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Buyer Behaviour  MKTG 1052Examination Review                     1
Coverage:• Topics can be set from Chapters 1-16• Chapters 1-2 Intro, 3-7 decision making, 8-11  internal influences and 12...
BB Chapter Coverage for Exam          RevisionNOTE: these guidelines are provided for your revision of the keyissues. They...
Chapter One• Read whole chapter to give an overview  of all aspects of BB
Chapter Two• Short chapter – skim read whole• Know the „types of situations‟  – Communication, purchase, usage and    disp...
Chapter Three: Problem            Recognition• Very important: types of consumer  decisions (66-70)• Problem recognition  ...
Chapter Four: Information Search• 93-97: nature of IS; note especially evoked set  on pp 97• Sources of information• Searc...
Chapter Five: Alternative              Evaluation• Technical chapter: takes more time to  understand• Evaluative criteria ...
Chapter Six: outlet selection and             purchase• Skim read the chapter to mainly note the  differences between  – H...
Chapter Seven: Post Purchase• Figure 7.1• Post purchase dissonance• Product usage and Product Disposal (see figure  7.3)• ...
Chapter Eight: Perception• Read the whole chapter in detail• Need to know the importance of each of the  three stages (Fig...
Chapter Eight: Perception• Interpretation and the factors affecting• Misinterpretation of marketing strategies• Perception...
Chapter Nine: Learning and              Memory• Learn about the key theories of learning  – Know in detail about classical...
Chapter Nine: Learning• Memory needs to understood from the  point of advertising and recall. What kinds  of cues, words w...
Chapter Ten: Motivation and             Personality• Cover both Maslow and McGuire theories• Marketing strategy applicatio...
Chapter Eleven: Attitude and         Attitude Change• Remember to link this chapter to  “Alternative Evaluation” chap 5• L...
Chapter Eleven: attitude change• The second half of Chap 11 is how attitudes are  formed and shaped• Attitude change strat...
Chapter Twelve: Demographics and                Lifestyles• Do not waste time on Aust demographic  data• Focus instead on ...
Chapter Thirteen : Household• Focus on the household life cycle stages  (425 – 428)• Household decision making and marketi...
Chapter Fourteen: Groups• Types of groups• Nature of reference group influences and  marketing strategies (455 – 462)• Wha...
Chapter Fifteen: Social Class• Ignore the details about Aust society• Focus on application of social class to  marketing (...
Chapter Sixteen: Culture and Sub-               cultures• Culture and cultural values (525 – 528)• Cross cultural variatio...
Samples of Exam Questions(edited to omit the examples of previous examquestions since the examples are NOT relevant   as t...
What level of purchase involvement wouldcharacterize purchasing XYZ products?How does the level of involvementinfluence an...
Why is it important for marketers topromote taglines such as “Just Do It” forNike as part of their branding andadvertising...
Provide four marketing strategies XYZcan employ to change attitudestowards their products.Explain this in terms of theTric...
Sound marketing strategies take intoaccount the nature of information searchengaged in by the target market.Clearly explai...
Based on the example of the targetsegment XYZ, provide a detailedprofile of this segment usingdemographics and lifestylede...
a) Outline the two learning approachesand the specific theories studied in thiscourse. (4 marks)b) Explain what type of le...
Why do you think it is important topromote the tagline “Boss forMen” for the male market?Explain your answer in terms ofpe...
It is useful to consider attitudes as having threecomponents, cognitive, affectiveand behavioral.In attempting to evoke fa...
Attitudes are influenced most strongly when the brand hassomething unique to offer and the unique benefits of thebrand are...
Is customer loyalty the same asrepeat purchase behavior?Explain with examples                                  33
• Outline and discuss the three majordecision types a consumer can make.• In what situation is each decision typeused by t...
Marketers have at their disposal distinctstrategies used to reinforce brands in theconsumers evoked set.• Identify and dis...
In one particular exam, a shortcase study was set on the rise of    Internet shopping in Asia  Following you can see the s...
1.1 What level of purchase involvement would  characterise Internet shopping?1.2 Explain how this level of involvement  in...
2.1 What motivates consumers to Internet shopping?  Explain this in terms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs2.2 Provide four m...
“As more people in Asian countries such as  China and India get hooked up to the Internet,  online sales are expected to r...
According to the article, “Asias tech-savvy  online shoppers” are taking to Internet  shopping like never before.• 4.1 Pro...
Samples of MCQs    NO answers will be provided.   You have already been given a detailed set of MCQ with answersprovided i...
Q1: Motives are:A: forces that initiate and direct consumer behaviourB: physiologically-based guides to behaviourC: psycho...
Q5.The marketing manager should view the consumer as:A. a decision-making unitB. a problem solverC. being primarily concer...
Q9: Finding that her corner grocery store is out of canola oil, Jane decides tosubstitute it with sunflower oil. This is a...
Q13. Exposure occurs when:A. a stimulus comes within range of our sensory receptor nervesB. the individual assigns some me...
Q.17 Advertising for Diet Coke that promotes a series of beliefs about thelifestyle of someone who drinks the beverage tha...
Question 1: The marketing manager should view the consumer as:A: a decision-making unitB: a problem solverC: being primari...
Question 5: Brand loyal customers:A: sometimes switch brands to take advantage of a promotional dealB: may ‘stock up’ when...
Question 9: Memory is:A: composed of two distinct physiological units: short & long-term memoryB: the ability to recall a ...
Question 13: Uncle Tobys’ successful launch into other product categories suchas two-minute noodles and snacks is a proces...
Question 17: An attitude is:A: an enduring organisation of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitiveprocesses with...
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BB Exam Revision and Specimen Questions (April 2011)

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  1. 1. Buyer Behaviour MKTG 1052Examination Review 1
  2. 2. Coverage:• Topics can be set from Chapters 1-16• Chapters 1-2 Intro, 3-7 decision making, 8-11 internal influences and 12- 16 external• Situational Influences (chap 2) gives good grounding on the ‘contexts’ of BB applications• When reading the chapters make sure you look out for ‘marketing applications’ usually discussed at the end of each chapter• The book is your main source- PWPT lecture slides are NOT enough! 2
  3. 3. BB Chapter Coverage for Exam RevisionNOTE: these guidelines are provided for your revision of the keyissues. They DO NOT constitute what must be specifically read fromthe text nor does it guarantee that the question will be tested from thespecific page references. You need to ensure that you undertake acomplete and balanced revision of the course by reading the assignedchapters, lecture notes, practice questions and exam revision guides.
  4. 4. Chapter One• Read whole chapter to give an overview of all aspects of BB
  5. 5. Chapter Two• Short chapter – skim read whole• Know the „types of situations‟ – Communication, purchase, usage and disposal• Situation classification (pp 41) – read on all 5• Marketing strategy applications (read from pp 51 onwards)
  6. 6. Chapter Three: Problem Recognition• Very important: types of consumer decisions (66-70)• Problem recognition – Process (70-75) – Marketing strategy and PR (76-81)
  7. 7. Chapter Four: Information Search• 93-97: nature of IS; note especially evoked set on pp 97• Sources of information• Search on internet and marketing applications• Pp 102 onwards• The amount of external search undertaken• Costs versus benefits of external search: learn the four factors affecting search on page 105 Figure 4.9• Marketing applications (pp111 onwards)
  8. 8. Chapter Five: Alternative Evaluation• Technical chapter: takes more time to understand• Evaluative criteria (pp127-129)• Perceptual mapping (129)• Surrogate indicators (134)• Role of EC in marketing strategy (136)• It is unlikely that decision rules will be covered but you should read Table 5.3 on pp 139 as a summary• Marketing applications of decision rules (pp
  9. 9. Chapter Six: outlet selection and purchase• Skim read the chapter to mainly note the differences between – How consumers choose retail outlets – Store image and retailer attribute – Purchasing online• Shopping orientation ((165-167)• Perceived risk (pp 167)• Nature of unplanned purchases – what factors affect this
  10. 10. Chapter Seven: Post Purchase• Figure 7.1• Post purchase dissonance• Product usage and Product Disposal (see figure 7.3)• Purchase evaluation – Figure 7.4• Marketing strategy and dissatisfied customers (pp 202)• Repeat purchase and loyalty (205) – important topic• Application of relationship marketing (206)
  11. 11. Chapter Eight: Perception• Read the whole chapter in detail• Need to know the importance of each of the three stages (Figure 8.1) : Exposure, Attention and Interpretation• Exposure: types of stimuli, factors, selective exposure• Attention : – stimulus factors (see especially pp 231-233, all the important factors and the theory of JND) – individual factors and – situational factors
  12. 12. Chapter Eight: Perception• Interpretation and the factors affecting• Misinterpretation of marketing strategies• Perception and Marketing Strategy (pp 243-251)
  13. 13. Chapter Nine: Learning and Memory• Learn about the key theories of learning – Know in detail about classical conditioning, operant conditioning and cognitive learning – Know under what conditions each type of learning is relevant – Be able to contrast the different leaning theories• Read pp 260-281 13
  14. 14. Chapter Nine: Learning• Memory needs to understood from the point of advertising and recall. What kinds of cues, words will trigger recall• Brand image and positioning – Important topic – Pp 283 to 287 14
  15. 15. Chapter Ten: Motivation and Personality• Cover both Maslow and McGuire theories• Marketing strategy applications (impt!) – Pp 307 to 312 • Marketers discover purchase motives • How marketers handle motivation conflict (approach- avoidance): 311 to 312• Personality – Trait theories – How marketers use personality in marketing – Brand Personality (316) 15
  16. 16. Chapter Eleven: Attitude and Attitude Change• Remember to link this chapter to “Alternative Evaluation” chap 5• Learn well : Tricomponent Model• Read in detail pp 338 to 344 to cover all the three components of cognitive, affective and behavioral• Also note cognitive consistency and cognitive dissonance concepts (344( 16
  17. 17. Chapter Eleven: attitude change• The second half of Chap 11 is how attitudes are formed and shaped• Attitude change strategies (impt!!) read pp 345 to 351)• Communications and attitude change – Effect of source characteristics (source credibility, sleeper effect) – Types of appeals (fear, humor, comparative, emotional)• Market segmentation based on attitudes 17
  18. 18. Chapter Twelve: Demographics and Lifestyles• Do not waste time on Aust demographic data• Focus instead on the key dimensions of demographics: income, age, education.• Understand how changes in demographics impact on marketing strategies (389-396)• Lifestyle and psychographics – Segmentation method ; what is VALS – Marketing application (406 to 407) 18
  19. 19. Chapter Thirteen : Household• Focus on the household life cycle stages (425 – 428)• Household decision making and marketing strategy (430 – 434)• There could also be a minor topic being asked on „consumer socialization)• Read up on „trends in household consumption‟ (437 – 440) 19
  20. 20. Chapter Fourteen: Groups• Types of groups• Nature of reference group influences and marketing strategies (455 – 462)• What are „roles‟ and marketing impact (465- 467)• What is opinion leadership (469 – 474)• Diffusion of innovations (474- 482) 20
  21. 21. Chapter Fifteen: Social Class• Ignore the details about Aust society• Focus on application of social class to marketing (513 – 514) 21
  22. 22. Chapter Sixteen: Culture and Sub- cultures• Culture and cultural values (525 – 528)• Cross cultural variations (532 – 538)• Culture and non-verbal communications (538 – 544)• Marketing strategy and culture (544 -546) 22
  23. 23. Samples of Exam Questions(edited to omit the examples of previous examquestions since the examples are NOT relevant as the questions are changed each year. What you see here is the ‘essence of what is asked from the topic point of view’)Remember: You will be given a short case study andthen you will need to respond to three questions; eachquestion will have several parts) 23
  24. 24. What level of purchase involvement wouldcharacterize purchasing XYZ products?How does the level of involvementinfluence and change the five stagedecision making process?Clearly explain your answer with examples. 24
  25. 25. Why is it important for marketers topromote taglines such as “Just Do It” forNike as part of their branding andadvertising?Explain this in terms of perception andpositioning. 25
  26. 26. Provide four marketing strategies XYZcan employ to change attitudestowards their products.Explain this in terms of theTricomponent model of attitudes. 26
  27. 27. Sound marketing strategies take intoaccount the nature of information searchengaged in by the target market.Clearly explain the three strategies XYZMarketing Company may employ topromote their brands which may not becurrently part of the evoked set of theirpotential target market. 27
  28. 28. Based on the example of the targetsegment XYZ, provide a detailedprofile of this segment usingdemographics and lifestyledeterminants as a basis. 28
  29. 29. a) Outline the two learning approachesand the specific theories studied in thiscourse. (4 marks)b) Explain what type of learning cosmeticbrands is attempting to utilize in itsadvertising. ( 4 marks) 29
  30. 30. Why do you think it is important topromote the tagline “Boss forMen” for the male market?Explain your answer in terms ofperception 30
  31. 31. It is useful to consider attitudes as having threecomponents, cognitive, affectiveand behavioral.In attempting to evoke favorable reactions totowards a given brand: • explain the affective component of attitude and • outline two approaches marketers can use to increase the affect component directly ( 6 marks). 31
  32. 32. Attitudes are influenced most strongly when the brand hassomething unique to offer and the unique benefits of thebrand are the focus of the advertisement.There are a number of techniques used to enhanceattitude change. These include: source credibility, celebritysources, fear appeals, humorous appeals, and comparativeappeals, emotional, value expressive and utilitarianappeals.• Select and discuss two techniques you believe arerelevant to advertising mens cosmetics. Clearly justifyyour choices in your answer and illustrate your answerwith examples (4 marks). 32
  33. 33. Is customer loyalty the same asrepeat purchase behavior?Explain with examples 33
  34. 34. • Outline and discuss the three majordecision types a consumer can make.• In what situation is each decision typeused by the consumer and why?• Explain how the decision type affectsthe steps in the decision makingprocess.• Are all grocery decisions of the sametype for everybody? Explain. 34
  35. 35. Marketers have at their disposal distinctstrategies used to reinforce brands in theconsumers evoked set.• Identify and discuss with examples thethree strategies that can be used to shiftbrands into the evoked set. 35
  36. 36. In one particular exam, a shortcase study was set on the rise of Internet shopping in Asia Following you can see the samples of the FOUR exam questions that were set on this case study 36
  37. 37. 1.1 What level of purchase involvement would characterise Internet shopping?1.2 Explain how this level of involvement influences and changes the five stage decision making process?• Clearly explain your answer with examples 37
  38. 38. 2.1 What motivates consumers to Internet shopping? Explain this in terms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs2.2 Provide four marketing strategies e-commerce markets as Amazon.com can employ to change attitudes towards Internet shopping.2.3 Explain this in terms of the ‘Tricomponent’ model of attitudes. Note: this is one question with different parts 38
  39. 39. “As more people in Asian countries such as China and India get hooked up to the Internet, online sales are expected to rise by an average of 20 per cent a year”• 3.1 When does information search occur?• 3.2 Why do some consumers engage in more external search than others? Explain this in the context of costs versus benefits of external search. 39
  40. 40. According to the article, “Asias tech-savvy online shoppers” are taking to Internet shopping like never before.• 4.1 Provide a detailed profile of this segment using demographics and lifestyle determinants as a basis.• 4.2 Identify which adopter category would be more likely to engage in information search for a new product using the internet? 40
  41. 41. Samples of MCQs NO answers will be provided. You have already been given a detailed set of MCQ with answersprovided in my other lecture notes. Please do your exam revision by practicing the following questions. You can expect to have 30 MCQ questions in the exam paper 41
  42. 42. Q1: Motives are:A: forces that initiate and direct consumer behaviourB: physiologically-based guides to behaviourC: psychologically-based patterns of behaviourD: future-based responses to current stimuliE: none of the aboveQ 2: Which of the following is not a major step in perception?A: attentionB: analysisC: exposureD: interpretationE: all of the above are major steps in perceptionQ3. An understanding of consumer behaviour includes all of the followingvariables except:A: amount purchasedB: consumers valuesC: economic situationsD: consumers perceptionsE: how purchases are consumedQ4. Lydia learns about various brands of running shoes as a result of closelyreading running shoe advertisements, which she finds enjoyable. This is anexample of:A: operant conditioningB: vicarious or modelling learningC: classical conditioningD: iconic rote learningE: none of the above 42
  43. 43. Q5.The marketing manager should view the consumer as:A. a decision-making unitB. a problem solverC. being primarily concerned with economic factorsD. automatically responding in set ways to marketing stimuliE. A and B onlyQ6 If Subway, for example, would like to "repackage" its image yet not havetheir customers perceive any change, they should be careful with their logo inorder not to surpass the:A: consumer’s attitudeB: just-noticeable differenceC: surrogate indicatorD: predictive valueE: confidence valueQ7: Which of the following is a generalisation about how interpretation occurs?A: interpretations are based primarily on the innate characteristics of the objectB: stimuli are interpreted without consideration of the individuals expectationsC: temporary characteristics of individuals do not affect their interpretationsD: interpretation is holistic or Gestalt in natureE: all of the above are valid generalisationsQ8: Memory is:A: composed of two distinct physiological units: short & long-term memoryB: the ability to recall a stimulus objectC: limited to cognitive elementsD: composed of an active and an inactive componentE: none of the above 43
  44. 44. Q9: Finding that her corner grocery store is out of canola oil, Jane decides tosubstitute it with sunflower oil. This is an example of:A: iconic rote learningB: vicarious learningC: operant conditioningD: reasoningE: classical conditioningQ10: Perceptual mapping:A: takes consumers’ perceptions of how similar brands or products are to each otherB: alters consumers’ perceptions to fit the marketing strategyC: relates consumers’ perceptions to product attributesD: a and c onlyE: none of the aboveQ11 When Mary purchases a calculator; she is concerned with its cost, size,power source, capabilities and warranty. John, however, is most concerned withbrand, memory and colour. John’s and Mary’s concerns, though different, makeup their:A. evoked setB. inert setC. evaluative criteriaD. salient attitudesE. product concernsQ12 Brand loyalty differs from repeat purchase behaviour in that brand loyalty:A. involves at least 90 per cent of product category purchases with a single brandB. must exist over a minimum of 6 repurchase cyclesC. must not include any purchase of another brand when the primary brand isavailable 44D. implies a psychological commitment to the brand
  45. 45. Q13. Exposure occurs when:A. a stimulus comes within range of our sensory receptor nervesB. the individual assigns some meaning to the stimulusC. the individual can recall the stimulusD. the individual becomes aware of the stimulusQ14. A manufacturer that introduces a new snack product by giving numerousfree samples is probably using:A. classical conditioningB. operant conditioningC. punishment conditioningD. cognitive learningQ15.A consumer who loves Noel’s Chocolate Biscuits and therefore assumes thatthe company’s new Ginger Biscuits will also taste great is engaged in:A. classical conditioningB. stimulus discriminationC. stimulus generalisationD. reasoningQ16 Which of the following is not considered a component of an attitude?A. cognitive componentB. affective componentC. perceptual componentD. behavioural component 45
  46. 46. Q.17 Advertising for Diet Coke that promotes a series of beliefs about thelifestyle of someone who drinks the beverage that usually has little to do with theactual product itself is called:A. classical conditioningB. adding beliefsC. belief arousalD. belief conditioningQ18: Each stage in the household life cycle:A. presents the consumer with a set of ‘problems’ to solveB. has clearly defined, natural boundariesC. contains an equal percentage of the Australian populationD. requires totally unique product development programsQ19: One is most likely to seek an opinion leader when ones:A. product involvement and product knowledge are highB. product involvement is low and product knowledge is highC. product involvement and product knowledge are lowD. product involvement is high and product knowledge is lowQ.20: The critical aspect in developing strategies to enhance the marketacceptance of an innovation is:A. a moving target market approachB. analysing the innovation from a marketing experts perspectiveC. analysing the innovation from the target markets perspective 46D. adhering to the existing marketing plan
  47. 47. Question 1: The marketing manager should view the consumer as:A: a decision-making unitB: a problem solverC: being primarily concerned with economic factorsD: automatically responding in set ways to marketing stimuliE: a and b onlyQuestion 2: A substantial amount of consumer purchasing behaviour ismotivated by:A: decisional motivesB: irrational motivesC: an attempt to maintain or enhance lifestyleD: conditioned responses to marketing stimuliE: none of the aboveQuestion 3: Many recognised problems do not lead to further steps in thedecision process because:A: their relative importance is lowB: the desired state is moderateC: the actual state is moderateD: all of the aboveE: none of the aboveQuestion 4: Evaluative criteria are:A: the alternatives available to solve a problemB: limited to the evoked setC: limited to the inept setD: limited to the inert setE: none of the above 47
  48. 48. Question 5: Brand loyal customers:A: sometimes switch brands to take advantage of a promotional dealB: may ‘stock up’ when their brand is being promotedC: are likely to return to their original brand after taking advantage of a promotionaldeal on another brandD: all of the aboveE: a and b onlyQuestion 6: Exposure occurs when:A: a stimulus comes within range of our sensory receptor nervesB: the individual assigns some meaning to the stimulusC: the individual can recall the stimulusD: the individual becomes aware of the stimulusE: none of the aboveQuestion 7: Interpretation occurs when:A: the individual assigns meaning to the stimulusB: the individual activates long-term memoryC: the sensory receptor nerves are activated and the resulting sensations are passed tothe brain for processingD: the individual is exposed to the stimulusE: none of the aboveQuestion 8: Learning is:A: any change in the content or organisation of long-term memoryB: the ability to recall a stimulus objectC: the ability to relate to stimulus objectsD: the link between stimuli and information processingE: all of the above 48
  49. 49. Question 9: Memory is:A: composed of two distinct physiological units: short & long-term memoryB: the ability to recall a stimulus objectC: limited to cognitive elementsD: composed of an active and an inactive componentE: none of the aboveQuestion 10: Brand equity is:A: the companys share of the marketB: the value attached to a brand above and beyond any specific functionalcharacteristic of the productC: giving the same brand name to two different productsD: b & cE: none of the aboveQuestion 11: Learning that occurs when an individual is highly motivated tolearn the material is known as:A: deliberate learningB: high-involvement learningC: evoked learningD: classical learningE: none of the aboveQuestion 12: The process of using an established relationship between a stimulusand response to generate the same response to a different stimulus is known as:A: iconic conditioningB: operant conditioningC: instrumental conditioningD: classical conditioning 49E: none of the above
  50. 50. Question 13: Uncle Tobys’ successful launch into other product categories suchas two-minute noodles and snacks is a process termed _______, which is anexample of a marketer capitalising on its _______.A: family branding; brand loyaltyB: umbrella branding; brand equityC: brand extension; brand sovereigntyD: family branding; brand leverageE: umbrella branding; brand dominanceQuestion 14: The essence of emotion is:A: the behaviours generated by specific emotionsB: the needs fulfilled by specific emotionsC: the thoughts generated by different emotionsD: subjectively determined feelingsE: none of the aboveQuestion 15: Motivation is:A: the common responses that an individual makes to a variety of situationsB: the underlying pattern that isolates specific behavioursC: the reason for behaviourD: a state of physiological imbalance, which compels actionE: none of the aboveQuestion 16: Celebrity sources may enhance attitude change since:A: they may attract attentionB: they may be viewed as being highly credibleC: consumers may desire to emulate themD: their characteristics may reinforce product characteristicsE: all of the above 50
  51. 51. Question 17: An attitude is:A: an enduring organisation of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitiveprocesses with respect to some aspect of an individuals environmentB: what we think about the objects that make up the world we live inC: a broad set of standards for guiding behaviourD: our response tendencies toward some aspect of our environmentE: none of the aboveQuestion 18: Opinion leaders are differentiated from their peers by their:A: role commitmentB: social classC: interest in the product categoryD: authoritarian personalitiesE: none of the aboveQuestion 19: The diffusion process is:A: the relative advantage of the innovationB: the distinctiveness of the innovationC: the process by which innovations spread throughout a marketD: the process by which an organisation develops an innovationE: none of the aboveQuestion 20: The term product positioning, in the text, refers to:A: the tangible utilities derived from an objectB: the functional attributes of a given objectC: anything available for exchange and perceived as having some value by thepotential consumerD: the physical manifestation of the underlying functional utility of an itemE: how a product is perceived by consumers relative to competing products 51
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