Individualism vs Collectivism, Deviance, Groupthink


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Individualism vs Collectivism, Deviance, Groupthink

  1. 1. Individualism vs. Collectivism, Deviance and Groupthink Amanda, Ashley, Chanel, Jamison and Tristan
  2. 2. Individualism <ul><li>A culture values an individual over the group and rewards competitiveness. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Example of Individualism <ul><li> =kivfPjkUzp0&feature=related </li></ul>
  4. 4. Collectivism <ul><li>A culture values the group over the individual and rewards having the group’s goals and best interest in mind. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Example of Collectivism <ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Examples of Individualism and Collectivism in the World <ul><li>Individualism: The United States </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism: Mexico and North Korea </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Common Example of Individualism and Collectivism <ul><li>The Film Industry </li></ul>
  8. 8. How These Two Concepts Affect Group Projects <ul><li>Example #1: Collectivism with a little individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Example #2: Individualism with a little collectivism </li></ul>
  9. 9. Deviance <ul><li>Deviance occurs when a group member disagrees with the with the group’s decision, even though the majority of the group members, who may view this member as rebelling against the group’s norms, agrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Proves positive when a member forces to rethink its discussion process. </li></ul><ul><li>Proves negative when a member refuses to listen to valid arguments or reason and holds on to his position. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Deviant Behaviors <ul><li>Violate group norms </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Group members who engage in these deviant behaviors unwittingly may cause conflict. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Deviant Roles
  12. 12. Theories <ul><li>The Conflict Theory - Views deviance as a by-product of oppression and the personal quest for material gain (Karl Marx) </li></ul><ul><li>The Differential Association Theory - Suggests that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other deviants. (Edwin H. Sutherland) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Theories Continued <ul><li>Theory of Neutralization : Indicates rationalization is used as a means to justify deviant behavior. By denying injury from the offense, hinting at victim guilt or provocation or appealing to an existing superior relationship for sympathy, an indi`vidual will attempt to neutralize deviance in an effort to make the injustice appear acceptable. (Gresham Sykes, David Matza) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Theories Continued <ul><li>The Labeling Theory - This theory suggests that the classification of deviance is given by a larger social network and can be subject to interpretation from one group to the next. (Harry Becker) </li></ul><ul><li>The Control Theory - directly contradicts the differential association theory by emphasizing control as playing a larger role in whether an individual will choose to commit a deviant act. (Travis Hirshi) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example of Deviance in Media <ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. Group Think <ul><li>What is Group Think? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined: a highly cohesive groups’ ability to make effective decisions may be negatively impacted by implicit pressure to maintain cohesion. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Group Think <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>12 Angry Men </li></ul>
  18. 18. Group Think <ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of the task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time Pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task characteritics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Group Think <ul><li>Group Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lack of impartial leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lack of norms using methodical procedures surrounding how groups engage in task accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low group self esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group member homogeneity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High amount of stress accompanying the small group task </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Group Think <ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political, social, and cultural norms of the group’s parent organization, prior discussion of the task. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Group Think <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>1. When a group overestimates its own mortality, creating an illusion of its own invulnerability. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Closed mindedness, means a group relies solely on its members to gather and evaluate information. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pressure toward uniformity </li></ul>
  22. 22. Group Think <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>1. Allow sufficient time for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>2. Actively think about how group members communication influences your group’s decision – making and problem – solving processes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Probe each idea or statement offered by group members </li></ul><ul><li>4. Discourage promotional leadership </li></ul>
  23. 23. Thanks for listening! 