SYNCHROMODAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT SYSTEM

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To improve the quality of the access to and from the hinterland, several new concepts are presented and implemented by seaports. One of these concepts is Synchromodal Freight Transport. In this presentation, a clear definition of Synchromodality is presented and the set of decisions needed for the design and operation of a synchromodal freight transport systems is discussed.

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SYNCHROMODAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT SYSTEM

  1. 1. BEHZAD BEHDANI D E L F T U N I V E R S I T Y O F T E C H N O L O G Y T R A N S P O R T & P L A N N I N G D E P A R T M E N T SYNCHROMODAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT SYSTEM
  2. 2. What is discussed here 2  Intermodal freight transport  Challenges for intermodal freight transport  What is synchromodal freight transport?  Challenges in synchromodal transport  Hierarchy of decision problems in a synchromodal freight transport system
  3. 3. Intermodal freight transport 3  Definition by European Commission (1997) for Intermodal Freight Transport : “the movement of goods in one loading unit, which uses successively several modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves in transshipment between the modes”. Container terminal Container terminal Main transport (Inland waterway or rail) A typical intermodal freight transport system
  4. 4. Challenges for intermodal transport 4  Single-mode road transport is the dominant transport mode in Europe with a market share of about 80% (in terms on tonne-kms).  Advantages: flexibility (e.g., in case of disturbances), door-to-door transport solutions, competitive pricing, customer-made solutions, reliability, speed, gets more sustainable as compared to rail and IWW transport, and high accessibility  Disadvantages: congestion, negative external effects, less safe than rail and IWW transport, increasing costs due to inclusion of external costs into price of road freight transport, and less scale economies than rail and IWW transport Source: Bart Wiegmans (2012) Intermodalism: Competition or Cooperation?
  5. 5. Environmental impact of road transport 5  Although heavy good vehicles only make up 3% of the European vehicle fleet and 7% of driven kilometres, they account for almost a quarter of road transport CO2 emissions, or about 6% of total EU greenhouse gas emissions (European Commission, 2013). This is expected to rise to 8% by 2020.  Lorries are also responsible for 20% of road congestion in the EU. The road congestion is even more important around port areas as it has an adverse effect on the competitive position of a port as a location for logistics businesses. Source: European Commission (2013). Climate Action Plan
  6. 6. Barriers for intermodal transport 6 1. Operational problems, for example:  Train decoupling  Use of rail infra for both passenger/freight transport  Terminal opening hours 2. Organizational problems, for example:  Co-ordinations between multiple partners and timing of road haulage 3. Economical problems , for example  High transshipment cost Source: Wichser, J. (2001). Technical and operational developments needed for a better market success of intermodal freight transport.
  7. 7. What is synchromodal transport? 7  Core idea: Integration of transport volumes and modes in order to better use the capacity with fewer cost and negative effects on the environment  Possible benefits:  Increasing the flexibility in transport choices  Increase the utilization of rail and inland waterway  Optimal use of available capacity on the network Sea Terminal Inland Terminal Barge Train Truck Integrated view
  8. 8. What is synchromodal transport? 8  Paul Ham (2012): Making optimal use of all modes of transport and available capacity, at all times, as an integrated transport solution.  Lucassen & Dogger (2012): Constantly tuning inside and between good chains, transport chains and infrastructure so that given the aggregated transport demand, and at any moment in time, the best modality can be chosen.  van Riessen (2013): Synchromodal transport planning is intermodal transport planning with the possibility of real-time switching between the modes.
  9. 9. What is synchromodal transport? 9  Key aspects to synchromodal transport are:  Mode-free booking  Joint planning and coordination for a network of chains and not for individual chains  Bundling of flows and services  Flexible switching between modalities  Visibility, situational awareness and information sharing
  10. 10. Characteristics of synchromodal transport 10 Source: Lucassen, I. & Dogger, T. (2012). Synchromodality pilot study - Identification of bottlenecks and possibilities for a network between Rotterdam, Moerdijk and Tilburg, s.l.: TNO.
  11. 11. Characteristics of synchromodal transport 11  Mode free booking  Dynamic planning of transportation  Switching modes of transport in real time  Decision making based on network utilization  Combining transport flows (volume)  Cooperation between actors in the transportation chain  Information availability and visibility among actors Source: Ham, P. (2012). Synchromodality.
  12. 12. Challenges in synchromodal transport 12 Shippers’ involvement Mode- free booking Shippers’ needs identification Shippers’ incentive design • What are the expectation of customers and how they may respond to synchromodal transport services? • Which factors may impact the customers’ willingness to use the service and which potential shippers’ needs can be met by synchromodality? • How the expected benefits of implementing a synchromodal system must be used to incentivise shippers? How gains must be shared with customers, e.g., by lower price or improved service level (flexibility)?
  13. 13. Performance comparison: Intermodal transport vs. road transport 13 Source: INRETS (2000). IQ - Intermodal quality Final report for publication.
  14. 14. Challenges in synchromodal transport 14 Synchronizing multiple transport chains Organizational Coordination Operational Coordination • How different actors in different transport chains can be coordinated? How risk/gains must be shared? How cooperation must be facilitated? • How information must be shared between different parties? • How can a common platform be designed to coordinate multiple transport chains with different characteristics involved? How an ICT architecture must be planned considering the inter-operability challenges for different IT platforms of different parts in the chain? • Is it necessary to have a neutral actors to facilitate the process?
  15. 15. Different actors in different transport chains: inland waterways 15 Source: Van Der Horst, M.R., De Langen, P.W. (2008) “Coordination in hinterland transport chains: a major challenge for the seaport community”, Maritime Economics and Logistics 10 (1–2), 108–129
  16. 16. Different actors in different transport chains: rail 16 Source: Van Der Horst, M.R., De Langen, P.W. (2008) “Coordination in hinterland transport chains: a major challenge for the seaport community”, Maritime Economics and Logistics 10 (1–2), 108–129
  17. 17. Different actors in different transport chains: road 17 Source: Van Der Horst, M.R., De Langen, P.W. (2008) “Coordination in hinterland transport chains: a major challenge for the seaport community”, Maritime Economics and Logistics 10 (1–2), 108–129
  18. 18. Challenges in synchromodal transport 18 Operational challenges Integrated service design Tension between dynamics and quality • How an integrated service network including multiple transport modes – with different characteristics, e.g., different infrastructure availability constraints- can be planned and operationalized in the real world? • How can we evaluate/improve the reliability and robustness of synchromodal transport in terms of operational uncertainties (e.g., unavailability of a service or variations in the arrival/delivery times) as compared to classical intermodal transport? • How the exceptional events (like problems in a transport service) can be handled in the real-time?
  19. 19. Horizontal and vertical collaboration in hinterland transport Horizontal collaboration Inter-modality Synchro- modality Uni-modality Multi- modality Verticalcollaboration 19
  20. 20. Synchronized System Customer Demand/ Need Moving Resources Stationary Resources 20 Multiple Transport Chains What must be synchronized?
  21. 21. Hierarchy of decision problems in a synchromodal freight transport system 21 Synchromodal Network Design Synchromodal Service Pricing Strategies Intermodal Pricing Strategies (Contract Design) Synchromodal Service Design Operational Resource Scheduling Exceptional Handling & Real- time Switching OperationalTacticalStrategic
  22. 22. 22 Synchromodal Service Design Operational Resource Scheduling Customer Demand/ Need Stationary Resources Moving Resources Expected demand Actual demand Route/Frequency of service (for each mode) Different synchromodal requirements for different decision problems
  23. 23. Suggested readings 23  Lucassen, I. & Dogger, T., 2012. Synchromodality pilot study - Identification of bottlenecks and possibilities for a network between Rotterdam, Moerdijk and Tilburg, s.l.: TNO.  Ham, P., 2012. Synchromodality. www. havenupdate.com/ index.php/download_file/view/1375/429/  Behdani, B., Fan, Y. Wiegmans, B. and Zuidwijk, R., Multimodal Schedule Design for Synchromodal Freight Transport Systems, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2438851  van Riessen, B., Negenborn, R. R., Dekker, R. & Lodewijks, G., 2013. Service network design for an intermodal container network with flexible due dates/times and the possibility of using subcontracted transport. Available at: http://www.synchromodaliteit.nl/wp-content/uploads/2013/ 09/Preprint-Bart-van-Riessen.pdf
  24. 24. 24 Thanks for your attention. For any questions or comments and if you would like to have more information about the content of this work, please contact me at the following e-mail address: B.Behdani@tudelft.nl
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