Managing local and global commons
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Managing local and global commons

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Presentation given 27/9/11, on "Managing the Local and Global Commons" by James B. Quilligan on behalf of, and Senior Advisor to, the School of Commoning.

Presentation given 27/9/11, on "Managing the Local and Global Commons" by James B. Quilligan on behalf of, and Senior Advisor to, the School of Commoning.

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  • 1. MANAGING LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS JAMES BERNARD QUILLIGAN GLOBAL COMMONS TRUSTThursday, 13 October 11 1
  • 2. WHAT IS A COMMONS- BASED APPROACH? SEPTEMBER 27, 2011 SCHOOL OF COMMONING LONDONThursday, 13 October 11 2
  • 3. LOCAL & GLOBAL AT COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL LEVELS, COMMONS ARE LARGELY A TERRITORIAL CONCEPT INVOLVING LOCAL APPROPRIATION, USE AND BENEFIT OF A PARTICULAR GOOD OR PROPERTY AT THE GLOBAL LEVEL, COMMONS ARE MORE OF A FUNCTIONAL CONCEPT INVOLVING SOVEREIGN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTThursday, 13 October 11 3
  • 4. DIFFERENCES IN SCALE GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL LINKAGES FOR LOCAL COMMONS DO NOT YET SCALE UP (OR DOWN) FROM THE COMMUNITY TO THE INTERNATIONAL LEVELThursday, 13 October 11 4
  • 5. ACHIEVING SCALE NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR MULTI-LEVEL MANAGEMENT OF THE COMMONS ARE ARISING THROUGH THE OPENNESS OF POLITICAL SYSTEMS AND THE INTERCONNECTIVITY OF ECONOMIES AND INFORMATION NETWORKS THIS REQUIRES PRINCIPLES AND LINKAGES THAT REACH FROM THE LOCAL LEVELS OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION TO HIGHER LEVELS OF MULTILATERAL GOVERNANCEThursday, 13 October 11 5
  • 6. LOCAL COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 6
  • 7. ‘TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS’ GARRETT HARDIN’S 1968 ARTICLE IN SCIENCE ‘WHEN A PASTURE IS SHARED BY HERDERS, THERE IS NO INCENTIVE TO LIMIT THE NUMBER OF CATTLE THAT AN INDIVIDUAL HERDER PUTS INTO THE PASTURE’ ‘THE PASTURE WILL BE OVERGRAZED AND DESTROYED’Thursday, 13 October 11 7
  • 8. OPEN ACCESS REGIMES ARE NOT COMMONS HARDIN WAS DESCRIBING AN OPEN-ACCESS REGIME WITH NO COMMUNITY, NO RULES AND NO BOUNDARIES FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THIS IS NOT A COMMONS!Thursday, 13 October 11 8
  • 9. WHAT ARE COMMONS ? COMMON POOL RESOURCES -- UNORGANIZED AND UNCLAIMED RESOURCES COMMONS -- RESOURCES THAT A COMMUNITY OR GROUP ORGANIZES BY NEGOTIATING INFORMAL PRACTICES, NORMS AND RULESThursday, 13 October 11 9
  • 10. BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMMONS RESOURCE (REPLENISHABLE OR DEPLETABLE) PEOPLE WHO SHARE THIS RESOURCE (USERS, MANAGERS, PRODUCERS AND PROVIDERS) BOUNDARIES SPECIFYING COMMUNITY MEMBERSHIP AND THE EXTENT OF THE RESOURCE RULES GOVERNING PEOPLE’S ACCESS TO, AND BENEFIT FROM, THESE COMMON RESOURCES VALUE CREATED THROUGH THE PRESERVATION OR PRODUCTION OF THESE COMMON GOODSThursday, 13 October 11 10
  • 11. WHAT ARE COMMON GOODS ? SOCIAL CULTURAL INTELLECTUAL SOLAR NATURAL GENETIC MATERIALThursday, 13 October 11 11
  • 12. SOCIAL, CULTURAL & INTELLECTUAL INDIGENOUS CULTURE AND TRADITIONS, COMMUNITY SUPPORT SYSTEMS, NEIGHBORHOODS, VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS, LABOR RELATIONS, WOMEN AND CHILDRENS RIGHTS, FAMILY LIFE, HEALTH, EDUCATION, CREATIVE WORKS, LANGUAGES, WORDS, NUMBERS, SYMBOLS, HOLIDAYS, CALENDARS, STORES OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOMThursday, 13 October 11 12
  • 13. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, ETHNOBOTANICAL KNOWLEDGE, IDEAS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, DATA, INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION FLOWS, AIRWAVES, INTERNET, FREE CULTURE, SPORTS, GAMES, PLAYGROUNDS, ROADS, STREETS, PARKING, SIDEWALKS, PLAZAS, PUBLIC SPACES, NATIONAL PARKS, HISTORICAL SITES, MUSEUMS, LIBRARIES, UNIVERSITIES, MUSIC, DANCE, ARTS, CRAFTS, MONEYThursday, 13 October 11 13
  • 14. NATURAL & GENETIC SOIL, AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES, WILDERNESS, TREES, FORESTS, WETLANDS, ECOSYSTEMS, PASTURES, PARKS, GARDENS, PLANTS, SEEDS, ALGAE, TOPSOIL, FOOD CROPS, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, POLLINATION, LIFE FORMS, SPECIESThursday, 13 October 11 14
  • 15. MATERIAL & SOLAR ROCKS, MINERALS, METALS, CHEMICALS, HYRDOCARBONS, TECHNOLOGY, HARDWARE, BUILDINGS, THE ELEMENTS, SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, TIDES, HYDROPOWER, BEACHES, OCEANS, LAKES, SPRINGS, STREAMS, WATERSHEDS, AQUIFERS, LAND, INORGANIC ENERGY, ATMOSPHERE, OZONE LAYER, STRATOSPHEREThursday, 13 October 11 15
  • 16. MATERIAL & IMMATERIAL THINGS: HOW ARE THEY INTERRELATED? THE VALUE OF COMMON GOODS ARISES THROUGH OUR RELATIONSHIPS AND CONNECTEDNESS WITH THEM -- FOR SUSTENANCE AND LIVELIHOOD -- FOR INDIVIDUAL EXPRESSON AND PURPOSE -- FOR SOCIAL COHESION, QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELL- BEINGThursday, 13 October 11 16
  • 17. PRIVATE & PUBLIC GOODS VS. COMMON GOODS PRIVATE GOODS ARE PRODUCED AND SOLD BY BUSINESSES TO CONSUMERS PUBLIC GOODS ARE REGULATED AND PROVIDED BY GOVERNMENTS TO THEIR CITIZENS COMMON GOODS ARE PRESERVED OR PRODUCED BY EVERYONEThursday, 13 October 11 17
  • 18. WHY ARE COMMON GOODS UNIQUE ? COOPERATION INCLUSION AND EQUAL ACCESS FREE AND FAIR STANDARDS TRANSPARENCY PARTICIPATORY SOCIAL PRACTICE SOCIAL CREATVITY AND INNOVATION MUTUAL BENEFIT LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITYThursday, 13 October 11 18
  • 19. HOW DID WE LOSE THE COMMONS ? ENCLOSURE OF PROPERTY AND LEGAL ENFORCEMENT COMMODIFICATION OF THINGS INTO PRIVATE AND PUBLIC GOODS FUNGIBILITY OF COMMODITIES THROUGH A UNIVERSAL STANDARD OF VALUEThursday, 13 October 11 19
  • 20. HOW CAN PEOPLE ORGANIZE A COMMONS ? SOCIAL CHARTERS CO-GOVERNANCE C0-PRODUCTION COMMONS TRUSTS CIVIL SOCIETY PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT JOB CREATIONThursday, 13 October 11 20
  • 21. SOCIAL CHARTERS DECLARATION BY STAKEHOLDERS BASED ON A CUSTOMARY OR EMERGING IDENTIFICATION WITH AN ECOLOGY A FORM OF COLLECTIVE LABOUR A SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY A COMMUNITY NEED OR SHARED CONVICTION A CULTURAL RESOURCE AREA AN ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS OR LINGUISTIC AFFINITY AN HISTORICAL IDENTITYThursday, 13 October 11 21
  • 22. CO-GOVERNANCE PLURALISM -- A WIDE VARIETY OF STAKEHOLDERS PARTICIPATE IN THE DECISIONS THAT AFFECT THEM SUBSIDIARITY -- CITIZENS TAKE DECISIONS AT THE LOWEST POSSIBLE LEVEL OF AUTHORITY POLYCENTRISM -- DECENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT IN THE USE, PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF A RESOURCE CHECKS & BALANCES -- STAKEHOLDERS CREATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR GOVERNANCE, REBALANCING THE MARKET’S DOMINATION OF GOVERNMENTThursday, 13 October 11 22
  • 23. CO-PRODUCTION COLLABORATION OF RESOURCE USERS AND PRODUCERS BARTERING, GIFT ECONOMIES, COMPLEMENTARY CURRENCIES AND COMMUNITY RECIPROCITY SYSTEMS FREE SHOPS, FAIR TRADE MARKETS, PRODUCER COOPERATIVES, TRADE UNIONS, ENTREPRENEURIAL NETWORKS, SCIENTIFIC AND ACADEMIC COMMONS OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE, OPEN ELECTRONIC MEDIA, SHARED LICENSING, COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE AND DESIGN, SOCIAL NETWORKS, CREATIVE COMMONS COPYRIGHTS, WIKIPEDIA, WEBSITES, FILE SHARING, EMAIL AND CHAT ROOMSThursday, 13 October 11 23
  • 24. COMMONS TRUSTS ESTABLISH THE LEGAL CONDITIONS TO PRESERVE AND MANAGE RESOURCES INHERITED FROM PAST GENERATIONS FOR THE BENEFIT OF FUTURE AND PRESENT GENERATIONS COMMONS TRUSTS ARE THE ONLY FIDUCIARY INSTITUTIONS ACCOUNTABLE FOR THE LONG-TERM PRESERVATION AND SUSTENANCE OF A RESOURCEThursday, 13 October 11 24
  • 25. CIVIL SOCIETY ... IS A GENUINE VOICE OF PUBLIC OPINION BUT LACKS THE AUTHORITY OF ELECTORAL LEGITIMACY ... MUST OVERCOME ITS FEAR OF CHALLENGING CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRICTIONS ON THE EQUITABLE ACCESS, PRODUCTION AND USE OF COMMONS ... MUST INVOLVE RESOURCE USERS IN THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION AND MOVE AWAY FROM OWNERSHIP TO TRUSTEESHIP MODELSThursday, 13 October 11 25
  • 26. PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT COLLABORATIVE GOVERNANCE BETWEEN COMMUNITIES, CIVIL SOCIETY, BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATORY ENGAGEMENT AND DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY BY PEOPLE IN THE CREATION OF THEIR OWN RESOURCE BOUNDARIES, RULES AND POLICIESThursday, 13 October 11 26
  • 27. HOW WILL THIS TRANSFORM THE PRESENT SYSTEM? SOCIAL CHARTERS CO-GOVERNANCE C0-PRODUCTION COMMONS TRUSTS CIVIL SOCIETY PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT JOB CREATIONThursday, 13 October 11 27
  • 28. CONSUMERS ARE THE PRODUCERS OF THEIR OWN RESOURCES WHEN RESOURCE USERS BECOME DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF A COMMONS RESOURCE ... THEIR MOTIVATIONS, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BECOME PART OF THE PRODUCTION PRAXIS THIS LEADS TO NEW WAYS OF INTERACTING AND COORDINATING NATURAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFEThursday, 13 October 11 28
  • 29. RESOURCE USERS/PRODUCERS CREATE A TRUST TRUSTS ARE GENERALLY CREATED TO PRESERVE DEPLETABLE RESOURCES (NATURAL, MINERAL) TRUSTS CAN ALSO BE CREATED TO ENHANCE OR PROTECT REPLENISHABLE RESOURCES (NATURAL, SOCIAL, CULTURAL, INTELLECTUAL, DIGITAL, SOLAR)Thursday, 13 October 11 29
  • 30. RESOURCE CAP TRUSTEES SET A STRICT LIMIT OR CAP ON THE EXTRACTION OR USE OF A RESOURCE ACCORDING TO NON-MONETIZED, INTERGENERATIONAL METRICS SUSTAINABILITY, QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELL-BEING THIS PROTECTS THE COMMONS SAFELY FOR FUTURE GENERATIONSThursday, 13 October 11 30
  • 31. BUSINESSES BENEFIT THE TRUST RENTS A PROPORTION OF THE RESOURCES BEYOND THE CAP TO THE PRIVATE SECTOR (OR TO STATE BUSINESSES AND UTILITIES) THE PRIVATE SECTOR PROFITS FROM THE EXTRACTION AND PRODUCTION OF THE RESOURCES OUTSIDE THE CAPThursday, 13 October 11 31
  • 32. THE STATE IS TRANSFORMED GOVERNMENT SHIFTS ITS EMPHASIS FROM CREATING CORPORATE CHARTERS AND LICENSING THE PRIVATE SECTOR THE STATE SUPPORTS THE PROTOCOLS, BOUNDARIES AND LEGAL RULES FOR THE COMMONS ESTABLISHED THROUGH NON-CLOSURE MOVEMENTS, SOCIAL CHARTERS AND COMMONS TRUSTSThursday, 13 October 11 32
  • 33. TAX ON BUSINESSES & TRUSTS A PERCENTAGE OF THE REVENUE OF BUSINESSES AND THE RESOURCE RENTS PAID TO TRUSTS IS TAXED THE STATE REDISTRIBUTES THESE FUNDS TO CITIZENS AS DIVIDENDS OR SUBSISTENCE INCOME, INVESTS THEM IN THE RESTORATION OF DEPLETED RESOURCES(LAND, OCEANS, ATMOSPHERE), AND ALSO USES THEM TO ENHANCE REPLENISHABLE RESOURCES (FREE CULTURE, ARTS, COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE, PEACEKEEPING)Thursday, 13 October 11 33
  • 34. 7 COMMONS PRINCIPLES REALIZE COMMON GOODS AS A THIRD SECTOR RECOGNIZE THAT PRIVATE AND PUBLIC GOODS ARE COMPONENT PARTS OF A GREATER COMMONS OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGSThursday, 13 October 11 34
  • 35. 1. END THE DIVISION OF LABOUR USERS OF RESOURCES BECOME CO-PRODUCERS OF THEIR OWN GOODS THROUGH MUTUAL PLATFORMS, NETWORKED COLLABORATION, PEER TO PEER PRODUCTION, EMPLOYEE-OPERATED BUSINESSES AND COOPERATIVESThursday, 13 October 11 35
  • 36. 2. GENERATE NEW SOURCES OF VALUE LONG-TERM VALUE IS NOT GENERATED THROUGH THE POTENTIAL FINANCIAL REVENUE OF COMMONS ASSETS VALUE ARISES THROUGH THE PRESERVATION OF COMMONS RESOURCES AND THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS TO SUPPORT LIFE AND LIFE SYSTEMSThursday, 13 October 11 36
  • 37. 3. BUILD A NON-CLOSURE MOVEMENT ENCLOSURE REMOVES PEOPLE FROM THEIR SOURCES OF SURVIVAL, SUSTENANCE AND LIVING WEALTH THIS BRINGS RESOURCE OVERUSE AND DETERIORATION, LEADING TO FAILED COMMONS, RESOURCE CONFLICT AND SECURITY CRISES RESIST ANY FORM OF EXTERNAL CONTROL THAT DOES NOT PROMOTE LIFE, DIGNITY, SECURITY AND WELL-BEINGThursday, 13 October 11 37
  • 38. 4. TRANSFORM OWNERSHIP THROUGH TRUSTEESHIP INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP GIVES EXCLUSIVE CONTROL COLLECTIVE OWNERSHIP, TOO, IS SUBJECT TO SOCIAL HIERARCHY AND ABUSE, SINCE A CO-OWNED PROPERTY MAY BE MANAGED BY A MAJORITY, EXPLOITED AND DIVIDED, WHETHER EQUITABLY OR NOT TRUSTEESHIP IS NOT OWNERSHIPThursday, 13 October 11 38
  • 39. 5. CREATE COMMONS TRUSTS COMMONS TRUSTS DO NOT OWN PROPERTY TRUSTS INVOLVE THE PARTICIPATION OF USERS AND PRODUCERS/PROVIDERS IN THE PRESERVATION, PRODUCTION OR USE OF A RESOURCE TRUSTS HOLD AND MANAGE THIS RESOURCE AS A COMMON PROPERTY FOR EXISTING AND FUTURE GENERATIONSThursday, 13 October 11 39
  • 40. 6. ESTABLISH CAP AND RENT CAP THE STOCK OF COMMON RESOURCES (THROUGH PRESERVATION AND APPROPRIATION) RENT THE FLOW OF MATTER AND ENERGY (THROUGH ALLOCATION AND USE)Thursday, 13 October 11 40
  • 41. 7. DEVELOP A NEW ETHIC OF COMMONING COMMUNICATION ALTRUISM CREATIVITY SOCIABILITY TRUST FRIENDSHIP COOPERATION RECIPROCITY AUTONOMY CIVIC VIRTUE LIBERATION EMPATHY BENEVOLENCE GOODWILLThursday, 13 October 11 41
  • 42. GLOBAL COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 42
  • 43. COMMON RIGHTS THE HISTORICAL RIGHTS TO LOCAL COMMONS HAVE THEIR BASIS IN NATURAL OR CUSTOMARY LAW GLOBAL COMMONS HAVE THEIR BASIS IN PUBLIC TRUST DOCTRINE AND PUBLIC DOMAIN PUBLIC TRUST AND PUBLIC DOMAIN SAY THAT UNRESTRICTED OPEN ACCESS TO RESOURCES SHOULD BE MANAGED AS PUBLIC PROPERTYThursday, 13 October 11 43
  • 44. SOVEREIGNTY VS. COMMONS THE LEGAL BASIS FOR THE GLOBAL COMMONS -- WHETHER IN PUBLIC TRUST DOCTRINE, PUBLIC DOMAIN, NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, PROTOCOLS AND CONVENTIONS -- IS THUS GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY STATE SOVEREIGNTY EMPHASIZES THE MANAGEMENT OF A TERRITORY AND THE CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED WITHIN ITThursday, 13 October 11 44
  • 45. WITHOUT GLOBAL GOVERNANCE ... ALL CLAIMS ON THE GLOBAL COMMONS MUST BE APPROVED BY EACH STATE AS A NOMINAL MEMBER OF THE LARGER COMMUNITY OF STATES ... NATIONAL PRIORITIES -- STEMMING FROM THE SOVEREIGN RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT -- DETERMINE WHETHER NATURAL RESOURCES MAY BE CONSERVED, EXPLOITED OR DESTROYEDThursday, 13 October 11 45
  • 46. THIS AMOUNTS TO EXCLUSIVE AND NON-SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS BY INDIVIDUAL STATES THE GLOBAL COMMONS IS LEFT WITHOUT EFFECTIVE MEASURES OF ENFORCEMENT OR DEVELOPMENTThursday, 13 October 11 46
  • 47. METALOGUE ON THE COMMONS GLOBAL TALKS MUST BECOME MORE REPRESENTATIVE, CROSS-SECTORAL AND INTERDISCIPLINARY GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT, AID, ENVIRONMENT, TRADE, FINANCE, MONETARY POLICY, ENERGY, CLIMATE CHANGE, HUMAN SECURITY AND POLITICAL SECURITY MUST ALL BE INTEGRATEDThursday, 13 October 11 47
  • 48. 1970-80: COMMON HERITAGE OF HUMANITY FOOD & CULTURAL LEGACIES SEABEDS (BEYOND COASTAL JURISDICTIONS) ANTARCTIC & THE MOON SATELLITE ORBITS & SPACE COMMUNICATIONS SOLAR ENERGY, TECHNOLOGY & COMMODITIES ENDANGERED SPECIES, GENETICS, RAIN FORESTS ATMOSPHERE & OCEAN RESOURCESThursday, 13 October 11 48
  • 49. 1980-NOW: NEO-LIBERALISM DENIAL OF ALL COMMONS THROUGH ECONOMIC TOTALIZATION TRANSNATIONAL PLATFORM OF MARKETS AND STATES ’MARKET STATE’ - AS DEFINED BY PHILIP BOBBITT AND PHILLIP BLONDThursday, 13 October 11 49
  • 50. TOWARD A MACROECONOMICS OF THE COMMONS WHY ISNT THE ECONOMY MANAGED AS A COMMONS?Thursday, 13 October 11 50
  • 51. MIND-BODY SPLIT AFTER THE WRITINGS OF PHILOSOPHERS JOHN LOCKE AND RENE DESCATES IN THE 17TH CENTURY, WESTERN CIVILIZATION CAME TO REGARD MIND (NOOSPHERE) AND NATURE (BIOSPHERE) AS SEPARATE THINGS THIS ’MIND-BODY SPLIT’ INFLUENCED ECONOMICS, WHICH DOES NOT SEE A CONNECTION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL ECONOMIC DECISIONS AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENTThursday, 13 October 11 51
  • 52. FINANCIAL VS. MONETARY BEHAVIORISM, POSITIVISM AND UTILITARIAN IDEAS HAVE ALSO STRESSED THE PRIMACY OF FACT (RATIONAL MIND) OVER VALUE (NATURE AND HUMAN SUBJECTIVITY) BUSINESS AND FINANCE -- NOT THE COMMONS -- ARE NOW TREATED AS THE SOURCE OF MONETARY OR CURRENCY VALUEThursday, 13 October 11 52
  • 53. ECONOMY IS A SUBSIDIARY OF THE BIOSPHERE TODAY, SETTLEMENT OF NATIONAL ACCOUNTS WITH THE WORLD’S BIOPHYSICAL IMBALANCES REQUIRES A MONETARY FRAMEWORK BASED ON AN AGREEMENT THAT THE NOOSPHERE IS A PART OF THE BIOSPHEREThursday, 13 October 11 53
  • 54. SPECIES AND MATERIAL RESOURCES ... AND ALSO SPEAK FOR THE COMMON HERITAGE OF EARTH’S LIVING AND NON-LIVING SYSTEMSThursday, 13 October 11 54
  • 55. INTERGENERATIONAL ETHICS THIS REQUIRES A NEW KIND OF INTERNATIONAL PLANNING BASED, NOT ON GEOPOLITICAL OR CORPORATE OBJECTIVES, BUT ON GLOBAL RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION RELATIVE TO POPULATION GROWTH AND ECOLOGICAL CARRYING CAPACITYThursday, 13 October 11 55
  • 56. PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE GIVING THE SAME WEIGHT TO THE WELFARE OF FUTURE GENERATIONS OF PEOPLE AND PLANETARY LIFE-FORMS AS WE GIVE TO THOSE NOW LIVING OBLIGES US TO INCREASE THE PRESENT WEALTH PER CAPITA THE USE OF A PRECAUTIONARY RESOURCE CAP WOULD TRANSFORM THE BALANCE OF TRADE, FINANCE AND AID FOR THE CURRENT GENERATION AND CREATE SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONSThursday, 13 October 11 56
  • 57. ECONOMY AS SUBSYSTEM OF EARTH Q: BUT HOW DO WE GENERATE PROSPERITY TODAY WHEN WE ARE ALSO TRYING TO LIMIT DESTRUCTIVE ECONOMIC GROWTH ACROSS THE PLANET? A: THE MONETARY SYSTEM ITSELF MUST BECOME PART OF THE FINITE BIOSPHERIC COMMONS, WITH ITS INFLOWS OF RAW MATERIALS AND OUTFLOWS OF WASTESThursday, 13 October 11 57
  • 58. GLOBAL ADJUSTMENT WITHDRAWAL RATES OF DEPLETABLE RESOURCES ARE SLOWED TO ALLOW STOCKS TO CATCH UP WITH FLOWS WITHDRAWAL RATES OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES ARE EQUILIBRATED WITH THEIR REPLENISHMENT RATES THIS BRINGS LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS FULLY INTO SCALE AND MAKES THE ECONOMY A COMPONENT PART OF THE ENVIRONMENTThursday, 13 October 11 58
  • 59. ECO-DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY SOCIAL MEDIA AND SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY ARE FUSING WITH NATURAL RESOURCE COMMONS THIS ENABLES INSTANT PARTICIPATION IN RESOURCE INFORMATION-GATHERING ON A PLANETARY BASIS WE CAN TRACK A VARIETY OF COMMONS IN REAL-TIMEThursday, 13 October 11 59
  • 60. BASKET OF COMMONS GOODS UNDER A NEW RESERVE SYSTEM, THE COMMON ASSETS OF THE ENTIRE PLANET WOULD FORM THE BASIS OF A COMPOSITE STANDARD OF VALUE WE CAN CREATE A RESERVE BASKET OF GLOBAL COMMON GOODS SO WHAT’S IN THIS BASKET?Thursday, 13 October 11 60
  • 61. COMMONS RESERVE INDEX CULTURAL RESOURCES -- INDIGENOUS WISDOM, HOUSEHOLD WORK AND THE ARTS SOCIAL RESOURCES -- HEALTH, LITERACY, ECONOMIC OUTPUT AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION INTELLECTUAL RESOURCES -- SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND INFORMATION FLOWS NATURAL RESOURCES -- AIR AND WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY GENETIC RESOURCES -- LIVING CREATURES, ORGANS AND MINERALS, WATER AND THE ATMOSPHEREThursday, 13 October 11 61
  • 62. SUSTAINABILITY RATE AN INDEX OF THE SUSTAINABILITY LINKAGES AMONG THE VARIOUS COMMONS IS CONTINUOUSLY UPDATED, ESTABLISHING A VALUE FOR MONEY THIS EXPRESSES THE RELATIVE SCARCITY AND REPLENISHABILITY OF THE WORLD’S KEY RESOURCES ... REFLECTING THE CAPACITY OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS TO PROVIDE AND MAINTAIN INCLUSIVE WEALTH FOR GLOBAL SOCIETYThursday, 13 October 11 62
  • 63. TO MAKE THIS ADJUSTMENT -- BOTH AT THE LEVEL OF FINANCING AND DEBT, AND AT THE LEVEL OF FINITE BIOLOGICAL AND MATERIAL RESOURCES AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES -- THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS CREATED ENTIRELY INDEPENDENT OF INTEREST RATES AND MARKET GOODS AND SERVICESThursday, 13 October 11 63
  • 64. THE VALUE EXPRESSED THROUGH THIS SUSTAINABILITY RATE IN EVERY EXCHANGE OF GOODS AND SERVICES IS SECURED BY THE RESILIENCE AND DIVERSITY OF THE WORLD’S SOCIAL, CULTURAL, INTELLECTUAL, NATURAL, GENETIC, MATERIAL AND SOLAR RESOURCESThursday, 13 October 11 64
  • 65. AS MONEY IS SPENT OR GAINED IN EACH TRANSACTION, THE DEFICIT OR SURPLUS IS ACCOUNTED WITH REFERENCE TO THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY RATEThursday, 13 October 11 65
  • 66. IF THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS LOW, MONEY IS WORTH LESS RELATIVE TO ITS VALUE IN AN EXCHANGE, WHICH MAY CAUSE A BUYER TO SPEND LESS, OR PERHAPS NOT SPEND OR TO POSTPONE SPENDING IF THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS HIGH, MONEY IS WORTH MORE IN THE EXCHANGE, WHICH MAY CONVINCE THE BUYER TO SPEND MOREThursday, 13 October 11 66
  • 67. THE SIGNALS ABOUT THE ACTUAL SCARCITY OF RESOURCES AND THE COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AND SOCIAL DISPARITIES ARE CONVEYED DIRECTLY THROUGH OUR MONEY -- NOT PRICES!Thursday, 13 October 11 67
  • 68. PURCHASING POWER WHEN GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY IS EXPRESSED THROUGH CURRENCY VALUE , EACH OF US HAS AN IMMEDIATE REALIZATION OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF OUR PURCHASING POWER IN SPENDING, SAVING OR INVESTING THIS MAKES IT WORTH LESS TO DO ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL HARM, AND WORTH MORE TO BE ECOLOGICALLY AND SOCIALLY RESTORATIVEThursday, 13 October 11 68
  • 69. EVERY PERSONAL SPENDING DECISION IS A VOTE EACH USE OF MONEY -- WHETHER THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE IS LOW OR HIGH -- IS LITERALLY A VOTE ... FOR THE MINIMIZATION OF SOCIAL INEQUITIES ... AND THE LONGEVITY, REGENERATION AND DIVERSITY OF THE PLANET’S COMMON GOODSThursday, 13 October 11 69
  • 70. THE SUSTAINABILITY RATE ENABLES BUYERS AND SELLERS TO DETERMINE THE VALUE OF THEIR OWN PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION ... BASED ON THE CAPACITY OF THE GLOBAL COMMONS TO SUSTAIN THE QUALITY OF LIFE AND WELL-BEING OF PRESENT AND FUTURE GENERATIONS AND EARTH’S LIVING SYSTEMSThursday, 13 October 11 70
  • 71. WHERE TO START ? HOW DO WE MAKE THIS ECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT?Thursday, 13 October 11 71
  • 72. BRIDGING LOCAL & GLOBAL WE NEED A MUCH DEEPER AWARENESS AND STRONGER IDENTITY BETWEEN LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS LOCAL COMMONS GROUPS NEED THE TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND KNOWLEDGE OF A COMMONS-BASED MULTILATERALISM GLOBAL RULES AND INSTITUTIONS MUST ALSO EMBODY THE EXPERTISE AND SKILLS OF COMMUNITY GROUPS AT THE GRASSROOTSThursday, 13 October 11 72
  • 73. SCALING UP & DOWN THE EXPERTISE AND UNDERSTANDING THAT PEOPLE HAVE DEVELOPED THROUGH LOCAL MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES MUST BE SCALED UP TO THE GLOBAL LEVEL YET LOCAL DEVELOPMENT ALSO NEEDS AN INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM THAT IS GENERATIVE -- NOT TECHNOCRATIC, NATIONALISTIC OR COMMERCIAL NEW INCENTIVES FOR SHARING THE GLOBAL COMMONS MUST BE BUILT INTO GLOBAL RULES AND INSTITUTIONSThursday, 13 October 11 73
  • 74. GLOBAL PUBLIC GOODS ? THE POSTWAR INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM CREATED REGIMES FOR SECURITY, TRADE, FINANCE AND MONEY THE UNITED NATIONS AND MANY LIBERAL INTERNATIONALISTS HAVE CALLED THE RESOURCES OF THESE REGIMES ‘GLOBAL PUBLIC GOODS’Thursday, 13 October 11 74
  • 75. GLOBAL COMMON GOODS ... BUT STATES MUST NOW GIVE LEGITIMACY AND AUTHORITY TO NEW GLOBAL INSTITUTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF GLOBAL COMMON GOODSThursday, 13 October 11 75
  • 76. GLOBAL COMMON GOODS SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES MUST BE IDENTIFIED AS GLOBAL COMMON GOODS TO BETTER MANAGE THEIR LONG-TERM RISKS ... INCLUDING FOOD, CLEAN WATER, ATMOSPHERE, ENERGY, HOUSING, HEALTH CARE, EDUCATION, INFORMATION, JOBS, NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION, PEACEFUL MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCE CONFLICT, SECURITY OF GLOBAL SUPPLIES, AND REPRESENTATION OF POOR NATIONS IN GLOBAL DECISION-MAKINGThursday, 13 October 11 76
  • 77. GLOBAL RESOURCE POOL CO-PRODUCTION OF GLOBAL COMMON GOODS CAN THEN BE FACILITATED THROUGH COLLABORATION BETWEEN LOCAL RESOURCE USERS AND GLOBAL INSTITUTIONS NATIONS COLLECTIVELY AGREE TO PRESERVE AND PROTECT THE VARIOUS COMMONS OF EARTH AND MAINTAIN A POOL OF SHARED PRODUCTION AND GOODS LARGE ENOUGH TO PROVIDE FOR EVERYONE’S SUBSISTENCE NEEDSThursday, 13 October 11 77
  • 78. SHARE THE WORLD’S RESOURCES MANY OF THE RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR PRODUCTION -- AND THE GOODS THEY PRODUCE -- WOULD GO INTO THIS COMMON RESOURCE POOL THE GLOBAL GOODS WHICH MANY PEOPLE NEED WOULD COME OUT OF THIS MASS WAREHOUSEThursday, 13 October 11 78
  • 79. SURPLUS IS RECYCLED ... RICH NATIONS RECYCLE THEIR EXCESS RESOURCES INTO THIS GLOBAL CLEARINGHOUSE, WHICH ARE THEN REDISTRIBUTED TO POOR NATIONS NEEDING ASSISTANCEThursday, 13 October 11 79
  • 80. THE COMMONS ... NOW COME INTO SCALE THROUGH TRANS-LOCAL COLLABORATION BOTH LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS ARE GOVERNED THROUGH VALUES, PRINCIPLES AND RULES NEGOTIATED BY A COMMUNITY TO PRESERVE AND PRODUCE ITS RESOURCESThursday, 13 October 11 80
  • 81. THE COMMONS ARE ORGANIZED SOCIAL CHARTERS CO-GOVERNANCE C0-PRODUCTION COMMONS TRUSTS CIVIL SOCIETY PARTNERSHIP GOVERNMENT JOB CREATIONThursday, 13 October 11 81
  • 82. COMMONS PRINCIPLES 1. END THE DIVISION OF LABOUR 2. GENERATE NEW SOURCES OF VALUE 3. BUILD A NON-CLOSURE MOVEMENT 4. TRANSFORM OWNERSHIP THROUGH TRUSTEESHIP 5. CREATE COMMONS TRUSTS 6. ESTABLISH CAP AND RENT 7. DEVELOP A NEW ETHIC OF COMMONINGThursday, 13 October 11 82
  • 83. INTERCONNECTIONS MARKETS, STATES AND COMMONS INTERPENETRATE WITH MANY OVERLAPPING DEPENDENCIES SO THERE ARE MIXED USES OR HYBRIDS BUSINESS CAN BE EMBEDDED IN COMMONS STATES CAN ACT AS TRUSTEES OF COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 83
  • 84. DIFFERENTIATION YET IT IS VITAL TO DIFFERENTIATE THE COMMONS FROM THE MARKET AND STATE TO ESTABLISH THE IDENTITY AND VALUE OF COMMONS AND ALLOW POLITICAL SELF-DETERMINATION AND ECONOMIC SELF-PROVISIONING AT THE COMMONS LEVELThursday, 13 October 11 84
  • 85. HISTORICAL PROCESS SOCIETY-CENTERED MARKETS MARKET-CENTERED SOCIETIES COMMONS-BASED EXCHANGEThursday, 13 October 11 85
  • 86. DIFFERENTIATE & REINTEGRATE THE COMMONS ... MARKET STATE COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 86
  • 87. ... TO SEE THEM ALL AS PARTS OF A GREATER COMMONS MARKET STATE COMMONSThursday, 13 October 11 87
  • 88. MANAGING LOCAL AND GLOBAL COMMONS JAMES BERNARD QUILLIGAN GLOBAL COMMONS TRUSTThursday, 13 October 11 88