A stimulus is anything you see, hear, touch,smell or taste.
Stimuli can be internal or external:
*Internal stimuli come from inside of the body.
*External stimuli come from outside of the body.
The body has different receptors:
*Internal receptors receive the internal stimuli our bodies produce.
*External receptors receive external estimuli.
A response is the body´s answer to a stimulus.
There are two types of respones, mascular and glandular.
*Macular responses are the movements our muscles make in response to a stimulus.
*Glandular responses occur when glands produce various substances in response to a
The nervous system is made up of nerve centres and nerves.
Nerve centres interpret the information and develop responses, forming the peripheral
The central nervous system has two parts:
The brain is insade the skull. It is made up of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the
The spinal cord is made up of many neurons. It is protected by vertebrae.
The peripheral nervous system is mede up of:
- Sensory nerves.
- Motor nerves.
Both the central and peripheral nervous system are made up of
specialised cells called neurons.
They are made up of a cell body, dentrites and axons.
Our bodies react to a stimuli by making voluntary or involuntary movements.
VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS: The brain produces a response in case of voluntary
INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS: The spinal cord produces a response in case of involuntary
The skeleton: is made up of all the bones in the body.
*Head bones; There are two groups, skull bones, and facial bones.
*Trunk bones; There are two groups, the spine and the rib cage.
*Limb bones; There are two groups, the upper limb bones and the lower limb bones.
Joints: Are located where two or more bones meet. There are three types of joints:
The musculature is the set of muscles in the body .
· Head muscles: masseter, buccinator and orbicular.
Trunk muscles: sternocleidomastoid, abdominal and pectoral, intercostal and
· Limb bones: Biceps, triceps, deltoid, quadriceps, gluteus and calf muscles.