Awea Annual Wind Report 2009

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Awea Annual Wind Report 2009

  1. 1. American Wind Energy Association Annual Wind Industry Report Y E AR E ND I N G 2 0 0 8
  2. 2. AWEA conducted the research for this report with the help of AWEA business members and public data sources. Data should not be resold or used without citation.
  3. 3. Table of Contents Wind Energy Industry Growth in 2008 2 Policy 3 U.S. Wind Project Growth 4 Global Capacity Growth 6 “20% Wind Energy Scenario” Report Card 7 Wind Project Installations by State 8 Turbine Manufacturers 10 Project Owners 11 Utility Wind Power Rankings 12 Projects 14 Utility Scale Turbines 15 Manufacturing 16 Wind Industry Employment 17 U.S. Small Wind Market 18 AWEA Membership 19 Definitions 20 Appendix: 2008 Projects List 21 A M E R IC A N WIN D E NER GY AS S OCI AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY | 1
  4. 4. Wind Energy Industry Growth in 2008 The U.S. market for small wind turbines – those with In 2008, the U.S. wind energy industry brought online The amount that the industry brought online in the 4th quarter capacities of 100 kW and under – grew 96% in 2008 with over 8,500 megawatts (MW) of new wind power capacity, alone – 4,313 MW – exceeds annual additions for every year an additional 19 MW of installed capacity. This growth was increasing the nation’s cumulative total by 50% to over except 2007. In all, wind power generating capacity in the largely attributable to increased private equity investment 25,300 MW and pushing the U.S. above Germany as the U.S. now stands at 25,369 MW, producing enough electricity for manufacturing, which allowed equipment supply and country with the largest amount of wind power capacity to power the equivalent of close to 7 million households and availability to increase. The industry projects 30-fold growth installed. The new installations place the U.S. on a trajectory strengthening our national electricity supply with a clean, within as little as five years, for a total installed capacity of to generate 20% of the nation’s electricity by 2030 from wind inexhaustible, homegrown source of energy. 1,700 MW, due primarily to the new 30% federal Investment energy as long as the industry continues to garner long-term Tax Credit passed by Congress in October 2008 and policy support. Wind projects installed through the end of 2008 generated over 1.25% of the nation’s electricity in 2008. enhanced in February 2009. The growth in 2008 channeled an investment of some $17 billion into the economy, positioning wind power as Nearly 4,000 MW of projects that could have been one of the leading sources of new power generation in commissioned in 2008 will now be brought online in the early the country along with natural gas. The new wind projects part of 2009. AWEA expects over 5,000 MW of new capacity completed in 2008 account for about 42% of the entire new to be commissioned in 2009. power-producing capacity added nationally during the year, according to initial estimates, and will avoid nearly 44 million tons of carbon emissions--the equivalent of taking over 7 million cars off the road. | A M E R IC A N WI ND E NE R GY AS S OC I AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY 2
  5. 5. Policy With the legislation passed, AWEA now turns its attention to A stable policy environment helps encourage investment The new law authorizes an additional $1.6 billion of new in wind equipment production facilities. Wind turbine and clean renewable energy bonds to be distributed to its next major legislative priorities: the effort to enact a national renewable electricity standard and pass legislation to support turbine component manufacturers announced, added tribal governments, public power providers, and electric or expanded over 70 facilities in the past two years, cooperatives to finance facilities that generate electricity from construction of Green Power Superhighways (transmission lines) that are needed to enable renewable development. including over 55 in 2008 alone. The renewable energy renewable resources. AWEA is also moving quickly to help ensure that the measures in the stimulus bill will help sustain that economic recovery bill is implemented in a way that is most momentum and encourage additional clean energy It also provides a new 30% credit for investment in qualified investment and job creation. property used in a “qualified advanced energy manufacturing effective for promoting wind power deployment. project.” AWEA and the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) On February 17, 2009, President Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of Provisions that will facilitate the planning and building of recently released a white paper titled “Green Power Superhighways: Building a Path to America’s Clean Energy 2009. The legislation includes a three-year extension of new transmission lines include $3.25 billion in additional Future,” detailing current inadequacies of the U.S. electric the production tax credit (PTC) and a new program that borrowing authority each for the Bonneville Power allows renewable energy developers the option of forgoing Administration and Western Area Power Administration for transmission infrastructure and offering policy solutions to address them. Inadequate transmission capacity is a the PTC and instead securing a grant from the Treasury transmission lines constructed after February 17, 2009, that department in the amount of a 30% investment tax credit deliver power from renewable energy resources. In addition, significant barrier to renewable energy development in the U.S.--the white paper emphasizes that the nation’s (ITC). This program to help monetize renewable tax credits is the law provides $4.5 billion for DOE’s Office of Electricity renewable energy resources cannot reach their full potential considered critical for the wind industry to continue its growth Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) program to accelerate in the face of the economic downturn, which has dramatically the hiring of personnel, for worker training, for subsequent without renewed investment in transmission infrastructure. reduced the ability to secure value for renewable tax credits. legislation on transmission improvements and to provide a resource assessment of future demand and transmission To help consumers buy small wind systems, the recovery bill requirements. OE, in coordination with FERC, is also directed also removed the $4,000 cap on the small wind ITC. Small to provide technical assistance for the development of wind investors are now allowed to claim a full 30% ITC for interconnection-wide transmission plans for the Eastern and qualified small wind energy property. Western Interconnections and ERCOT. A M E R IC A N WIN D E NER GY AS S OCI AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY | 3
  6. 6. U.S. Wind Project Growth FIGURE 1: NAtIoNAl CApACIty GRoWth Net Capacity Additions Cumulative Capacity year Net Capacity Cumulative Additions Capacity 25000 1981-1983 240 240 1984-1986 982 1,222 1987-1989 181 1,403 20000 1990-1992 181 1,584 1993-1995 119 1,703 1996 1 1,703 15000 1997 8 1,711 Capacity (MW) 1998 142 1,853 1999 659 2,512 2000 67 2,579 10000 2001 1,694 4,273 2002 412 4,685 2003 1,672 6,357 2004 372 6,729 5000 2005 2,420 9,149 2006 2,454 11,575 2007 5,249 16,823 0 2008 8,545 25,369 81-83 84-86 87-89 90-92 93-95 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Wind capacity additions in 2008 were 8558 MW. 12.5 MW of wind power were decommissioned. | A M E R IC A N WI ND E NE R GY AS S OC I AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY 4
  7. 7. to 35% in 2007 and 42% in 2008. Wind and natural gas With the OPEC oil embargo as backdrop, the modern wind FIGURE 2: % AS NEW CApACIty together have represented close to 90% of all new generation industry got its start in the U.S. in the 1970s. The Federal capacity added since 2005. renewable energy research program was launched in 1974, 100% one year after the embargo, and AWEA was incorporated in Large numbers of wind power projects are proposed in the same year. 80% every region of the country with strong wind resources. As illustrated by this chart, close to 300,000 MW of proposed Federal and State investment tax credits drove a flurry of Sources: Ventyx, SNL, AWEA, SEIA, Berkeley Lab 60% wind projects are currently waiting in line to connect to the activity in the early 1980s that would recede late in the Other grid. The proposed wind projects in these queues have decade due to massive cuts in government funding. The Dual-Fired 40% applied for interconnection to the grid, but most of these average turbine size in the 1980s was 100 kW; and power Petroleum wind plants cannot be built because there is insufficient cost more than 30 cents/kWh due to mechanical difficulties Coal transmission capacity to carry the electricity they would and low equipment availability rates. 20% Natural Gas produce. While not all of these wind projects will ultimately be The first federal production tax credit (PTC) was passed in Wind built, it is still clear that wind power development is outpacing 0% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) to expire for the first the expansion and modernization of our electric grid. time in mid-1999. The early 2000s were characterized by a roller coaster of annual installations as the PTC was allowed Renewable Electricity as a percentage of U.S. Electricity FIGURE 3: INtERCoNNECtIoN QUEUE to lapse, then extended, three times. Wind energy production has grown at record rates in recent years, diversifying the nation’s electricity mix. In 2008, wind 60000 The industry has now enjoyed four years of record growth Proposed generated 52 million megawatt-hours (MWh) representing 50000 due to relatively stable policy support. 2009 is not expected 1.26% of all generation. This was a 51% jump in generation to see growth as strong as in 2008, but with the federal compared to the 34.5 million MWh generated in 2007, which Interior West and Pacific Northwest Capacity (MW) 40000 policies recently enacted, the industry will likely install at least was 0.83% of all generation. 5,000 MW of new capacity and return faster than it otherwise 30000 would have to a trajectory of rapid expansion. All non-hydro renewable generation increased from 2.5% in 20000 New York 2007 to 3% in 2008. Wind energy now contributes over 42% Upper Midwest New England Central Plains Figure 2 shows the growing importance of the wind industry MidAtlantic of all non-hydro renewable generation, up from 33% in 2007. California 10000 to the larger electric generation industry. Wind was less Texas Total generation in 2008 was 4,115 million MWh, which was a 0 than 2% of all the new capacity added in 2004, increasing 1% decrease from 2007 generation. A M E R IC A N WIN D E NER GY AS S OCI AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY | 5
  8. 8. Global Capacity Growth Over 27,000 MW of new wind power generation capacity Also in 2008, the U.S. overtook Germany (23,902 MW) as China also exhibited very rapid growth and is on its way to came on line worldwide in 2008, bringing the total global the country with the most wind power capacity installed. overtake Germany and Spain to reach second place in terms wind power capacity to over 120,000 MW through the end According the Global Wind Energy Council , Europe and of total wind power capacity in 2010. China would then have of 2008. North America each added about 8,900 MW of new installed met its 2020 target of 30,000 MW (30 GW) a full ten years capacity during the year, with Asia close behind at 8,600 MW. ahead of schedule. FIGURE 4: RENEWAblE ElECtRICIty AS pERCENtAGE oF U.S. ElECtRICIty FIGURE 5: WoRlD WIND poWER CApACIty GRoWth 150000 Other Rest of the World – 33109 MW BioMass 13.8% India – 9645 MW Wind 42.0% Geothermal China – 12210 MW 12.1% 120000 Spain – 16754 MW Germany – 23903 MW Wood 31.4% United States – 25369 MW Other 90000 Capacity (MW) Other 0.3% Renewables 3.0% Solar Hydro Nuclear 0.7% 6.1% 19.7% 60000 Natural Gas 21.6% 30000 Coal 48.5% Petroleum and 0 Petroleum Coke 1.1% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 | A M E R IC A N WI ND E NE R GY AS S OC I AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY 6
  9. 9. “20% Wind Energy Scenario” Report Card The U.S. Department of Energy’s report, 20% Wind costs of energy sources, U.S. wind energy resources, The actual installation levels for 2008 were more than Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution and the environmental and economic impacts of wind double what the report deemed necessary to meet the to U.S. Electricity Supply, found that reaching a level of development. Under the 20% wind scenario, installations 2030 goal. Even given the lower numbers projected 20% wind energy by 2030 was feasible under one closely of new wind power capacity would increase to more than for 2009, installations for 2009 will be 20% higher than examined scenario. 16,000 megawatts per year by 2018, and continue at the report projected. A cumulative installed capacity roughly that rate through 2030. A total of 300,000 MW of of over 25,300 MW was not estimated to be met until Included in the report are an examination of America’s land based and offshore wind power capacity would have late 2010. technological and manufacturing capabilities, the future to be installed to meet that level of electricity production. FIGURE 6: ANNUAl ACtUAl INStAllAtIoNS CoMpARED to pRoJECtED FIGURE 7: ACtUAl totAl CApACIty CoMpARED to pRoJECtED 20 350 land based offshore 18 300 16 Capacity Additions Actual Installed Capacity (GW) Cumulative Installed Capacity (GW) 250 in 20% Scenario 14 12 200 10 Projects Installations 2008: 8,500 MW 150 8 Installed capacity as of January 2009 => 25 GW 6 Source: DOE’s 20% by 2030 Report Source: DOE’s 20% by 2030 Report 100 so industry is three years Actual Installations ahead of schedule 2007: 5,249 MW 4 Due to the economic 50 crisis, 2009 will be much more in line 2 with predictions 0 0 2000 2006 2012 2018 2024 2030 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030 A M E R IC A N WIN D E NER GY AS S OCI AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY | 7
  10. 10. Wind Project Installations by State Texas once again installed the largest amount of new FIGURE 8: WIND poWER CApACIty INStAllAtIoNS by StAtE capacity in 2008— 2,671 MW — moving it into a league of its own. More new wind capacity was added in Texas during Texas the year than in any country except China and the U.S. If Iowa California Texas were a country, it would rank sixth in the world, behind through 2007 Minnesota Germany, the rest of the U.S., Spain, China, and India. Washington 1Q08 Colorado 2Q08 Oregon Iowa surged into second place in the U.S., behind only Illinois 3Q08 New York Texas. California, once the location of practically all the wind 4Q08 Oklahoma power activity in the U.S., now ranks third for wind project Kansas North Dakota capacity. Most Capacity Added in 2008 Capacity Wyoming New Mexico Wisconsin Texas 2671.3 MW Oregon moved into the club of states with more than 1,000 Pennsylvania MW installed, which now numbers seven: Texas, Iowa, West Virginia Iowa 1599.8 MW Montana California, Minnesota, Washington, Colorado, and Oregon. Minnesota 455.65 MW South Dakota Missouri Kansas 450.3 MW Indiana Indiana saw its first utility-scale project installed in 2008 — a Michigan New York 407 MW Idaho 130.5-MW facility developed by Orion Energy Group. Other Nebraska fast-growing states include Michigan, which added 127 Hawaii Fastest Growing % Growth Maine MW to its end-2007 total of 2.6 MW; Utah, which boosted Tennessee its total to 20 MW from its previous total of 1 MW; New Indiana first utility-scale project New Hampshire Utah Hampshire, which saw the addition of a 24-MW plant; Michigan 48x New Jersey Wisconsin, which added three large wind projects; and Ohio Utah 21x Vermont West Virginia, which quadrupled its end-of-2007 total. Massachusetts New Hampshire 17x Alaska Wisconsin 6x Rhode Island Arkansas 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 | A M E R IC A N WI ND E NE R GY AS S OC I AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY 8
  11. 11. Two states – Minnesota and Iowa – now get over 7% of their FIGURE 9-10: % GENERAtIoN AND MW INStAllED power needs from wind and thirteen get more than 2%. Figure 9 shows states penetration, with top 5 states including: % Generation by State legislative Districts with Most Installed >1000 MW >5% 100 to 1000 MW 1% to 5% WA WA <100 MW MN: 7.48% (up from 4.60% in 2007) <1% District Wind Capacity ME 1447 3.28% MW VT .75% Installed (MW) ND VT ND MT MT IA: 7.10% (up from 5.46%) MN 714 MW OR 4.86% 6 OR 1.89% 272MW MN NH MW 1067 MW 4.3% ID WI ID NY 7.48% WI 832 SD SD 1754 Co: 5.91% (up from 1.34%) MI WY .66% MW 75 MW 1.68% .92% TX-19 2,966 NY MW 395 WY MI 1.9% 187 MW 129 MW MW .10% 676 2.0% PA IA PA IA ND: 4.86% (up from 1.83%) Rep. Randy Neugebauer (R) MW 8 361 MW .33% NE NE NJ 2791 MW 7.10% OH OH MW IN IL .03% NV NV IN .67% 72 MW IL 7 MW UT UT 1.06% .18% 915 MW 131 NM: 4.41% (up from 3.86%) WV CA CA MD M CO WV CO TX-11 1,736 MW 330 KS 2.67% 20 MW .42% MO 2517 MW KS VA VA 5.91% MO 1068 MW MW KY KY 815 MW 3.85% .21% 163 MW Rep. Mike Conaway (R) NC NC 29 MW TN OK TN .05% Some of the largest states by MW do not fall into the top 5 OK AR 831 MW AZ AZ NM NM 3.0% SC SC IA-4 1,645AR TX 497MW 4.41% list by penetration given the states of Texas, Washington, and GA GA AL AL MS MS Rep. Tom Latham (R) TX 7118 MW 3 .10% California have a much higher in-state generation demand. MW 3.52% LA LA Alaska Alaska Hawaii Hawaii 63 MW TX-17 1,251 2.09% FL FL Rep. Chet Edwards (D) The legislative districts with the most wind power installed as of the end of 2008 are all in the top two states, Texas and IA-5 1,144 Iowa. Rep. Randy Neugebauer (R ) has the largest amount Rep. Steve King (R) MW Installed by State >1000 MW >5% of wind power in his district, more than the entire state of 100 to 1000 MW 1% to 5% WA California. These rankings are for House Congressional WA <100 MW <1% ME 1447 MW 3.28% ME VT .75% ND VT 47 MW ND MT MT districts. The Senators from the states with most wind power MN 714 MW OR 4.86% 6 OR 1.89% 272MW MN 25 NH MW 1067 MW NH 4.3% ID WI ID NY 7.48% WI 832 installed are, as previouslySDindicated in the State rankings, MW SD 1754 5 MW MI WY .66% MW 75 MW 1.68% .92% NY MW 395 WY MI 1.9% 187 MW RI 129 MW MW .10% 676 2.0% from Texas, Iowa, California, Minnesota, and Washington. 1 MW PA IA PA IA MW 8 NJ 361 MW .33% NE NE NJ 2791 MW 7.10% OH OH MW IN IL .03% NV NV IN .67% 72 MW IL 7 MW UT UT 1.06% .18% 915 MW 131 WV CA CA MD MD CO WV CO MW 330 KS 2.67% 20 MW .42% MO 2517 MW KS Wind projects boost local tax bases, helping to pay for VA VA 5.91% MO 1068 MW MW KY KY 815 MW 3.85% .21% 163 MW NC NC 29 MW TN schools, AZ roads and hospitals. WindAR projects.05% revitalize the TN also OK OK 831 MW AZ NM NM 3.0% SC SC TX economy of rural communities by providing AL GA income to steady 497MW 4.41% AR GA AL MS MS TX 7118 MW 3 MW farmers and other landowners. EachLA wind turbine contributes .10% 3.52% LA Alaska Alaska Hawaii Hawaii 63 MW $3,000 to $5,000 or more per year in rental income, while 2.09% FL FL farmers continue to grow crops or graze cattle up to the foot of the turbines. A M E R IC A N WIN D E NER GY AS S OCI AT I ON AN N UAL S TATI S TI C S O N U. S . WI N D EN ER GY | 9

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