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MANAGING LOCAL AND                       GLOBAL COMMONS                          JAMES BERNARD QUILLIGAN                  ...
WHAT IS A COMMONS-                           BASED APPROACH?                               SEPTEMBER 27, 2011             ...
LOCAL & GLOBAL                     AT COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL LEVELS, COMMONS ARE                     LARGELY A TERRITORIAL...
DIFFERENCES IN SCALE                     GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL LINKAGES FOR                     LOCAL COMMONS DO NO...
ACHIEVING SCALE                     NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR MULTI-LEVEL MANAGEMENT OF                     THE COMMONS ARE AR...
LOCAL                          COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11             6
‘TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS’                     GARRETT HARDIN’S 1968 ARTICLE IN SCIENCE                     ‘WHEN A PASTURE ...
OPEN ACCESS REGIMES                           ARE NOT COMMONS                     HARDIN WAS DESCRIBING AN OPEN-ACCESS REG...
WHAT ARE COMMONS ?                     COMMON POOL RESOURCES -- UNORGANIZED AND                     UNCLAIMED RESOURCES   ...
BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMMONS                     RESOURCE (REPLENISHABLE OR DEPLETABLE)                     PEOPLE WHO SHAR...
WHAT ARE COMMON GOODS ?                            SOCIAL                            CULTURAL                            I...
SOCIAL, CULTURAL & INTELLECTUAL                     INDIGENOUS CULTURE AND TRADITIONS, COMMUNITY                     SUPPO...
SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, ETHNOBOTANICAL                     KNOWLEDGE, IDEAS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, DATA,                   ...
NATURAL & GENETIC                     SOIL, AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES, WILDERNESS, TREES,                     FORESTS, WETLAN...
MATERIAL & SOLAR                     ROCKS, MINERALS, METALS, CHEMICALS,                     HYRDOCARBONS, TECHNOLOGY, HAR...
MATERIAL & IMMATERIAL THINGS:                HOW ARE THEY INTERRELATED?                     THE VALUE OF COMMON GOODS ARIS...
PRIVATE & PUBLIC GOODS                            VS. COMMON GOODS                     PRIVATE GOODS ARE PRODUCED AND SOLD...
WHY ARE COMMON GOODS UNIQUE ?                          COOPERATION                          INCLUSION AND EQUAL ACCESS    ...
HOW DID WE LOSE THE                               COMMONS ?                          ENCLOSURE OF PROPERTY AND LEGAL ENFOR...
HOW CAN PEOPLE                          ORGANIZE A COMMONS ?                                SOCIAL CHARTERS               ...
SOCIAL CHARTERS                     DECLARATION BY STAKEHOLDERS BASED ON A                     CUSTOMARY OR EMERGING IDENT...
CO-GOVERNANCE                     PLURALISM -- A WIDE VARIETY OF STAKEHOLDERS                     PARTICIPATE IN THE DECIS...
CO-PRODUCTION                     COLLABORATION OF RESOURCE USERS AND PRODUCERS                     BARTERING, GIFT ECONOM...
COMMONS TRUSTS                     ESTABLISH THE LEGAL CONDITIONS TO PRESERVE AND                     MANAGE RESOURCES INH...
CIVIL SOCIETY                     ... IS A GENUINE VOICE OF PUBLIC OPINION BUT LACKS                     THE AUTHORITY OF ...
PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT                     COLLABORATIVE GOVERNANCE BETWEEN COMMUNITIES,                     CIVIL SOCIETY...
HOW WILL THIS TRANSFORM                            THE PRESENT SYSTEM?                                 SOCIAL CHARTERS    ...
CONSUMERS ARE THE                          PRODUCERS OF THEIR OWN                                RESOURCES                ...
RESOURCE USERS/PRODUCERS                          CREATE A TRUST                     TRUSTS ARE GENERALLY CREATED TO PRESE...
RESOURCE CAP                     TRUSTEES SET A STRICT LIMIT OR CAP ON THE                     EXTRACTION OR USE OF A RESO...
BUSINESSES BENEFIT                     THE TRUST RENTS A PROPORTION OF THE RESOURCES                     BEYOND THE CAP TO...
THE STATE IS TRANSFORMED                     GOVERNMENT SHIFTS ITS EMPHASIS FROM CREATING                     CORPORATE CH...
TAX ON BUSINESSES & TRUSTS                     A PERCENTAGE OF THE REVENUE OF BUSINESSES AND                     THE RESOU...
7 COMMONS PRINCIPLES                          REALIZE COMMON GOODS AS A THIRD SECTOR                          RECOGNIZE TH...
1. END THE DIVISION OF LABOUR                     USERS OF RESOURCES BECOME CO-PRODUCERS OF                     THEIR OWN ...
2. GENERATE NEW                             SOURCES OF VALUE                     LONG-TERM VALUE IS NOT GENERATED THROUGH ...
3. BUILD A NON-CLOSURE                                 MOVEMENT                     ENCLOSURE REMOVES PEOPLE FROM THEIR SO...
4. TRANSFORM OWNERSHIP                             THROUGH TRUSTEESHIP                     INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP GIVES EXCL...
5. CREATE COMMONS TRUSTS                     COMMONS TRUSTS DO NOT OWN PROPERTY                     TRUSTS INVOLVE THE PAR...
6. ESTABLISH CAP AND RENT                     CAP THE STOCK OF COMMON RESOURCES (THROUGH                     PRESERVATION ...
7. DEVELOP A NEW ETHIC                              OF COMMONING                     COMMUNICATION           ALTRUISM     ...
GLOBAL                          COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11             42
COMMON RIGHTS                     THE HISTORICAL RIGHTS TO LOCAL COMMONS HAVE                     THEIR BASIS IN NATURAL O...
SOVEREIGNTY VS. COMMONS                     THE LEGAL BASIS FOR THE GLOBAL COMMONS --                     WHETHER IN PUBLI...
WITHOUT GLOBAL GOVERNANCE                     ... ALL CLAIMS ON THE GLOBAL COMMONS MUST BE                     APPROVED BY...
THIS AMOUNTS TO EXCLUSIVE AND NON-SUSTAINABLE                     USE OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS BY INDIVIDUAL STATES          ...
METALOGUE ON THE COMMONS                     GLOBAL TALKS MUST BECOME MORE REPRESENTATIVE,                     CROSS-SECTO...
1970-80: COMMON HERITAGE                                 OF HUMANITY                     FOOD & CULTURAL LEGACIES         ...
1980-NOW: NEO-LIBERALISM                     DENIAL OF ALL COMMONS THROUGH ECONOMIC                     TOTALIZATION      ...
TOWARD A MACROECONOMICS                     OF THE COMMONS                     WHY ISNT THE ECONOMY MANAGED AS A COMMONS?T...
MIND-BODY SPLIT                     AFTER THE WRITINGS OF PHILOSOPHERS JOHN LOCKE                     AND RENE DESCATES IN...
FINANCIAL VS. MONETARY                     BEHAVIORISM, POSITIVISM AND UTILITARIAN IDEAS HAVE                     ALSO STR...
ECONOMY IS A SUBSIDIARY OF                          THE BIOSPHERE                     TODAY, SETTLEMENT OF NATIONAL ACCOUN...
SPECIES                          AND MATERIAL RESOURCES                     ... AND ALSO SPEAK FOR THE COMMON HERITAGE OF ...
INTERGENERATIONAL ETHICS                     THIS REQUIRES A NEW KIND OF INTERNATIONAL                     PLANNING BASED,...
PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE                     GIVING THE SAME WEIGHT TO THE WELFARE OF FUTURE                     GENERATION...
ECONOMY AS SUBSYSTEM OF                                  EARTH                     Q: BUT HOW DO WE GENERATE PROSPERITY TO...
GLOBAL ADJUSTMENT                     WITHDRAWAL RATES OF DEPLETABLE RESOURCES ARE                     SLOWED TO ALLOW STO...
ECO-DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY                     SOCIAL MEDIA AND SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY ARE                     FUSING WITH NATUR...
BASKET OF COMMONS GOODS                     UNDER A NEW RESERVE SYSTEM, THE COMMON ASSETS                     OF THE ENTIR...
COMMONS RESERVE INDEX                     CULTURAL RESOURCES -- INDIGENOUS WISDOM,                     HOUSEHOLD WORK AND ...
SUSTAINABILITY RATE                     AN INDEX OF THE SUSTAINABILITY LINKAGES AMONG                     THE VARIOUS COMM...
TO MAKE THIS ADJUSTMENT -- BOTH AT THE LEVEL OF                     FINANCING AND DEBT, AND AT THE LEVEL OF FINITE        ...
THE VALUE EXPRESSED THROUGH THIS SUSTAINABILITY                     RATE    IN EVERY EXCHANGE OF GOODS AND SERVICES       ...
AS MONEY IS SPENT OR GAINED IN EACH TRANSACTION,                     THE DEFICIT OR SURPLUS IS ACCOUNTED WITH             ...
IF THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS LOW, MONEY IS WORTH                     LESS RELATIVE TO ITS VALUE IN AN EXCHANGE, WHICH    ...
THE SIGNALS ABOUT THE ACTUAL SCARCITY OF                     RESOURCES AND THE COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL                     D...
PURCHASING POWER                     WHEN GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY IS EXPRESSED                     THROUGH CURRENCY VALUE   ...
EVERY PERSONAL SPENDING                              DECISION IS A VOTE                     EACH USE OF MONEY -- WHETHER T...
THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE   ENABLES BUYERS AND                     SELLERS TO DETERMINE THE VALUE OF THEIR OWN              ...
WHERE TO START ?                          HOW DO WE MAKE THIS ECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT?Thursday, 13 October 11                 ...
BRIDGING LOCAL & GLOBAL                     WE NEED A MUCH DEEPER AWARENESS AND STRONGER                     IDENTITY BETW...
SCALING UP & DOWN                     THE EXPERTISE AND UNDERSTANDING THAT PEOPLE                     HAVE DEVELOPED THROU...
GLOBAL PUBLIC GOODS ?                     THE POSTWAR INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM CREATED                     REGIMES FOR SECURIT...
GLOBAL COMMON GOODS                   ... BUT STATES MUST NOW GIVE LEGITIMACY AND                   AUTHORITY TO NEW GLOBA...
GLOBAL COMMON GOODS                     SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL                     RESOURCES MUST BE IDENT...
GLOBAL RESOURCE POOL                     CO-PRODUCTION OF GLOBAL COMMON GOODS CAN THEN                     BE FACILITATED ...
SHARE THE WORLD’S RESOURCES                     MANY OF THE RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR PRODUCTION                     -- AND T...
SURPLUS IS RECYCLED                     ... RICH NATIONS RECYCLE THEIR EXCESS RESOURCES                     INTO THIS GLOB...
THE COMMONS                     ... NOW COME INTO SCALE THROUGH TRANS-LOCAL                     COLLABORATION             ...
THE COMMONS ARE ORGANIZED                          SOCIAL CHARTERS                          CO-GOVERNANCE                 ...
COMMONS PRINCIPLES                     1. END THE DIVISION OF LABOUR                     2. GENERATE NEW SOURCES OF VALUE ...
INTERCONNECTIONS                     MARKETS, STATES AND COMMONS INTERPENETRATE                     WITH MANY OVERLAPPING ...
DIFFERENTIATION                     YET IT IS VITAL TO DIFFERENTIATE THE COMMONS FROM                     THE MARKET AND S...
HISTORICAL PROCESS                     SOCIETY-CENTERED MARKETS   MARKET-CENTERED SOCIETIES                               ...
DIFFERENTIATE & REINTEGRATE                          THE COMMONS ...                          MARKET             STATE    ...
... TO SEE THEM ALL AS PARTS OF                        A GREATER COMMONS                          MARKET             STATE...
MANAGING LOCAL AND                       GLOBAL COMMONS                          JAMES BERNARD QUILLIGAN                  ...
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Managing local and global commons

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Presentation given 27/9/11, on "Managing the Local and Global Commons" by James B. Quilligan on behalf of, and Senior Advisor to, the School of Commoning.

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Transcript of "Managing local and global commons"

  1. 1. MANAGING LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS JAMES BERNARD QUILLIGAN GLOBAL COMMONS TRUSTThursday, 13 October 11 1
  2. 2. WHAT IS A COMMONS- BASED APPROACH? SEPTEMBER 27, 2011 SCHOOL OF COMMONING LONDONThursday, 13 October 11 2
  3. 3. LOCAL & GLOBAL AT COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL LEVELS, COMMONS ARE LARGELY A TERRITORIAL CONCEPT INVOLVING LOCAL APPROPRIATION, USE AND BENEFIT OF A PARTICULAR GOOD OR PROPERTY AT THE GLOBAL LEVEL, COMMONS ARE MORE OF A FUNCTIONAL CONCEPT INVOLVING SOVEREIGN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTThursday, 13 October 11 3
  4. 4. DIFFERENCES IN SCALE GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL LINKAGES FOR LOCAL COMMONS DO NOT YET SCALE UP (OR DOWN) FROM THE COMMUNITY TO THE INTERNATIONAL LEVELThursday, 13 October 11 4
  5. 5. ACHIEVING SCALE NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR MULTI-LEVEL MANAGEMENT OF THE COMMONS ARE ARISING THROUGH THE OPENNESS OF POLITICAL SYSTEMS AND THE INTERCONNECTIVITY OF ECONOMIES AND INFORMATION NETWORKS THIS REQUIRES PRINCIPLES AND LINKAGES THAT REACH FROM THE LOCAL LEVELS OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION TO HIGHER LEVELS OF MULTILATERAL GOVERNANCEThursday, 13 October 11 5
  6. 6. LOCAL COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 6
  7. 7. ‘TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS’ GARRETT HARDIN’S 1968 ARTICLE IN SCIENCE ‘WHEN A PASTURE IS SHARED BY HERDERS, THERE IS NO INCENTIVE TO LIMIT THE NUMBER OF CATTLE THAT AN INDIVIDUAL HERDER PUTS INTO THE PASTURE’ ‘THE PASTURE WILL BE OVERGRAZED AND DESTROYED’Thursday, 13 October 11 7
  8. 8. OPEN ACCESS REGIMES ARE NOT COMMONS HARDIN WAS DESCRIBING AN OPEN-ACCESS REGIME WITH NO COMMUNITY, NO RULES AND NO BOUNDARIES FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THIS IS NOT A COMMONS!Thursday, 13 October 11 8
  9. 9. WHAT ARE COMMONS ? COMMON POOL RESOURCES -- UNORGANIZED AND UNCLAIMED RESOURCES COMMONS -- RESOURCES THAT A COMMUNITY OR GROUP ORGANIZES BY NEGOTIATING INFORMAL PRACTICES, NORMS AND RULESThursday, 13 October 11 9
  10. 10. BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMMONS RESOURCE (REPLENISHABLE OR DEPLETABLE) PEOPLE WHO SHARE THIS RESOURCE (USERS, MANAGERS, PRODUCERS AND PROVIDERS) BOUNDARIES SPECIFYING COMMUNITY MEMBERSHIP AND THE EXTENT OF THE RESOURCE RULES GOVERNING PEOPLE’S ACCESS TO, AND BENEFIT FROM, THESE COMMON RESOURCES VALUE CREATED THROUGH THE PRESERVATION OR PRODUCTION OF THESE COMMON GOODSThursday, 13 October 11 10
  11. 11. WHAT ARE COMMON GOODS ? SOCIAL CULTURAL INTELLECTUAL SOLAR NATURAL GENETIC MATERIALThursday, 13 October 11 11
  12. 12. SOCIAL, CULTURAL & INTELLECTUAL INDIGENOUS CULTURE AND TRADITIONS, COMMUNITY SUPPORT SYSTEMS, NEIGHBORHOODS, VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS, LABOR RELATIONS, WOMEN AND CHILDRENS RIGHTS, FAMILY LIFE, HEALTH, EDUCATION, CREATIVE WORKS, LANGUAGES, WORDS, NUMBERS, SYMBOLS, HOLIDAYS, CALENDARS, STORES OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOMThursday, 13 October 11 12
  13. 13. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, ETHNOBOTANICAL KNOWLEDGE, IDEAS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, DATA, INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION FLOWS, AIRWAVES, INTERNET, FREE CULTURE, SPORTS, GAMES, PLAYGROUNDS, ROADS, STREETS, PARKING, SIDEWALKS, PLAZAS, PUBLIC SPACES, NATIONAL PARKS, HISTORICAL SITES, MUSEUMS, LIBRARIES, UNIVERSITIES, MUSIC, DANCE, ARTS, CRAFTS, MONEYThursday, 13 October 11 13
  14. 14. NATURAL & GENETIC SOIL, AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES, WILDERNESS, TREES, FORESTS, WETLANDS, ECOSYSTEMS, PASTURES, PARKS, GARDENS, PLANTS, SEEDS, ALGAE, TOPSOIL, FOOD CROPS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, POLLINATION, LIFE FORMS, SPECIESThursday, 13 October 11 14
  15. 15. MATERIAL & SOLAR ROCKS, MINERALS, METALS, CHEMICALS, HYRDOCARBONS, TECHNOLOGY, HARDWARE, BUILDINGS, THE ELEMENTS, SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, TIDES, HYDROPOWER, BEACHES, OCEANS, LAKES, SPRINGS, STREAMS, WATERSHEDS, AQUIFERS, LAND, INORGANIC ENERGY, ATMOSPHERE, OZONE LAYER, STRATOSPHEREThursday, 13 October 11 15
  16. 16. MATERIAL & IMMATERIAL THINGS: HOW ARE THEY INTERRELATED? THE VALUE OF COMMON GOODS ARISES THROUGH OUR RELATIONSHIPS AND CONNECTEDNESS WITH THEM -- FOR SUSTENANCE AND LIVELIHOOD -- FOR INDIVIDUAL EXPRESSON AND PURPOSE -- FOR SOCIAL COHESION, QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELL- BEINGThursday, 13 October 11 16
  17. 17. PRIVATE & PUBLIC GOODS VS. COMMON GOODS PRIVATE GOODS ARE PRODUCED AND SOLD BY BUSINESSES TO CONSUMERS PUBLIC GOODS ARE REGULATED AND PROVIDED BY GOVERNMENTS TO THEIR CITIZENS COMMON GOODS ARE PRESERVED OR PRODUCED BY EVERYONEThursday, 13 October 11 17
  18. 18. WHY ARE COMMON GOODS UNIQUE ? COOPERATION INCLUSION AND EQUAL ACCESS FREE AND FAIR STANDARDS TRANSPARENCY PARTICIPATORY SOCIAL PRACTICE SOCIAL CREATVITY AND INNOVATION MUTUAL BENEFIT LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITYThursday, 13 October 11 18
  19. 19. HOW DID WE LOSE THE COMMONS ? ENCLOSURE OF PROPERTY AND LEGAL ENFORCEMENT COMMODIFICATION OF THINGS INTO PRIVATE AND PUBLIC GOODS FUNGIBILITY OF COMMODITIES THROUGH A UNIVERSAL STANDARD OF VALUEThursday, 13 October 11 19
  20. 20. HOW CAN PEOPLE ORGANIZE A COMMONS ? SOCIAL CHARTERS CO-GOVERNANCE C0-PRODUCTION COMMONS TRUSTS CIVIL SOCIETY PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT JOB CREATIONThursday, 13 October 11 20
  21. 21. SOCIAL CHARTERS DECLARATION BY STAKEHOLDERS BASED ON A CUSTOMARY OR EMERGING IDENTIFICATION WITH AN ECOLOGY A FORM OF COLLECTIVE LABOUR A SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY A COMMUNITY NEED OR SHARED CONVICTION A CULTURAL RESOURCE AREA AN ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS OR LINGUISTIC AFFINITY AN HISTORICAL IDENTITYThursday, 13 October 11 21
  22. 22. CO-GOVERNANCE PLURALISM -- A WIDE VARIETY OF STAKEHOLDERS PARTICIPATE IN THE DECISIONS THAT AFFECT THEM SUBSIDIARITY -- CITIZENS TAKE DECISIONS AT THE LOWEST POSSIBLE LEVEL OF AUTHORITY POLYCENTRISM -- DECENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT IN THE USE, PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF A RESOURCE CHECKS & BALANCES -- STAKEHOLDERS CREATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR GOVERNANCE, REBALANCING THE MARKET’S DOMINATION OF GOVERNMENTThursday, 13 October 11 22
  23. 23. CO-PRODUCTION COLLABORATION OF RESOURCE USERS AND PRODUCERS BARTERING, GIFT ECONOMIES, COMPLEMENTARY CURRENCIES AND COMMUNITY RECIPROCITY SYSTEMS FREE SHOPS, FAIR TRADE MARKETS, PRODUCER COOPERATIVES, TRADE UNIONS, ENTREPRENEURIAL NETWORKS, SCIENTIFIC AND ACADEMIC COMMONS OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE, OPEN ELECTRONIC MEDIA, SHARED LICENSING, COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE AND DESIGN, SOCIAL NETWORKS, CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHTS, WIKIPEDIA, WEBSITES, FILE SHARING, EMAIL AND CHAT ROOMSThursday, 13 October 11 23
  24. 24. COMMONS TRUSTS ESTABLISH THE LEGAL CONDITIONS TO PRESERVE AND MANAGE RESOURCES INHERITED FROM PAST GENERATIONS FOR THE BENEFIT OF FUTURE AND PRESENT GENERATIONS COMMONS TRUSTS ARE THE ONLY FIDUCIARY INSTITUTIONS ACCOUNTABLE FOR THE LONG-TERM PRESERVATION AND SUSTENANCE OF A RESOURCEThursday, 13 October 11 24
  25. 25. CIVIL SOCIETY ... IS A GENUINE VOICE OF PUBLIC OPINION BUT LACKS THE AUTHORITY OF ELECTORAL LEGITIMACY ... MUST OVERCOME ITS FEAR OF CHALLENGING CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRICTIONS ON THE EQUITABLE ACCESS, PRODUCTION AND USE OF COMMONS ... MUST INVOLVE RESOURCE USERS IN THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION AND MOVE AWAY FROM OWNERSHIP TO TRUSTEESHIP MODELSThursday, 13 October 11 25
  26. 26. PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT COLLABORATIVE GOVERNANCE BETWEEN COMMUNITIES, CIVIL SOCIETY, BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATORY ENGAGEMENT AND DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY BY PEOPLE IN THE CREATION OF THEIR OWN RESOURCE BOUNDARIES, RULES AND POLICIESThursday, 13 October 11 26
  27. 27. HOW WILL THIS TRANSFORM THE PRESENT SYSTEM? SOCIAL CHARTERS CO-GOVERNANCE C0-PRODUCTION COMMONS TRUSTS CIVIL SOCIETY PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT JOB CREATIONThursday, 13 October 11 27
  28. 28. CONSUMERS ARE THE PRODUCERS OF THEIR OWN RESOURCES WHEN RESOURCE USERS BECOME DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF A COMMONS RESOURCE ... THEIR MOTIVATIONS, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BECOME PART OF THE PRODUCTION PRAXIS THIS LEADS TO NEW WAYS OF INTERACTING AND COORDINATING NATURAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFEThursday, 13 October 11 28
  29. 29. RESOURCE USERS/PRODUCERS CREATE A TRUST TRUSTS ARE GENERALLY CREATED TO PRESERVE DEPLETABLE RESOURCES (NATURAL, MINERAL) TRUSTS CAN ALSO BE CREATED TO ENHANCE OR PROTECT REPLENISHABLE RESOURCES (NATURAL, SOCIAL, CULTURAL, INTELLECTUAL, DIGITAL, SOLAR)Thursday, 13 October 11 29
  30. 30. RESOURCE CAP TRUSTEES SET A STRICT LIMIT OR CAP ON THE EXTRACTION OR USE OF A RESOURCE ACCORDING TO NON-MONETIZED, INTERGENERATIONAL METRICS SUSTAINABILITY, QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELL-BEING THIS PROTECTS THE COMMONS SAFELY FOR FUTURE GENERATIONSThursday, 13 October 11 30
  31. 31. BUSINESSES BENEFIT THE TRUST RENTS A PROPORTION OF THE RESOURCES BEYOND THE CAP TO THE PRIVATE SECTOR (OR TO STATE BUSINESSES AND UTILITIES) THE PRIVATE SECTOR PROFITS FROM THE EXTRACTION AND PRODUCTION OF THE RESOURCES OUTSIDE THE CAPThursday, 13 October 11 31
  32. 32. THE STATE IS TRANSFORMED GOVERNMENT SHIFTS ITS EMPHASIS FROM CREATING CORPORATE CHARTERS AND LICENSING THE PRIVATE SECTOR THE STATE SUPPORTS THE PROTOCOLS, BOUNDARIES AND LEGAL RULES FOR THE COMMONS ESTABLISHED THROUGH NON-CLOSURE MOVEMENTS, SOCIAL CHARTERS AND COMMONS TRUSTSThursday, 13 October 11 32
  33. 33. TAX ON BUSINESSES & TRUSTS A PERCENTAGE OF THE REVENUE OF BUSINESSES AND THE RESOURCE RENTS PAID TO TRUSTS IS TAXED THE STATE REDISTRIBUTES THESE FUNDS TO CITIZENS AS DIVIDENDS OR SUBSISTENCE INCOME, INVESTS THEM IN THE RESTORATION OF DEPLETED RESOURCES(LAND, OCEANS, ATMOSPHERE), AND ALSO USES THEM TO ENHANCE REPLENISHABLE RESOURCES (FREE CULTURE, ARTS, COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE, PEACEKEEPING)Thursday, 13 October 11 33
  34. 34. 7 COMMONS PRINCIPLES REALIZE COMMON GOODS AS A THIRD SECTOR RECOGNIZE THAT PRIVATE AND PUBLIC GOODS ARE COMPONENT PARTS OF A GREATER COMMONS OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGSThursday, 13 October 11 34
  35. 35. 1. END THE DIVISION OF LABOUR USERS OF RESOURCES BECOME CO-PRODUCERS OF THEIR OWN GOODS THROUGH MUTUAL PLATFORMS, NETWORKED COLLABORATION, PEER TO PEER PRODUCTION, EMPLOYEE-OPERATED BUSINESSES AND COOPERATIVESThursday, 13 October 11 35
  36. 36. 2. GENERATE NEW SOURCES OF VALUE LONG-TERM VALUE IS NOT GENERATED THROUGH THE POTENTIAL FINANCIAL REVENUE OF COMMONS ASSETS VALUE ARISES THROUGH THE PRESERVATION OF COMMONS RESOURCES AND THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS TO SUPPORT LIFE AND LIFE SYSTEMSThursday, 13 October 11 36
  37. 37. 3. BUILD A NON-CLOSURE MOVEMENT ENCLOSURE REMOVES PEOPLE FROM THEIR SOURCES OF SURVIVAL, SUSTENANCE AND LIVING WEALTH THIS BRINGS RESOURCE OVERUSE AND DETERIORATION, LEADING TO FAILED COMMONS, RESOURCE CONFLICT AND SECURITY CRISES RESIST ANY FORM OF EXTERNAL CONTROL THAT DOES NOT PROMOTE LIFE, DIGNITY, SECURITY AND WELL-BEINGThursday, 13 October 11 37
  38. 38. 4. TRANSFORM OWNERSHIP THROUGH TRUSTEESHIP INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP GIVES EXCLUSIVE CONTROL COLLECTIVE OWNERSHIP, TOO, IS SUBJECT TO SOCIAL HIERARCHY AND ABUSE, SINCE A CO-OWNED PROPERTY MAY BE MANAGED BY A MAJORITY, EXPLOITED AND DIVIDED, WHETHER EQUITABLY OR NOT TRUSTEESHIP IS NOT OWNERSHIPThursday, 13 October 11 38
  39. 39. 5. CREATE COMMONS TRUSTS COMMONS TRUSTS DO NOT OWN PROPERTY TRUSTS INVOLVE THE PARTICIPATION OF USERS AND PRODUCERS/PROVIDERS IN THE PRESERVATION, PRODUCTION OR USE OF A RESOURCE TRUSTS HOLD AND MANAGE THIS RESOURCE AS A COMMON PROPERTY FOR EXISTING AND FUTURE GENERATIONSThursday, 13 October 11 39
  40. 40. 6. ESTABLISH CAP AND RENT CAP THE STOCK OF COMMON RESOURCES (THROUGH PRESERVATION AND APPROPRIATION) RENT THE FLOW OF MATTER AND ENERGY (THROUGH ALLOCATION AND USE)Thursday, 13 October 11 40
  41. 41. 7. DEVELOP A NEW ETHIC OF COMMONING COMMUNICATION ALTRUISM CREATIVITY SOCIABILITY TRUST FRIENDSHIP COOPERATION RECIPROCITY AUTONOMY CIVIC VIRTUE LIBERATION EMPATHY BENEVOLENCE GOODWILLThursday, 13 October 11 41
  42. 42. GLOBAL COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 42
  43. 43. COMMON RIGHTS THE HISTORICAL RIGHTS TO LOCAL COMMONS HAVE THEIR BASIS IN NATURAL OR CUSTOMARY LAW GLOBAL COMMONS HAVE THEIR BASIS IN PUBLIC TRUST DOCTRINE AND PUBLIC DOMAIN PUBLIC TRUST AND PUBLIC DOMAIN SAY THAT UNRESTRICTED OPEN ACCESS TO RESOURCES SHOULD BE MANAGED AS PUBLIC PROPERTYThursday, 13 October 11 43
  44. 44. SOVEREIGNTY VS. COMMONS THE LEGAL BASIS FOR THE GLOBAL COMMONS -- WHETHER IN PUBLIC TRUST DOCTRINE, PUBLIC DOMAIN, NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, PROTOCOLS AND CONVENTIONS -- IS THUS GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY STATE SOVEREIGNTY EMPHASIZES THE MANAGEMENT OF A TERRITORY AND THE CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED WITHIN ITThursday, 13 October 11 44
  45. 45. WITHOUT GLOBAL GOVERNANCE ... ALL CLAIMS ON THE GLOBAL COMMONS MUST BE APPROVED BY EACH STATE AS A NOMINAL MEMBER OF THE LARGER COMMUNITY OF STATES ... NATIONAL PRIORITIES -- STEMMING FROM THE SOVEREIGN RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT -- DETERMINE WHETHER NATURAL RESOURCES MAY BE CONSERVED, EXPLOITED OR DESTROYEDThursday, 13 October 11 45
  46. 46. THIS AMOUNTS TO EXCLUSIVE AND NON-SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS BY INDIVIDUAL STATES THE GLOBAL COMMONS IS LEFT WITHOUT EFFECTIVE MEASURES OF ENFORCEMENT OR DEVELOPMENTThursday, 13 October 11 46
  47. 47. METALOGUE ON THE COMMONS GLOBAL TALKS MUST BECOME MORE REPRESENTATIVE, CROSS-SECTORAL AND INTERDISCIPLINARY GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT, AID, ENVIRONMENT, TRADE, FINANCE, MONETARY POLICY, ENERGY, CLIMATE CHANGE, HUMAN SECURITY AND POLITICAL SECURITY MUST ALL BE INTEGRATEDThursday, 13 October 11 47
  48. 48. 1970-80: COMMON HERITAGE OF HUMANITY FOOD & CULTURAL LEGACIES SEABEDS (BEYOND COASTAL JURISDICTIONS) ANTARCTIC & THE MOON SATELLITE ORBITS & SPACE COMMUNICATIONS SOLAR ENERGY, TECHNOLOGY & COMMODITIES ENDANGERED SPECIES, GENETICS, RAIN FORESTS ATMOSPHERE & OCEAN RESOURCESThursday, 13 October 11 48
  49. 49. 1980-NOW: NEO-LIBERALISM DENIAL OF ALL COMMONS THROUGH ECONOMIC TOTALIZATION TRANSNATIONAL PLATFORM OF MARKETS AND STATES ’MARKET STATE’ - AS DEFINED BY PHILIP BOBBITT AND PHILLIP BLONDThursday, 13 October 11 49
  50. 50. TOWARD A MACROECONOMICS OF THE COMMONS WHY ISNT THE ECONOMY MANAGED AS A COMMONS?Thursday, 13 October 11 50
  51. 51. MIND-BODY SPLIT AFTER THE WRITINGS OF PHILOSOPHERS JOHN LOCKE AND RENE DESCATES IN THE 17TH CENTURY, WESTERN CIVILIZATION CAME TO REGARD MIND (NOOSPHERE) AND NATURE (BIOSPHERE) AS SEPARATE THINGS THIS ’MIND-BODY SPLIT’ INFLUENCED ECONOMICS, WHICH DOES NOT SEE A CONNECTION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL ECONOMIC DECISIONS AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENTThursday, 13 October 11 51
  52. 52. FINANCIAL VS. MONETARY BEHAVIORISM, POSITIVISM AND UTILITARIAN IDEAS HAVE ALSO STRESSED THE PRIMACY OF FACT (RATIONAL MIND) OVER VALUE (NATURE AND HUMAN SUBJECTIVITY) BUSINESS AND FINANCE -- NOT THE COMMONS -- ARE NOW TREATED AS THE SOURCE OF MONETARY OR CURRENCY VALUEThursday, 13 October 11 52
  53. 53. ECONOMY IS A SUBSIDIARY OF THE BIOSPHERE TODAY, SETTLEMENT OF NATIONAL ACCOUNTS WITH THE WORLD’S BIOPHYSICAL IMBALANCES REQUIRES A MONETARY FRAMEWORK BASED ON AN AGREEMENT THAT THE NOOSPHERE IS A PART OF THE BIOSPHEREThursday, 13 October 11 53
  54. 54. SPECIES AND MATERIAL RESOURCES ... AND ALSO SPEAK FOR THE COMMON HERITAGE OF EARTH’S LIVING AND NON-LIVING SYSTEMSThursday, 13 October 11 54
  55. 55. INTERGENERATIONAL ETHICS THIS REQUIRES A NEW KIND OF INTERNATIONAL PLANNING BASED, NOT ON GEOPOLITICAL OR CORPORATE OBJECTIVES, BUT ON GLOBAL RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION RELATIVE TO POPULATION GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL CARRYING CAPACITYThursday, 13 October 11 55
  56. 56. PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE GIVING THE SAME WEIGHT TO THE WELFARE OF FUTURE GENERATIONS OF PEOPLE AND PLANETARY LIFE-FORMS AS WE GIVE TO THOSE NOW LIVING OBLIGES US TO INCREASE THE PRESENT WEALTH PER CAPITA THE USE OF A PRECAUTIONARY RESOURCE CAP WOULD TRANSFORM THE BALANCE OF TRADE, FINANCE AND AID FOR THE CURRENT GENERATION AND CREATE SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONSThursday, 13 October 11 56
  57. 57. ECONOMY AS SUBSYSTEM OF EARTH Q: BUT HOW DO WE GENERATE PROSPERITY TODAY WHEN WE ARE ALSO TRYING TO LIMIT DESTRUCTIVE ECONOMIC GROWTH ACROSS THE PLANET? A: THE MONETARY SYSTEM ITSELF MUST BECOME PART OF THE FINITE BIOSPHERIC COMMONS, WITH ITS INFLOWS OF RAW MATERIALS AND OUTFLOWS OF WASTESThursday, 13 October 11 57
  58. 58. GLOBAL ADJUSTMENT WITHDRAWAL RATES OF DEPLETABLE RESOURCES ARE SLOWED TO ALLOW STOCKS TO CATCH UP WITH FLOWS WITHDRAWAL RATES OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES ARE EQUILIBRATED WITH THEIR REPLENISHMENT RATES THIS BRINGS LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS FULLY INTO SCALE AND MAKES THE ECONOMY A COMPONENT PART OF THE ENVIRONMENTThursday, 13 October 11 58
  59. 59. ECO-DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY SOCIAL MEDIA AND SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY ARE FUSING WITH NATURAL RESOURCE COMMONS THIS ENABLES INSTANT PARTICIPATION IN RESOURCE INFORMATION-GATHERING ON A PLANETARY BASIS WE CAN TRACK A VARIETY OF COMMONS IN REAL-TIMEThursday, 13 October 11 59
  60. 60. BASKET OF COMMONS GOODS UNDER A NEW RESERVE SYSTEM, THE COMMON ASSETS OF THE ENTIRE PLANET WOULD FORM THE BASIS OF A COMPOSITE STANDARD OF VALUE WE CAN CREATE A RESERVE BASKET OF GLOBAL COMMON GOODS SO WHAT’S IN THIS BASKET?Thursday, 13 October 11 60
  61. 61. COMMONS RESERVE INDEX CULTURAL RESOURCES -- INDIGENOUS WISDOM, HOUSEHOLD WORK AND THE ARTS SOCIAL RESOURCES -- HEALTH, LITERACY, ECONOMIC OUTPUT AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION INTELLECTUAL RESOURCES -- SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND INFORMATION FLOWS NATURAL RESOURCES -- AIR AND WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY GENETIC RESOURCES -- LIVING CREATURES, ORGANS AND MINERALS, WATER AND THE ATMOSPHEREThursday, 13 October 11 61
  62. 62. SUSTAINABILITY RATE AN INDEX OF THE SUSTAINABILITY LINKAGES AMONG THE VARIOUS COMMONS IS CONTINUOUSLY UPDATED, ESTABLISHING A VALUE FOR MONEY THIS EXPRESSES THE RELATIVE SCARCITY AND REPLENISHABILITY OF THE WORLD’S KEY RESOURCES ... REFLECTING THE CAPACITY OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS TO PROVIDE AND MAINTAIN INCLUSIVE WEALTH FOR GLOBAL SOCIETYThursday, 13 October 11 62
  63. 63. TO MAKE THIS ADJUSTMENT -- BOTH AT THE LEVEL OF FINANCING AND DEBT, AND AT THE LEVEL OF FINITE BIOLOGICAL AND MATERIAL RESOURCES AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES -- THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS CREATED ENTIRELY INDEPENDENT OF INTEREST RATES AND MARKET GOODS AND SERVICESThursday, 13 October 11 63
  64. 64. THE VALUE EXPRESSED THROUGH THIS SUSTAINABILITY RATE IN EVERY EXCHANGE OF GOODS AND SERVICES IS SECURED BY THE RESILIENCE AND DIVERSITY OF THE WORLD’S SOCIAL, CULTURAL, INTELLECTUAL, NATURAL, GENETIC, MATERIAL AND SOLAR RESOURCESThursday, 13 October 11 64
  65. 65. AS MONEY IS SPENT OR GAINED IN EACH TRANSACTION, THE DEFICIT OR SURPLUS IS ACCOUNTED WITH REFERENCE TO THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY RATEThursday, 13 October 11 65
  66. 66. IF THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS LOW, MONEY IS WORTH LESS RELATIVE TO ITS VALUE IN AN EXCHANGE, WHICH MAY CAUSE A BUYER TO SPEND LESS, OR PERHAPS NOT SPEND OR TO POSTPONE SPENDING IF THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS HIGH, MONEY IS WORTH MORE IN THE EXCHANGE, WHICH MAY CONVINCE THE BUYER TO SPEND MOREThursday, 13 October 11 66
  67. 67. THE SIGNALS ABOUT THE ACTUAL SCARCITY OF RESOURCES AND THE COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AND SOCIAL DISPARITIES ARE CONVEYED DIRECTLY THROUGH OUR MONEY -- NOT PRICES!Thursday, 13 October 11 67
  68. 68. PURCHASING POWER WHEN GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY IS EXPRESSED THROUGH CURRENCY VALUE , EACH OF US HAS AN IMMEDIATE REALIZATION OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF OUR PURCHASING POWER IN SPENDING, SAVING OR INVESTING THIS MAKES IT WORTH LESS TO DO ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL HARM, AND WORTH MORE TO BE ECOLOGICALLY AND SOCIALLY RESTORATIVEThursday, 13 October 11 68
  69. 69. EVERY PERSONAL SPENDING DECISION IS A VOTE EACH USE OF MONEY -- WHETHER THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS LOW OR HIGH -- IS LITERALLY A VOTE ... FOR THE MINIMIZATION OF SOCIAL INEQUITIES ... AND THE LONGEVITY, REGENERATION AND DIVERSITY OF THE PLANET’S COMMON GOODSThursday, 13 October 11 69
  70. 70. THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE ENABLES BUYERS AND SELLERS TO DETERMINE THE VALUE OF THEIR OWN PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION ... BASED ON THE CAPACITY OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS TO SUSTAIN THE QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELL-BEING OF PRESENT AND FUTURE GENERATIONS AND EARTH’S LIVING SYSTEMSThursday, 13 October 11 70
  71. 71. WHERE TO START ? HOW DO WE MAKE THIS ECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT?Thursday, 13 October 11 71
  72. 72. BRIDGING LOCAL & GLOBAL WE NEED A MUCH DEEPER AWARENESS AND STRONGER IDENTITY BETWEEN LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS LOCAL COMMONS GROUPS NEED THE TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND KNOWLEDGE OF A COMMONS-BASED MULTILATERALISM GLOBAL RULES AND INSTITUTIONS MUST ALSO EMBODY THE EXPERTISE AND SKILLS OF COMMUNITY GROUPS AT THE GRASSROOTSThursday, 13 October 11 72
  73. 73. SCALING UP & DOWN THE EXPERTISE AND UNDERSTANDING THAT PEOPLE HAVE DEVELOPED THROUGH LOCAL MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES MUST BE SCALED UP TO THE GLOBAL LEVEL YET LOCAL DEVELOPMENT ALSO NEEDS AN INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM THAT IS GENERATIVE -- NOT TECHNOCRATIC, NATIONALISTIC OR COMMERCIAL NEW INCENTIVES FOR SHARING THE GLOBAL COMMONS MUST BE BUILT INTO GLOBAL RULES AND INSTITUTIONSThursday, 13 October 11 73
  74. 74. GLOBAL PUBLIC GOODS ? THE POSTWAR INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM CREATED REGIMES FOR SECURITY, TRADE, FINANCE AND MONEY THE UNITED NATIONS AND MANY LIBERAL INTERNATIONALISTS HAVE CALLED THE RESOURCES OF THESE REGIMES ‘GLOBAL PUBLIC GOODS’Thursday, 13 October 11 74
  75. 75. GLOBAL COMMON GOODS ... BUT STATES MUST NOW GIVE LEGITIMACY AND AUTHORITY TO NEW GLOBAL INSTITUTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF GLOBAL COMMON GOODSThursday, 13 October 11 75
  76. 76. GLOBAL COMMON GOODS SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES MUST BE IDENTIFIED AS GLOBAL COMMON GOODS TO BETTER MANAGE THEIR LONG-TERM RISKS ... INCLUDING FOOD, CLEAN WATER, ATMOSPHERE, ENERGY, HOUSING, HEALTH CARE, EDUCATION, INFORMATION, JOBS, NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION, PEACEFUL MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCE CONFLICT, SECURITY OF GLOBAL SUPPLIES, AND REPRESENTATION OF POOR NATIONS IN GLOBAL DECISION-MAKINGThursday, 13 October 11 76
  77. 77. GLOBAL RESOURCE POOL CO-PRODUCTION OF GLOBAL COMMON GOODS CAN THEN BE FACILITATED THROUGH COLLABORATION BETWEEN LOCAL RESOURCE USERS AND GLOBAL INSTITUTIONS NATIONS COLLECTIVELY AGREE TO PRESERVE AND PROTECT THE VARIOUS COMMONS OF EARTH AND MAINTAIN A POOL OF SHARED PRODUCTION AND GOODS LARGE ENOUGH TO PROVIDE FOR EVERYONE’S SUBSISTENCE NEEDSThursday, 13 October 11 77
  78. 78. SHARE THE WORLD’S RESOURCES MANY OF THE RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR PRODUCTION -- AND THE GOODS THEY PRODUCE -- WOULD GO INTO THIS COMMON RESOURCE POOL THE GLOBAL GOODS WHICH MANY PEOPLE NEED WOULD COME OUT OF THIS MASS WAREHOUSEThursday, 13 October 11 78
  79. 79. SURPLUS IS RECYCLED ... RICH NATIONS RECYCLE THEIR EXCESS RESOURCES INTO THIS GLOBAL CLEARINGHOUSE, WHICH ARE THEN REDISTRIBUTED TO POOR NATIONS NEEDING ASSISTANCEThursday, 13 October 11 79
  80. 80. THE COMMONS ... NOW COME INTO SCALE THROUGH TRANS-LOCAL COLLABORATION BOTH LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS ARE GOVERNED THROUGH VALUES, PRINCIPLES AND RULES NEGOTIATED BY A COMMUNITY TO PRESERVE AND PRODUCE ITS RESOURCESThursday, 13 October 11 80
  81. 81. THE COMMONS ARE ORGANIZED SOCIAL CHARTERS CO-GOVERNANCE C0-PRODUCTION COMMONS TRUSTS CIVIL SOCIETY PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT JOB CREATIONThursday, 13 October 11 81
  82. 82. COMMONS PRINCIPLES 1. END THE DIVISION OF LABOUR 2. GENERATE NEW SOURCES OF VALUE 3. BUILD A NON-CLOSURE MOVEMENT 4. TRANSFORM OWNERSHIP THROUGH TRUSTEESHIP 5. CREATE COMMONS TRUSTS 6. ESTABLISH CAP AND RENT 7. DEVELOP A NEW ETHIC OF COMMONINGThursday, 13 October 11 82
  83. 83. INTERCONNECTIONS MARKETS, STATES AND COMMONS INTERPENETRATE WITH MANY OVERLAPPING DEPENDENCIES SO THERE ARE MIXED USES OR HYBRIDS BUSINESS CAN BE EMBEDDED IN COMMONS STATES CAN ACT AS TRUSTEES OF COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 83
  84. 84. DIFFERENTIATION YET IT IS VITAL TO DIFFERENTIATE THE COMMONS FROM THE MARKET AND STATE TO ESTABLISH THE IDENTITY AND VALUE OF COMMONS AND ALLOW POLITICAL SELF-DETERMINATION AND ECONOMIC SELF-PROVISIONING AT THE COMMONS LEVELThursday, 13 October 11 84
  85. 85. HISTORICAL PROCESS SOCIETY-CENTERED MARKETS MARKET-CENTERED SOCIETIES COMMONS-BASED EXCHANGEThursday, 13 October 11 85
  86. 86. DIFFERENTIATE & REINTEGRATE THE COMMONS ... MARKET STATE COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 86
  87. 87. ... TO SEE THEM ALL AS PARTS OF A GREATER COMMONS MARKET STATE COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 87
  88. 88. MANAGING LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS JAMES BERNARD QUILLIGAN GLOBAL COMMONS TRUSTThursday, 13 October 11 88
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