliability of high-power, high-duty cycle target even at the high energies per pulse set forth in the +H ion sources is a necessity if the design specification of the reference design (~300kJ per pulse). ESS accelerator is to be met within a reasonable lapse of time. To meet the requirement of producing 60-mA peak current • A long pulse target station eliminates the need for an in the MEBT section, our research programme is aimed at accumulator ring and associated beam chopping and hence developing a high-current, low-emittance ion source and an allows more power to be delivered to the target. This is LEBT that induces minimal emittance growth. The first phase also more cost effective. of this programme, which is financed through the ministries of Industry and Education & Science [ITUR 2007], is well under • The long neutron pulse also allows greater flexibility for the design of scattering instrumentation using appropriate band way and consists of a test stand capable of comparing the 6
  6. 6. at distances up to 1 micron). This order-of-magnitude range width selection and repetition rate choppers to optimize extension will lead directly to new insights into forefront to the required resolution. highly complex and difficult problems, for example elucidating • The long-proton pulse also provides better optimization the detailed processes and molecular drivers leading to the of the target-moderator-reflector configuration that lead folding of proteins that is essential for them to carry out their to additional increases in the neutron beam intensities in biological role. particular for cold neutrons. Another example can be found in the field of neutron The reports referenced above show three major themes reflectometry, which has long been a unique and powerful appearing throughout the discussions of forefront science. tool for probing the atomic or magnetic density normal to The first is the desire to extend current capabilities to be surfaces and layered materials. In principle, lateral structures in able to answer more difficult questions. These may involve such systems can also be probed on neutron reflectometers, extending measurements to higher resolution, performing using grazing-incidence techniques such as grazing-incidence the measurements in the presence of a more difficult sample diffraction or grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering environment and concomitant restrictions to smaller samples, (SANS). However, the extremely weak signals have made the or measurements made to higher precision to look for subtle use of such techniques very difficult, if not impossible, with intensity variations or line shape effects. The second is the the neutron beam intensities that have been available up to desire to extend most types of measurements to parametric now. The much higher intensity of cold neutrons, coupled with studies exploring ranges of compositions, external fields such emerging new techniques such as spin-echo resolved grazing- as temperature or pressure, or time scales, as in kinetic studies. incidence scattering, will enable the full capabilities of neutrons The third is the general tendency toward the study of systems (isotopic sensitivity, magnetic moment) to be brought to bear exhibiting greater complexity, such as the complex chemical in the study of such lateral surface structures at length scales of systems that occur in many soft matter studies, aspects of about 10 to 1.000 nanometers or more.This exciting prospect macromolecular functionality important in biology that can will open up broad forefront scientific areas to study with be explored using neutron scattering, or the multi-component neutrons, including lateral structures in lubricating or adhesive systems important to the geophysical properties and functions layers, wetting phenomena, block copolymer or liquid crystal relevant to earth sciences. These trends are all evident today layers on surfaces, artificial biomembranes or biomimetic as scientists stretch the capabilities of existing neutron sources systems, self-assembly of nanoparticles on surface templates, and instrumentation to try to extend their measurements and perhaps even real biological membranes. into some of these areas. The long pulse ESS will provide major new capabilities that support these three themes and A third example of new capabilities lies in the use of very significantly extend the types of scientific problems that can highly focused neutron beams. At present, neutron focusing be fruitfully addressed with neutron scattering. By focusing devices easily achieve focused beam sizes of <100 microns, on and optimizing for the production of cold neutrons this and focused neutron beams ~10 microns in size will be new facility will provide much higher cold-neutron intensities possible in the near future. The neutron intensity that will be than heretofore available on any pulsed neutron source. These available in such focused beams will be enough to measure the higher fluxes translate into the ability to study much smaller very weak absorption or scattering produced by the relatively samples, more-weakly-scattering processes, and/or higher-rate small number of sample atoms illuminated by a beam of this kinetic behaviors. They also translate into the ability to extend size. This, of course, will permit the study of such very small measurements to study of larger length scales and slower samples, and should also create opportunities to develop dynamical processes. instrumentation for various types of scanning neutron probes for exploring minute regions of larger samples. The availability For example, higher intensities permit tightening the resolution of intense neutron beams of this size will generate new to provide an order-of-magnitude extension of neutron techniques that will open up totally new scientific fields with scattering dynamical studies to probe longer time scales (slower motions) at longer length scales (times up to 10 microseconds an ultimate potential that is at present only dimly imagined. 7
  7. 7. C. Costing C.1. Cost Projection and Calculation Model As a final example of new scientific capabilities provided by the ESS, we mention the area of kinetic studies. The C.1.1. Construction and Commissioning unprecedented fluxes will allow all structural and dynamical measurements to be made much faster. This will, of course, facilitate parametric measurements probing material structures Updating the ESS 2002 Project costs to 2008-year prices, the and dynamics as functions of environmental conditions such as estimated construction and commissioning cost of locating the temperature, pressure, applied magnetic or electrical field, or ESS 5-MW LP in Bilbao is 1.284 MEur, including a contingency provision of 15%. This cost corresponds to work packages changing chemical composition of the environment. However, or subsystems 1.1 to 1.8, in accordance with the ESS Project perhaps even more exciting, these rapid measurements will Work Breakdown Structure presented in the ESS Volume III allow structural measurements (at length scales ranging from Update Report. hundreds of nanometers down to fractions of one nanometer) to be made in a few seconds or less, allowing the kinetics of Additionally, although the following two concepts were relaxation processes or the approach to chemical equilibrium considered but not costed in the aforementioned report, we to be followed on such time scales.This will enable much more have costed them with the following result: extensive neutron exploration of the behavior of systems far from equilibrium and the approach to equilibrium than has • Construction of a waste management facility estimated at previously been possible. In favorable cases pump-probe or 18.5 M€. other sample modulation techniques can extend these types of measurements down to a few microseconds, allowing • Site conditioning required to meet the ESS Project much more detailed study of the initial relaxations in far-from- specifications estimated at 88 M€. equilibrium conditions in a wide variety of systems. Subtotal Cost (M€) In summary, the quantum jump in performance brought by the Updating of ESS 2002 Project costs 1.284,0 ESS will provide researchers with the means to probe distance Waste Management Facility 18,5 and time scales that have hitherto been unavailable, but are Site conditioning 88,0 critical to answering some of the grand challenge questions facing our society. Extending the range of measurement to Table C1. Total construction cost estimate longer distances and slower time scales enables the study of systems exhibiting greater complexity, such as the complex Updating the ESS 2002 Project costing results in a 30% chemical systems that occur in many soft matter studies, aspects increase with respect to the 989 M€. quoted for the ESS Stage of macromolecular functionality important in biology that can 1 in the ESS Volume III Update Report. The increase is driven be explored using neutron scattering, or the multi-component mainly by the increased costs of certain raw materials such as systems important to the geophysical properties and functions steel, copper, and niobium, which are well above the general relevant to earth sciences. Furthermore the unprecedented Consumer Price Index (CPI) evolution. high intensities will also enable very short measurement times 1.600 with the routine use of parametric studies to explore systems 1.400 1.284 far from equilibrium, in transient states, or in approach to 30% 1.200 19% (CPI) 989 equilibrium. In addition to these unique capabilities, the high 1.000 0% 800 intensities of cold neutrons will enable smaller samples to M€ 600 be measured, under more complex environments, thereby 400 200 providing information on materials under extreme conditions 0 hitherto unattainable. ESS Project (2002) ESS Bilbao (2008) Fig C1. 5-MW LP ESS construction cost increase See Annex B. with respect to 2002 costing 8
  8. 8. Updating of the cost projection, based on the 2002 ESS Project provided in the ESS 2002 Project (Vol III and Volume III costing, has been performed as follows: Update). In addition to updating estimates to 2008-year costs for the Bilbao area, technical support and project • Machine costs have been revised and updated based management staffing costs for the design and construction on identification of the principal cost drivers for each of the conventional facilities has been added. major part, with special attention to the linac, target, and instrumentation, and an analysis of price evolution in Europe Cost estimates have been cross-checked with SNS and ISIS from 2000 to 2008 for different parts. Site-dependent data. considerations were not included. • Estimation of the capital costs for conventional facilities was C.1.2. Operation costs performed by quoting the works and installations described in Design and Cost Calculation Report for Conventional Facilities by DP21 Engineering (2002). The new estimate At 2008-year prices, the total operation budget is estimated at was obtained by applying 2008 construction prices for the 116,5 MEur/year. The cost is split as follows: Bilbao area. Operation Costs M€ 2008 General costing terms considered in the ESS 2002 Project were also used for the cost projection quoted herein: ESS 2002 Project costing update 116,5 Insurance (see section E3) 2,5 • Construction costs include all costs from project approval Emission and Waste Management 1,0 to fabrication, assembly, testing, and commissioning. Table C.2 ESS 5-MW LP annual operation budget at 2008-year prices • Preproject costs for project definition, preplanning, baselining, construction preparation, prototyping, and The ESS 2002 Project costing update (116,5 M€ for project approval are not included. consumables, personnel, and maintenance and instruments) was derived on the same basis as the update of the machine • Costs do not include value-added taxes or customs duties construction budget. The following points should be noted: and are based on the assumption that the purchasing procedure will be based on a “best value for money” • Consumption of up to 70 MW (total installed power) was policy. computed as an upper bound for the LPSS instead of the 36 MW originally considered. This is the main reason for the Other comments regarding the basis for costing: large increase (up to 42%) with respect to the operation costs computed in ESS 2002 Project Vol III Updated Report • The potential savings derived from a new linac configuration, for ESS Stage 1. optimized for the LPSS (H+ beam and others) and including the latest advances in SC technologies, has not • The personnel cost, estimated for a workforce of 412 been considered because further development work and employees, was updated according to the CPI evolution baselining design is required for a reliable assessment of in Europe from 2000 to January 2008. Potential savings these savings. from the site impact on salaries (especially for general administration and routine maintenance operations) was • The available information on the costing of the conventional not considered. facilities (by DP21 Engineering) provides an estimate for the capital cost of the conventional facilities, which is almost Operation costs were cross-checked with data from other coincident with the total cost of the conventional facilities neutron source facilities such as ILL and ISIS. 9
  9. 9. C.1.3. Decommissioning Costs The ESS 2002 Project costing shows a slightly different split of costs, mainly due to the following: A preliminary cost assessment for decommissioning is • Site dependence of conventional facilities cost. With respect estimated at 170 M€. to the European average, Spain and the Bilbao area offer C.2. To Which Year Does the Cost Estimate competitive prices both for materials and labour. Hence Refer? the contribution of conventional facilities to the total cost decreases from about 35% to 32%, despite the addition of All estimates refer to March 2008 prices except for the CPI, staff costs, which were not computed in the Cost Report for which December 2007 data were used. by DP21 Engineering. C.3. Cost Projection Breakdown • For main equipment in the machine subsystems, increase C.3.1. Construction and Commissioning in capital costs above the CPI growth value. Thus, the linac subsystem contribution to the total price increases Updating of ESS 2002 Project Costing: (from about 38% to 42%). The contribution of the target is maintained within 10% because of the higher ratio of staff The following table shows a basic breakdown of construction costs to capital costs of this subsystem. costs, which is based on the original classification used for the ESS 2002 Project costing. The ring & achromat subsystem (1.4) The split of the overall cost in capital and staff costs gives the was removed, as it is not being required for the 5-MW LPSS. following numbers: Construction Major Subsystems Cost M€ 2008 1,1 Instruments & Scientific Utilization 82 100% 1,2 Target Systems 113 90% 1,3 Beam Transfer to Targets 14 80% 78,3% 1,5 Linac & Front End 465 70% 1,6 Coventional Facilities 363 60% 1,7 Controls System 38 50% 1,8 Management & Admin. Support 42 40% Total Estimated Costs 1.116 30% 21,7% 20% Contingency (15%) 167 10% Total Project Costs 1.284 0% Capital Costs Staff Costs Table C3. Construction costs breakdown Fig C3. Cost split in capital and staff costs The following figure shows that about 42% of the total costs are for the linac and front end, whereas conventional facilities contribute about 32.5%. Because of the significant increase in the price of raw materials, Linac Conventional & Front End Facilities the capital cost contribution to the total cost increases from 41,7 % 32,5 % about 75% to above 78%. Control System 3,4 % For the cost update of the machine, the cost evolution from 2000 to 2008 for staff and the most relevant raw materials and supplies, as well as the CPI evolution in Europe, was considered. Management & CPI evolution can be considered as a good indicator not only Beam Transfer Admin. Support to Targets Target 3,8 % for the overall trend of price increases but also for salary Systems Instruments & Scientific 1,2 % Utilization 7,3 % evolution, as they are generally updated according to the 10,1 % annual CPI. Fig C2. Cost distribution for different subsystems 10
  10. 10. Despite these additional costs and because of the lower From 2000 to 2008, the average CPI in Europe has increased construction material and labor costs in Spain with respect to by about 19% (OECD data for “OECD-Europe except high the European average, the conventional facilities cost increase inflation countries”). Because machine subsystems would be was kept below 20%. Thus, the relative contribution of the acquired from different European countries and suppliers, a 1.2 conventional facilities to the total cost is lower than in previous factor was applied for items driven by staff and manufacturing cost estimations. costs. Additional Cost Estimates: In addition to the influence of the CPI, products made of raw materials such as steel, copper, and niobium play a major role The cost estimate for the waste management facility is 18.5 in the overall cost increases for several subsystems. Prices for MEur, including a 15% contingency provision, and provides these materials have increased as much as 60, 300, and 280%, for a buried 60-x30-m concrete building with steel shielding, respectively, leading to capital cost increases of up to 40 to several manipulators, and lead glass windows. 45% for some equipment. The Site Conditioning, quoted at 88 MEur (including Site-dependent considerations have not been considered for contingency), includes excavation and flattening, transportation the costing of the machine. of soil materials, construction of the perimeter main drainage ditch, and the construction of a circular gallery/tunnel for local The cost projection of the conventional facilities was obtained stream diversion. by applying 2008 construction prices for the Bilbao area to the work described in the Cost Report by DP21 Engineering, thus C.3.2. Operation Costs directly accounting for the site dependence of material and labor costs. ESS 2002 Project Cost Updating: With respect to the DP21 Engineering cost report: The following table shows the basic breakdown for operation costs, according to the original classification used in the ESS • Only the items related to the LPSS are quoted. The 2002 Project costing. dimensions and consumption of the guest houses and central office & laboratories buildings were also adapted to the needs of the LPSS. Operation Breakdown of Operation Costs according to ESS 2002 Project costing update Costs M€ 2008 Energy 23,0 • No provision for piles in the target foundation was Other consumables 18,0 considered, as it is directly supported on high bearing Personnel 34,0 strength soil. The cost reduction is estimated at 3.75 M€. Maintenance, spares 20,0 Instruments 18,0 • No cost savings were considered because of potential Total 113,0 reduction in the volume and cryogenic power requirements Table C.4 Annual operation costs breakdown for the front-end building and linac tunnel. Estimated to be 10 MEur2000 according to the ESS 2002 Project Updated Report, the savings should be further assessed in view of the definitive baselining for the ESS 5MW LP configuration. • A provision of 55 M€ was included for technical support and project management staff. 11
  11. 11. As for the ESS 2002 Project, staff costs are estimated for a total Decommissioning: Waste Disposal, of 412 posts, and instrument costs refer to the development, Remediation/Rehabilitation refurbishment, or replacement of three instruments every two years in the long term. The cost update was carried out on In accordance with Spanish regulations, it is assumed that the the same basis previously explained for construction costs. For operating organisation will be responsible for deactivation personnel costs, local cost effects were not considered. and cleanup of the facility. After this period, the facility would be handed over to ENRESA, which would undertake the Regarding energy costs, the total power installed for the ESS decommissioning activities of the installations and associated 5MW LP was considered at 70 MW, instead of the 36 MW active components. A preliminary cost assessment of 170M€ originally stated in the ESS 2002 Project costing. This fact, was determined for decommissioning and dismantling activities. together with an increase in the unit cost for electricity from This estimate was based on management of the radioactive 0.04 to 0.05 €/kWh, led to a relevant increase in the total materials that will be generated during dismantling, one of the energy costs. major tasks that will be undertaken by ENRESA during this stage (See Annex C1). The operation budget breakdown in capital, staff, and C.3.3. Site-Dependent Costs consumables (33, 30, and 37%, respectively) shows figures similar to those for the complete installation at 2000 prices. Site-dependent impact on costs was considered only for the Other construction of conventional facilities. In this sense, the Bilbao Consumables Personnel 16,0 % 29,8 % area offers competitive prices with respect to the average in Europe, as shown in the cost analysis. The machine subsystems will be acquired from specialized suppliers throughout Europe; thus, average European price increases were used for cost updating. Operation costs were also computed on an average Energy 21,2 % Maintenance, European basis. Potential savings from local salaries of general spares Instruments administration and routine maintenance operation staff were 17,4 % 15,5 % not considered. Fig C4. Operating cost breakdown C.4. Contingency Insurance Cost A 15% contingency is generally included. See Annex C. From first approximation, an insurance cost of 2.5 M€/year is considered to be an upper bound. According to NEA and Before continuing to the next section, please note that the ILL information, civil liability insurance for a nuclear reactor aforementioned costs should be considered as an upper source covering a maximum capital of 700 M€ could amount bound, easily reduced if improvements in linac designs, such to this figure. Although the potential risk of radioactive release as those referred in section B.1, come to fruition. is much lower in the ESS case, other risks as mercury emission in case of an accidental fire must be considered. Waste Management According to our preliminary studies, waste management costs will be about 1 M€/year for the life of the installation. 12
  12. 12. D. Financing Points D.1. What is the financing model, what are to its construction costs of over 15%. In order to calculate the the financial contributions foreseen and/or site premium in a transparent way, the following assumptions guaranteed for construction/commissioning/ about the percentage of the costs assumed by the Spanish operation/decommissioning? candidature are made. We assume that 70% of the costs of the conventional installations are covered by Spain. The We have developed a possible financing system for the source, remaining 30% of these costs will be divided among those which is sustainable for the Basque and Spanish Governments countries participating in the construction phase of the ESS and is also attractive for potential collaborations with third project. Likewise, the costs of the remaining work packages party countries. In order to do this, the input and output flows (instruments, target, accelerators, controls and networks, involved in the construction and operation of the spallation management and administrative support) would be divided among the aforementioned countries and Spain, the portion neutron source have been analysed. corresponding to Spain being calculated as the ratio between its Regarding the output flows, we have considered the costs contribution to the European GDP vs that of all the countries included in Section C of this report, that update the estimations considered. Once the source has been built, operating costs made by Bohn et al. in the ESS Project Volume III, Technical will be divided based on the property rights, in other words, Report (2003). The total budget amounts to 1284 million Spain with 15% of the property, would assume 15% of the 2008 euros to construct the source and 116,5 million 2008 operating costs. euros per year for its maintenance. All the results discussed below are expressed in 2008 euros, which must be adjusted Calculated in this way, the contribution of ESS-BILBAO would according to the corresponding inflation in order to convert amount to 375.69 million 2008 euros of the total of 1.284 them into euros of the year in which construction begins. The million euros which the construction of the source would annual outlay implied by the source has been broken down cost, in other words, 29.25% of the total cost. Thus, the site in time over a period of 20 years, in accordance the cost premium would represent 14.25% of the total costs. The estimation of Section C, and using information from the SNS Spanish contribution to the annual operating costs would be 17 million 2008 euros, 15% of the total operating costs. Completion Report. The Spanish contribution of the ESS-BILBAO would be With regard to input flows, initially the contribution from the financed through the General State Budget and the Basque ESS-BILBAO candidature will be used. This contribution is Government Budget. The increase in tax revenue due to calculated in accordance with the basic assumption that the aim a greater economic activity during the construction and of the ESS-BILBAO consortium is to keep 15% of the property operation of the Spallation Neutron Source (see heading F.5) rights and consequently 15% of the right of use. Keeping 15% justifies this investment. Use of a part of the structural funds of the rights of use of the source would involve an ambitious assigned to Spain for this purpose is not envisaged. expansion project of activities relating to neutron sciences, taking advantage of the synergies that would arise from the The remaining funds required for the construction and operation installation of the source in Bilbao (see heading D.5). It seems of the source would be obtained from other countries or especially important to foster the use of neutron research by entities. In principle, the contribution of other countries in private companies by means of public-private partnerships. kind (through the construction of instruments, accelerators, Due to the fact that a major part of the economic benefits etc.) would be perfectly feasible during the construction phase (see the results of the socio-economic analysis) resulting from and it is considered that this may amount to 70% of the total the installation of the source would come to the Basque costs (corresponding to the non-conventional part of ESS). Country and Spain, we assume that the contribution of the However, the feasibility of a contribution of this type would Spanish candidature should include a premium, in the form of be examined according to the merits of each individual case. an increased share of the construction costs. In other words, During the operation phase, the participation of countries 15% of the rights to use the source would mean a contribution not having contributed to the construction of ESS is also 13
  13. 13. foreseen, similarly to the ILL scheme, as Scientific Associate This scheme will only be put into operation when a sufficient Members. These would have to pay a fixed amount annually number of countries, accounting for a substantial % of total for compensation of past investments, as well as a percentage construction cost, formalise their commitment to participate. of the annual operating costs of the facility according to their beam time usage. In view of the fact that the aim of the ESS-BILBAO candidature is to keep 15% of the property rights of the ESS, the remaining In addition to the ordinary contribution from Spain, the 85% (priced as if it were only the 71,75% given the site ESS-BILBAO offer includes a powerful tool for ensuring a premium) has to be obtained from other countries through smooth evolution of the ESS construction (by ensuring the a commitment to pay it according to a particular time table availability of the required funds in due time according to the suitable to each country involved. In order to illustrate the ESS construction schedule) as well as for facilitating the other SPV behaviour, an intellectual exercise has been made ESS member countries to pay their contributions in a flexible according to certain assumptions (See the enclosed study in way. As we have already announced in several European the corresponding annex D.1). In this exercise, a conservative meetings, the ESS-BILBAO consortium proposes the creation assumption has been made on the way the contributions from of an innovative financial instrument to meet the construction the other countries committed to the construction of the costs of the source, an SPV designed in an ad-hoc manner and European spallation neutrons source are paid: we assume that managed by the ESS-BILBAO consortium. This SPV would be the construction would begin without any contribution paid but financed via the contributions of all the countries that wish to the Spanish one. However, little by little, during the remaining have a share of the property of the ESS and hold it from the seven years, all the obligations relating to these property rights first moment. Interested countries would present to the SPV over and above the 15% which the Spanish candidature wishes their annual payment plans and in compensation they would to keep, are being honoured. With regard to the speed with be granted the corresponding property rights over the source. which instalments by other countries do come in, we propose Clearly, the payment plans of the different countries do not a linear scenario in which 85% of the property comes in at a necessarily need to coincide with the annual expenditure uniform annual rate. forecasts in order to meet the costs of the construction. In this sense, the ESS-BILBAO will receive from the Spanish National Annex D.1 explains carefully the details of this scheme. The Science and Technology Fund the funds required to adapt the role played in the SPV by the National Science and Technology money inputs generated by the annual contributions of the Fund would make it unnecessary for countries interested in participating countries to the money outputs required by the acquiring part of the ownership rights of the source before construction of the Source, and in this way, the availability of the start of the construction to resort to external resources, the annual funds required to meet the costs of the construction including European Investment Bank (EIB) credits. For the is guaranteed. simulation presented above that would imply between 88,7 and 108,4 million euros saving for the interested countries, In other words, the countries participating to the construction assuming a interest rate of 4.5% or 5.5% Moreover, this of the ESS in Bilbao may choose between these two options instrument would allow interested countries to present for paying their contributions: flexible annual contribution profiles in accordance with their own budgetary limitations and restraints. See Annex D1. • Regular contributions, in cash or in kind, according to the construction schedule. D.2. Are in-kind contributions foreseen? At • Delayed contributions, in cash, in a flexible way. what level? The rights and benefits for a given country would be identical whichever option is chosen, as long as the commitment to In kind contributions are foreseen to be major part of partners’ contribute to the ESS is formalised before the start of the contributions. The calculation of the value of these contributions construction phase. should be based in a common evaluation of the cost. 14
  14. 14. D.3. What are the financial commitments of people and professionals of third-party countries involved in the central and/or regional governments of the ESS operation. the host state not included in D1? VAT and Taxes To obtain a VAT refund, the taxpayer must not be engaged in VAT-exempt economic activities. In this sense, it is not expected that the economic activity of the ESS will be exempt Commitment of local Government with regard to the realisation of its internal operations. In the As mentioned in D1, the Spanish and Basque governments case of certain tax-exempt real estate operations, it might be assume the possibility of using the Spanish Science and possible to renounce or claim exemption from VAT, and in Technology Fund for financing the construction and costs these cases, refunds would also be applicable. associated with the site and its preparation. The contribution of the Spanish and Basque governments would amount to: Taxes, Exemptions, Refunds • At least 375.69 M€ of the total 1.284 M€ which the We understand that the subjective exemption stipulated in construction of the source would cost article 5 of the provincial Economic Activities Tax regulations, • 17 M€, 15%, of the total annual operating costs according to which public research bodies (section e of • Land the aforementioned article) are declared exempt from • Site preparation the aforementioned tax without any kind of clarification or • R&D Center limitations, is applicable. With regard to income tax, we should point out that there VAT Refunds; General Regime and Nonestablished Third are discounts as a measure to promote and attract talent. Parties Specifically, those persons who take up residence in the Basque Country can pay taxes during a number of years as if The Treasury Department of the Provincial Council of Bizkaia, in they were not resident and in this case they will be only liable virtue of the regulations contained in the Economic Agreement, to 24% income tax. the statute of autonomy, and the Spanish Constitution, has the authority to draw up its own tax regulations. Likewise, With regard to any possible technological surcharges or taxes, regardless of the authority to regulate and manage taxation, it within the territory of Bizkaia there are tax deductions and should be pointed out that with regard to VAT, regulations are discounts for a number of different activities in favour of the harmonised at a European level; therefore, all provisions and protection of the environment, apart from the obvious need processes come within this common European framework. to comply with environmental regulations. However, there is Both the provincial and state governments are currently seeking no tax in the provincial or state taxation regulations levied new exemptions to facilitate and promote the ESS facility. exclusively on certain activities that could have a damaging effect on the environment in the foreseeable future. All taxable persons subject to VAT, established in the territory in which the tax is applied, can obtain VAT refunds With regard to legal security within the field of taxation, or compensation by ordinary procedure. This can occur once there are mechanisms —such as binding taxation enquiries— an activity has begun or even before, which is important with which guarantee this. Furthermore, proposals made before regard to the acquisition of capital goods. taxation, through which taxpayers are allowed to consult the Administration in the case of certain operations of special Even business people and professionals not established in the complexity, are a favourable instrument for the operation territory in which the tax is applied may exercise their right of the ESS, as the amount of the tax debt can be quantified to a refund of any VAT that they have paid or, if appropriate, previously and in a binding manner. See Annex D3. collected in the aforementioned territory. This regime might be of interest in the case of operations carried out by business 15
  15. 15. D.4. Are there already commitments of to-long term development of capabilities in strategic areas of other countries? Which ones? At what levels? research and, at the same time, supporting the development Connected with preferential treatment? of a new high technology industry in the Basque Country. It is expected that these Centers will be important satellites of the ESS, making use of the facility and attracting users. The ESS-Bilbao candidature recognizes the importance of both the technical and scientific challenges involved in the In addition a new research center focused on accelerator construction and operation of the future ESS and the role to physics and spallation technologies is being established based be played by this large infrastructure, as detailed in the ESFRI on agreements between the Spanish Science Higher Research roadmap, for international neutron research. Since it is clear that Council (CSIC) and the University of the Basque Country. The many facets of the ESS project will be updated and modified main purpose of the center will be to help to establish and grow during the preparatory stage of the project, irrespective of the an industrial pole close to the ESS site, capable of providing location, including the design of the administration model of ready assistance during both construction and operations. The the ESS, what its legal status is to be, as well as the specification center is also intended as a tool to integrate the industrial and of certain technical parameters, attempts have been made academic communities and serve as a resource for emergent to collaborate with both the Scandinavian and Hungarian technologies. candidates during this initial definition phase. The ESS-Bilbao candidature has signed a cooperation agreement with the The activity of the aforementioned center will initially be Hungarian candidature, which provides for the combination focused on the development of a reliable accelerator front of resources, creation of synergies, and the coordination of end capable of providing uninterrupted service for periods activities not only during the current stage of the candidature well in excess those currently achieved (about 20 days). Such but also in successive stages, once the location of the ESS an endeavor will be financed in part by funds from the central has been decided. This collaboration also includes sharing of administration as well as from the Basque Government. Both technical experts where this makes sense. Furthermore a joint parties have already agreed to finance a joint effort launched International Advisory Board has been formed to advise both by a cluster of companies and technology centers, together teams during this phase of the project. This bilateral agreement with university and CSIC personnel. The effort comprises two has the advantage of being open and extendable to other well-differentiated projects: ion source development (ITUR) countries. This step has been well received by the international and full integration into a complete accelerator front end political and scientific community. It has also been agreed to (ETORFETS). interchange methodologies used in each country to carry out the socio-economic impact study of such an infrastructure, Furthermore there are important synergies being exploited in update the costs of the facility, etc. relation to activities focused on nuclear fusion technologies with D.5. Are satellite infrastructure centres the National Laboratory for Fusion by Magnetic Confinement planned? hosted by CIEMAT. In particular, efforts are under way to develop expertise with the superconducting accelerator and the RF systems, which are being carried out within the IFMIF For more than 25 years the Basque region has followed an and SPIRAL2 projects. aggressive plan to develop a research infrastructure which is closely linked to local industry. The region has 18 Technological Other user research facilities in Spain include the Alba Centres, 6 Cooperative Research Centres, and 3 Technology synchrotron facility under construction near Barcelona, and Parks (3 more are under construction). two supercomputer centers in Galicia and Barcelona. Linked by major high speed data networks throughout Europe, these Noteworthy among these Cooperative Research Centres, facilities will provide the means of constructing a powerful are the CIC Biogune, CIC Biomagune and CIC Nanogune, all distributed network for data management and analysis. multi-party cooperation platforms engaged in the medium- 16
  16. 16. E. Legal, organizational and security points E.1. What is the national legal and political procedures, and creating the Technical Body for Nuclear framework? Safety and Radiological Protection. • National Electric System Law: This law regulates the Spain has been a member of the European Union since 1986; operation of electricity and also applies to certain areas of consequently, European regulations are in force in Spain, the nuclear industry since its additional provisions modify and the Council Directives must be transposed to national the Nuclear Energy Act and the law creating the CSN. It regulations. In addition, Spain has ratified the Convention on the updates the enforcement framework, introducing a new Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, definition of radioactive waste and an additional provision the Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and regarding the financing system of radioactive waste the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, the Nuclear management (RWM). Safety Convention, and other relevant conventions. Annex E1.1 gathers all legal aspects related to installations such as • Law on Public Fees and Prices for services rendered by the the ESS in Spain. The main issues of the legal framework are CSN (L 14/1999): The objective of this law is to update included there. the financial regime of the CSN, initially established by Law 15/1980, adapting it to cover a series of new functions Legislation undertaken by the CSN that were not previously specified. Through this law, the dismantling of nuclear and radioactive In this context, the legislation is composed of a number installations are detailed for tax purposes, and the of national acts and international conventions ratified by performance of studies and drawing up of reports relating Parliament. The following acts are directly applicable. to the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste are also considered. According to this law, the CSN • Environmental Impact Assessment Law: This basic law may issue instructions itself. 1405/2008, recasting that in the interests of the principle of legal certainty, regularized, clarifies and harmonises the • Environment Impact Assessment Royal Legislative Decrees: current provisions on environmental impact assessment of These decrees, with character of national basic legislation, projects. incorporate the Directives 85/337/CEE and 97/11/CE respectively, stating that any industrial project that could • Nuclear Energy Law: The basic Law 25/1964, regulating impact on the environment must have an environment the use of the nuclear energy and radioactive substances, impact declaration. Projects specified in the annexes established the responsibilities and the regulatory include those related to nuclear power plants (NPPs), framework for the licensing of nuclear and radioactive spent fuel treatment and storage facilities outside NPPs, installations, defined measures for the safety and protection and radioactive waste disposal. against ionising radiation, and contained provisions for civil liability derived from nuclear damage and penalties and • Regulations on health protection against ionizing radiation: administrative sanctions. This Law stipulated that nuclear This Royal Decree 783/2001 establishes the radiation and radioactive installations should have special facilities for protection system based on ICRP recommendations and handling, storage, and transport of radioactive waste. The constitutes the transposition of the EU Directive 96/29/ Nuclear Energy Law has been modified and developed by EURATOM. other laws, royal decrees, and ministerial orders. • Regulations for nuclear and radioactive facilities: The • Creation of CSN Law: This law created the CSN as the Royal Decree 35/2008, which amends Royal Decree sole competent authority for nuclear safety and radiation 1836/1999, defines and classifies nuclear and radioactive protection, independent from the government and from installations and details the authorisations for these types of the rest of the administration, and established its collegiate installations: preliminary or site authorisation, construction composition, defining its functions, actuation, and financing 17
  17. 17. permit, operating permit, authorisation for modifications Among its functions that are of interest to the ESS are the to the installation, authorisation for decommissioning and following: dismantling, and authorisation for change of ownership. • “To propose the necessary regulations regarding nuclear • Transport regulations: The safety aspects of transport of safety and radiological protection to the Government, as radioactive waste are covered by various royal decrees well as the revisions that it considers advisable. Within this and regulations (road, railway, maritime, and aerial) used to regulation, the objective criteria for the selection of sites for develop the Nuclear Energy Law and implement the IAEA nuclear and first category radioactive installations shall be and the EU radioactive material transport regulations: established, following the reports from the Autonomous Communities, in the manner and within the deadlines 1. Rail Transport-European Agreement concerning the determined by regulations.” International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID) (BOE 21/01/2005) and R.D. 412/2001 • “To issue reports to the Ministry of Industry and Energy, 2. Road Transport-R.D. 2115/1998 and European on nuclear safety, radiological protection, and physical Agreement concerning the International Carriage of protection issues,… all activities related to the manipulation, Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR ) (BOE 22/03/2002) processing, storage and transportation of nuclear and 3. Maritime Transport-International Maritime radioactive substances”. Organization (OMI) (BOE 5/12/2003). 4. Aviation Transport-Real Decreto 1749/1984 • “To carry out all types of inspections in nuclear or radioactive amended by Ministerial Decree 28/12/1990 installations, during the different project, construction and (BOE 23/01/1991). commissioning stages…” The national legislation, incorporating the EU Directives 85/337/ CEE and 97/11/CE, states that any industrial project that could • “To carry out the inspection and control of nuclear and impact the environment must have an environment impact radioactive installations during their operation and until declaration. Projects specified in the Annexes include those their closure…” related to nuclear power plants (NPPs), spent fuel treatment and storage facilities outside the NPPs, and radioactive waste • “To control the measures for the radiological protection disposal. of workers that are professionally exposed, and of the public and the environment. To monitor and control the Other aspects of the RWM activities and facilities, such as civil doses of radiation received by the operating personnel liabilities, industrial risk prevention, non-radiological hazards, and the offsite radioactive material discharges from nuclear and mining safety, are regulated by specific regulations, outside and radioactive installations, as well as their incidence, of nuclear regulatory system. specific or accumulative, in the areas of influence of these installations.” ESS regulatory framework • “To carry out the studies, evaluations, and inspections of The ESS, as any facility with a potential significant radiological the plans, programmes, and projects necessary in all the impact, is subject to the following regulatory framework. phases of radioactive waste management.” The CSN was created in 1980 (Law 15/1980, of 22nd April The Spanish legislation provides both the classification of the and amended by Law 33/2007, of 7th November), as the facility and the type of documentation required for licensing sole body in Spain, with responsibility for nuclear safety and and exploitation, as well as for treatment of contaminated radiological protection matters. This body is independent of the state administration and reports directly to Parliament. areas during operation. 18
  18. 18. According to RD 35/2008, which amends RD 1836/1999 Article 76 of the RD1836/1999 states that the removal regarding the approval of the Regulation on Nuclear and and treatment of radioactive substances and/or disposal Radioactive Facilities, the ESS installation will be classified as a of, recycling, or reuse of radioactive materials containing Radioactive Facility of First – Class. Article 3 of RD 35/2008, radioactive substances from any nuclear or radioactive facility which amends Title III of Regulation (RD 1836/1999), classifies is subject to approval by the Directorate General for Energy as a Radioactive Installation of First-Class those “complex before submission to the CSN. installations in which they handle very high inventories of radioactive substances or very high fluency beams take • In addition, the “Contaminated Areas” chapter in RD place, so that the potential radiological impact of the facility 35/2008 includes a new Article 81, condensed as follows: is significant”. Note that ESS-Bilbao is not considering using The state administrations or the owners of the facilities the residual heat recovered from the target cooling water as or activities, being or not submitted to the regime of an energy source for domestic and/or industrial use, as this authorizations provided for in these regulations [?], shall would necessitate classifying the facility as nuclear. inform the CSN of all incidents potentially resulting in radiological contamination of land or water resources. RD 35/2008 also amends Article 38 concerning requests, which requires the following documentation: • Plans for mitigating the effects of, or decontamination of, the affected land or water resources, development of • Descriptive report of the facility. which resulted from actions of the facility owners, will be submitted to the CSN for assessment. After corrective • Safety assessment. actions have been taken, the CSN will proceed to inspect and reassess the radiological conditions in the area and may • Verification of the facility. issue a report containing a determination of whether the • Operation rules, including the envisaged staff, projected derived constraints for the land use or resources affected organization, and definition of the responsibilities of each must proceed, transferring the land or resources to the job. corresponding autonomous region. • On-site emergency plan. • The CSN will draw up an inventory of the land or water resources affected by radiological contamination and submit • Forecasts for foreseen closure and economic coverage. it to the relevant authorities for appropriate action. • Budget for the proposed investment. This new Article 81 will clearly be applied to the ESS, as its operation will involve activation of the surrounding soil and In addition, status as a first-class facility requires submission of water resources. Annex E1.1 includes references to guidance the following: recommendations issued by the CSN, as well as the current status of the radioactive waste management system in Spain. • Site description containing information about the site and surrounding land. • Operating rules containing the quality assurance manual. • Radiological protection manual. • Operational technical specifications. • Physical protection plan. 19