GB syndrome

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GB syndrome

  1. 1. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves. The peripheral nerves convey sensory information (e.g., pain, temperature) from the body to the brain and motor (i.e., movement) signals from the brain to the body.  GBS is characterized by weakness and numbness or tingling in the legs and arms, and possible loss of movement and feeling in the legs, arms, upper body, and face.
  2. 2. Incidence  <ul><li>Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rare disorder; its frequency is about 1 to 2 cases in every 100,000 people per year in the United States. Men and women, young and old, are equally prone to contracting GBS. </li></ul>
  3. 3. GBS Causes <ul><li>Guillain-Barre syndrome may be an  autoimmune disorder  in which the body produces antibodies that damage the myelin sheath that surrounds peripheral nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>The myelin sheath  is a fatty substance that surrounds axons. It increases the speed at which signals travel along the nerves. </li></ul>
  4. 4. GBS Causes <ul><li>Guillain-Barre syndrome is not hereditary or contagious. What causes GBS is not known; however, in about half of all cases the onset of the syndrome follows a viral or bacterial infection, such as the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Campylobacteriosis (usually from eating undercooked poultry) </li></ul><ul><li>Flu (influenza), common cold </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal viral infection </li></ul><ul><li>HIV </li></ul><ul><li>Porphyria (rare disease of red blood cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Viral hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>A small number of cases have been known to occur after a medical procedure, such as minor surgery. </li></ul>
  5. 6. GBS Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>The first symptoms of GBS are usually numbness or tingling (paresthesia) in the toes and fingers, with progressive weakness in the arms and legs over the next few days. </li></ul><ul><li>Some patients experience paresthesia only in their toes and legs; others only experience symptoms on one side of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms may stay in this phase, causing only mild difficulty in walking, requiring crutches or a walking stick. </li></ul><ul><li>However, sometimes the illness progresses, leading to complete paralysis of the arms and legs. </li></ul><ul><li>About one quarter of the time, the paralysis continues up the chest and freezes the breathing muscles, leaving the patient dependent on a ventilator. If the swallowing muscles are also affected, a feeding tube may be needed. </li></ul>
  6. 7. GBS Diagnosis <ul><li>Because its symptoms vary and its cause is unknown, GBS can be difficult to diagnose.If the symptoms occur uniformly across the body and progress rapidly, the diagnosis is easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation of the patient's symptoms and an evaluation of the medical history provide the basis for diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, although no single observation is suitable to make the diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests   Three tests can confirm a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. </li></ul>
  7. 8. GBS Diagnosis <ul><li>Lumbar puncture  (spinal tap)—The patient is given local anesthetic. Once the anesthetic has taken effect, a needle is inserted between two lower (lumbar) vertebrae and a sample of cerebrospinal fluid is drawn. An elevated level of protein without an increase in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the fluid is characteristic of GBS. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromyogram  (EMG)—This is an effective diagnostic tool because it records muscle activity and can show the loss of individual nerve impulses due to the disease's characteristic slowing of nerve responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve conduction velocity  (NCV)—This test is performed with EMG, and together, they are often referred to as  EMG/NCV studies . NCV records the speed at which signals travel along the nerves. These signals are characteristically slowed in GBS, although the findings may evolve over several weeks. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Treatment <ul><li>GBS is considered a medical emergency and most patients are admitted to the hospital soon after diagnosis. If the patient's breathing seems to be at risk, he or she is usually managed in an intensive care unit (ICU). Although GBS can improve spontaneously, there are a number of treatments that facilitate recovery. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Plasmapheresis   <ul><li>Patients diagnosed early in the course of the disease and those who are acutely ill often respond well to blood plasma exchange (plasmapheresis). In this procedure, blood is withdrawn and passed through a series of filters that separate the different types of blood cells. The blood cells are then suspended in donor or synthetic plasma and returned to the patient's body. The patient's plasma is discarded. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmapheresis is thought to remove the substances that damage myelin. It can shorten the course of GBS, alleviate symptoms, and prevent paralysis. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Immunoglobulin  <ul><li>Large doses of immunoglobin given intravenously can help shorten the duration of symptoms. This treatment is just as effective as plasmapheresis. It often is preferred to plasmapheresis because it does not require insertion of a large venous catheter. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, about 70% of patients respond to plasmapheresis or immunoglobin. There is no evidence of additional benefit from treatment with both procedures. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Medications  <ul><li>Muscle and joint pain can be treated with over-the-counter analgesics such as aspirin. If necessary, stronger pain medication (e.g., acetaminophen with hydrocodone) may be prescribed. Muscle spasms can be controlled with relaxants such as diazepam (Valium®). </li></ul>
  12. 13. Medications  <ul><li>Unpleasant sensation problems, such as painful tingling, can be treated with tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants such as gabapentin (Neurontin®). </li></ul><ul><li>Corticosteroids, which often effectively treat the symptoms of autoimmune disorders, actually worsen Guillain-Barre syndrome and should not be used. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Physical therapy   <ul><li>Before recovery begins, caregivers move the patient's arms and legs to prevent stiffness. </li></ul><ul><li>After symptoms subside, the rehabilitation team will prescribe an active exercise routine to help regain muscle strength and independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Training with adaptive devices, such as a wheelchair or braces, give the patient mobility. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Hydrotherapy   <ul><li>Whirlpool therapy (hydrotherapy) may help relieve pain and be useful in retraining the movement of affected limbs. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Counseling   <ul><li>Counseling often is suggested to reassure patients diagnosed with GBS or CIDP and to help them feel positive about their treatment and recovery. </li></ul>
  16. 17. GBS Prognosis <ul><li>Patients who have Guillain-Barre syndrome may remain in the hospital for several months and recovery may take as long as a year or more. </li></ul><ul><li>Most patients with GBS recover completely, but some have residual weakness, numbness, and occasional pain.  </li></ul><ul><li>A small number of patients are unable to resume their normal daily activities or occupation. </li></ul>
  17. 18. GBS Prognosis <ul><li>Fewer than 5% of GBS patients die. Those fatalities usually result from cardiovascular or respiratory complications. </li></ul><ul><li>Death resulting from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradicalneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. </li></ul>

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