Survey-based tools to measure
assets and control of income
Agnes R. Quisumbing
IFPRI/A4NH
Content
I. Defining asset-related indicators
II. Collecting sex-disaggregated data on
assets
III. Measuring control of inc...
I. Defining Asset-related Indicators
• Need to specify what we mean by
– Assets
– “Women’s” assets (assets belonging to women
and/or men)
– Asset disparities
–...
From capitals to assets
Broad definition of assets to include:
• Natural capital
• Physical capital
• Financial capital
• ...
Natural capital
Physical capital
Same asset, many capitals
Implications
• Can’t possibly
cover all assets
so need to
think carefully
about which
ones really
matter, given
the contex...
What does it mean to “own” an
asset?
Types of ownership

Use rights

Decision rights
Use rights
• Access
• Extraction
• Commercial
exploitation
Decision rights
• Management
• Exclusion
• Alienation
Sources and security of rights
• Claims to rights come from multiple
sources, and can overlap and change
Implications
• Easy to focus on (and measure)
“decision” rights but in some cases
“access” rights can be important
• For c...
• Contextual information on
sources of rights and what can
strengthen and weaken them is
important for evaluating
projects...
Types of owners
• Individuals
• Partners (joint)
• Groups (collective)
Implications
• Need to include joint ownership option in
surveys but we need to understand what “joint
ownership” means in...
How to measure assets & asset changes
•
•
•
•

Quantity/quality of specific asset(s)
Assets index
Value of assets
Type or ...
Asset disparities
• Disparity is the ratio of women’s assets to men’s
assets
• How can the disparity be reduced?
– Increas...
II. Collecting
sex-disaggregated data on assets
• Multiple methods, data sources and
sequencing
• Baseline surveys
• Field implementation issues
Data collection: national and community level

– Use of existing
national-level data
(DHS, national
statistics),
administr...
Quantitative methods: household
level
• Household and
individual surveys,
particularly panel
surveys
• Take advantage of
e...
Qualitative methods
• Ethnography, case studies, life histories

Page 25
Q-squared: Integrated qual and quant
• Sequenced and integrated qualitative and
quantitative data analysis
– For example, ...
How can questionnaire modules can be designed to
look at asset accumulation from a gender
perspective?
• In what topics ca...
What does a baseline questionnaire look like?
Where can we insert/modify modules to look at gender
issues in a standard ho...
Basic and Extended Questionnaire
Design of Socio-economic modules
Module

Basic?

Sexdisaggregated
information?

About whi...
Contents of a household roster

ID

Name

Sex

Age

Reln to
head

Marital
Status

Education

1
2
3
4
5
You can also add co...
Socio-economic modules (cont’d)

Module

Basic?

Sexdisaggregated
information?

Which hh member?

E

Land area and crops g...
Socio-economic modules (cont’d)
Module

Baseline?

Sexdisaggregated?

Which hh
member?

J

Assets

Ideally

Yes

ID of ass...
Additional consumption, health, and
nutrition-related modules
Module

Baseline?

Sex-disaggregated?

Which hh member?

N

...
Additional gender-related modules
Module

Baseline?

Sex-disaggregated?

Which hh member?

R

Labor use and time use by
se...
Engendering the asset module (simple)
Asset (g)
Animal

• ID of owner
• ID of
decisionmaker
on sales

Cattle
Horses
Sheep/...
Ownership of Assets (from WEAI)
MODULE G3: ACCESS TO PRODUCTIVE CAPITAL – page 3
.Productive Capital
Does anyone in How ma...
Purchase, sale, or transfer of assets (from WEAI)
MODULE G3: ACCESS TO PRODUCTIVE CAPITAL – page 3
.
Does anyone in How ma...
III. Measuring control of income
Control over Use of Income (1 of 2)
MODULE G2: ROLE IN HOUSEHOLD DECISION-MAKING AROUND PRODUCTION
AND INCOME GENERATION –...
Control over use of Income (2 of 2)

MODULE G5: DECISION MAKING -- page 7
ENUMERATOR: Ask G5.01 for all categories of acti...
Field implementation issues
• Who should be interviewed? “head of
household?”
• Should the head of household answer for
al...
Field implementation issues, cont’d
• Privacy important, but especially important for asset issues
(hidden assets)
• Shoul...
Concluding remarks
• Context, context, context
• Identify focus of study to avoid getting lost in
details
• Mixed methods:...
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Day 1 Session 7 Quisumbing_ Assets and income

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Day 1 Session 7 Quisumbing_ Assets and income

  1. 1. Survey-based tools to measure assets and control of income Agnes R. Quisumbing IFPRI/A4NH
  2. 2. Content I. Defining asset-related indicators II. Collecting sex-disaggregated data on assets III. Measuring control of income
  3. 3. I. Defining Asset-related Indicators
  4. 4. • Need to specify what we mean by – Assets – “Women’s” assets (assets belonging to women and/or men) – Asset disparities – Changes in assets and asset disparities – Incomes (often difficult to measure), so consumption expenditures often used as proxy – Decisionmaking over assets and incomes
  5. 5. From capitals to assets Broad definition of assets to include: • Natural capital • Physical capital • Financial capital • Human capital • Social capital • Political capital Page 5
  6. 6. Natural capital
  7. 7. Physical capital
  8. 8. Same asset, many capitals
  9. 9. Implications • Can’t possibly cover all assets so need to think carefully about which ones really matter, given the context
  10. 10. What does it mean to “own” an asset?
  11. 11. Types of ownership Use rights Decision rights
  12. 12. Use rights • Access • Extraction • Commercial exploitation
  13. 13. Decision rights • Management • Exclusion • Alienation
  14. 14. Sources and security of rights • Claims to rights come from multiple sources, and can overlap and change
  15. 15. Implications • Easy to focus on (and measure) “decision” rights but in some cases “access” rights can be important • For certain kinds of assets (eg land) may need to include type and security of rights along with quantity and value of asset as part of the indicator
  16. 16. • Contextual information on sources of rights and what can strengthen and weaken them is important for evaluating projects (implementing them!)
  17. 17. Types of owners • Individuals • Partners (joint) • Groups (collective)
  18. 18. Implications • Need to include joint ownership option in surveys but we need to understand what “joint ownership” means in specific contexts (does it mean name on document only? Does it mean joint decisionmaking on use of asset?) • Some collectively-owned assets can be “individualized” but others not
  19. 19. How to measure assets & asset changes • • • • Quantity/quality of specific asset(s) Assets index Value of assets Type or security of rights
  20. 20. Asset disparities • Disparity is the ratio of women’s assets to men’s assets • How can the disparity be reduced? – Increase women’s assets – Decrease men’s assets – Increase both, but women’s more • But remember, changes in rights is not always zerosum, particularly because of the joint asset category
  21. 21. II. Collecting sex-disaggregated data on assets
  22. 22. • Multiple methods, data sources and sequencing • Baseline surveys • Field implementation issues
  23. 23. Data collection: national and community level – Use of existing national-level data (DHS, national statistics), administrative data, existing studies – Focus groups at community level, for example to get at local norms Page 23
  24. 24. Quantitative methods: household level • Household and individual surveys, particularly panel surveys • Take advantage of existing sexdisaggregated data sets and build a panel Page 24
  25. 25. Qualitative methods • Ethnography, case studies, life histories Page 25
  26. 26. Q-squared: Integrated qual and quant • Sequenced and integrated qualitative and quantitative data analysis – For example, quantitative surveys can be used to draw up the sampling frame for the life histories work or FGDs Page 26
  27. 27. How can questionnaire modules can be designed to look at asset accumulation from a gender perspective? • In what topics can data collection can be sex-disaggregated? • How can the same basic question (say, control of land and assets) be adapted to specific contexts, using survey modules on the same topic, but administered in different settings? • What issues of survey implementation are important?
  28. 28. What does a baseline questionnaire look like? Where can we insert/modify modules to look at gender issues in a standard household survey? • Basic baseline information: in RED • Typical module with sex-disaggregated info ALWAYS collected: purple cells • Sex-disaggregated info SOMETIMES collected: orange cells • Specialized module with sex-disaggregated info ALWAYS collected: green cells
  29. 29. Basic and Extended Questionnaire Design of Socio-economic modules Module Basic? Sexdisaggregated information? About which hh member? A Roster—very important, since all Ids in subsequent modules will come from here Yes Yes All! B Education of head and household members Yes Yes All C Nonfood consumption Partly (clothing, footwear) All (typically collected at hh level) D Food consumption Depends on focus of survey, but ideal No (but see section on nutrition modules) All (typically collected at hh level)
  30. 30. Contents of a household roster ID Name Sex Age Reln to head Marital Status Education 1 2 3 4 5 You can also add columns on literacy, migration status, etc. Main occupat ion
  31. 31. Socio-economic modules (cont’d) Module Basic? Sexdisaggregated information? Which hh member? E Land area and crops grown Yes Yes ID of person who manages the plot ID of plot owner, if different from manager F Major Crop Production Yes, if ag survey Yes ID of plot manager (household member) G Agricultural Wage Labor Possibl y Yes ID of laborer H Other Income Possibl y Yes ID of people with other incomes, businesses, ID of people sending and receiving remittances
  32. 32. Socio-economic modules (cont’d) Module Baseline? Sexdisaggregated? Which hh member? J Assets Ideally Yes ID of asset owner K Group Membership Ideally Yes ID of group member L Savings Possible Yes ID of account owner M Credit and Lending Ideally Yes ID of borrower
  33. 33. Additional consumption, health, and nutrition-related modules Module Baseline? Sex-disaggregated? Which hh member? N 24-hour individual food recall Depends on purpose of survey Yes all O Dietary diversity Ideally Yes all P Reproductive health Depends on purpose of survey Yes Women Q Anthropometry and morbidity Ideally Yes all Some of these indicators are more expensive to collect (e.g. 24-hour individual food recall) and will require highly trained enumerators. Sometimes a good dietary diversity survey will do the trick.
  34. 34. Additional gender-related modules Module Baseline? Sex-disaggregated? Which hh member? R Labor use and time use by sex Yes Yes Main male and female, could also include children depending on focus S Domains of decisionmaking authority, especially about assets Yes Yes Main male and female T Control of cash income and use of income Yes Yes Main male and female U Level of gender-related conflict and violence Ideally Typically only woman is asked Main woman Caveat in fielding questions about domestic violence: Need to have trained enumerators with knowledge about services available Need to protect privacy of respondents and not subject them to greater risk
  35. 35. Engendering the asset module (simple) Asset (g) Animal • ID of owner • ID of decisionmaker on sales Cattle Horses Sheep/goats Poultry Pigs Domestic assets Cooker Kitchen cupboard Refrigerator Radio Television DVD player Cell phone Chairs Mosquito nets Gas stove Spades/shovels Ploughs Number owned ID of owner ID of decisionmaker for sale
  36. 36. Ownership of Assets (from WEAI) MODULE G3: ACCESS TO PRODUCTIVE CAPITAL – page 3 .Productive Capital Does anyone in How many of Who would you Who would you say can Who would you say A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Productive Capital Agricultural land (pieces/plots) your household currently have any [ITEM]? Yes 1 No 2 >> next item G3.01a [ITEM] does your say owns most of decide whether to sell household the [ITEM]? [ITEM] most of the time? currently have? G3.01b G3.02 G3.03 Who would you say can Who contributes most to can decide whether decide to mortgage or rent decisions regarding a new to give away [ITEM] out [ITEM] most of the purchase of [ITEM]? most of the time? time? G3.04 G3.05 G3.06 Large livestock (oxen, cattle) Small livestock (goats, pigs, sheep) Chickens, Ducks, Turkeys, Pigeons Fish pond or fishing equipment Farm equipment (nonmechanized) Farm equipment (mechanized) Nonfarm business equipment House (and other structures) Large consumer durables (fridge, TV, sofa) Small consumer durables (radio, cookware) Cell phone Other land not used for agricultural purposes (pieces, residential or commercial land) Means of transportation (bicycle, motorcycle, car) G3.02-G3.06: Decision-making and control over productive capital Self…………………………………………………………………………..1 Partner/Spouse ……………………………………………………….2 Self and partner/spouse jointly…………………………………3 Other household member …………….. ………………………..4 Self and other household member(s)…………………………5 Partner/Spouse and other household member(s)……….6 Someone (or group of people) outside the household...7 Self and other outside people…………………………………....8 Partner/Spouse and other outside people………………….9 Self, partner/spouse and other outside people.............10
  37. 37. Purchase, sale, or transfer of assets (from WEAI) MODULE G3: ACCESS TO PRODUCTIVE CAPITAL – page 3 . Does anyone in How many of Who would you Who would you say can Who would you say Productive Capital A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Productive Capital Agricultural land (pieces/plots) your household currently have any [ITEM]? Yes 1 No 2 >> next item G3.01a [ITEM] does your say owns most of decide whether to sell household the [ITEM]? [ITEM] most of the time? currently have? G3.01b G3.02 G3.03 Who would you say can Who contributes most to can decide whether decide to mortgage or rent decisions regarding a new to give away [ITEM] out [ITEM] most of the purchase of [ITEM]? most of the time? time? G3.04 G3.05 G3.06 Large livestock (oxen, cattle) Small livestock (goats, pigs, sheep) Chickens, Ducks, Turkeys, Pigeons Fish pond or fishing equipment Farm equipment (nonmechanized) Farm equipment (mechanized) Nonfarm business equipment House (and other structures) Large consumer durables (fridge, TV, sofa) Small consumer durables (radio, cookware) Cell phone Other land not used for agricultural purposes (pieces, residential or commercial land) Means of transportation (bicycle, motorcycle, car) G3.02-G3.06: Decision-making and control over productive capital Self…………………………………………………………………………..1 Partner/Spouse ……………………………………………………….2 Self and partner/spouse jointly…………………………………3 Other household member …………….. ………………………..4 Self and other household member(s)…………………………5 Partner/Spouse and other household member(s)……….6 Someone (or group of people) outside the household...7 Self and other outside people…………………………………....8 Partner/Spouse and other outside people………………….9 Self, partner/spouse and other outside people.............10 G3.02-G3.06: Decision-making and control over productive capital
  38. 38. III. Measuring control of income
  39. 39. Control over Use of Income (1 of 2) MODULE G2: ROLE IN HOUSEHOLD DECISION-MAKING AROUND PRODUCTION AND INCOME GENERATION – page 2 Activity Activity Activity Description Code Food crop farming: crops that are grown primarily for A household food consumption B How much input did you have in making decisions about [ACTIVITY]? G2.02 How much input did you have in decisions on the use of income generated from [ACTIVITY] G2.03 Cash crop farming: crops that are grown primary for sale in the market C Did you (singular) participate in [ACTIVITY] in the past 12 months (that is during the last [one/two] cropping seasons)? Yes 1 No 2 >> next activity G2.01 Livestock raising Non-farm economic activities: Small business, selfemployment, buy-and-sell D E Wage and salary employment: in-kind or monetary work both agriculture and other wage work F Fishing or fishpond culture G2.02/G2.03: Input into decision making No input…….. …….. …….. …….. ……..1 Input into very few decisions ……..2 Input into some decisions…….. ……3 Input into most decisions ….. ….. ..4 Input into all decisions….. ….. ….. ..5 No decision made……………………….6
  40. 40. Control over use of Income (2 of 2) MODULE G5: DECISION MAKING -- page 7 ENUMERATOR: Ask G5.01 for all categories of activities before asking G5.02. Do not ask G5.02 if G5.01 response is 1 and respondent is male OR G5.01 response is 2 and respondent is female. When decisions are made regarding the following aspects of household life, who is it that normally takes the decision? Ask only if G5.01 is 1 and respondent is female, G5.01 is 2 and respondent is male, or G5.01 is 3-7. If household does not engage in that particular activity, enter 98 and proceed to next activity. G5.01 A B C D E F G To what extent do you feel you can make your own personal decisions regarding these aspects of household life if you want(ed) to? G5.02 Getting inputs for agricultural production The types of crops to grow for agricultural production Taking crops to the market (or not) Livestock raising Your own (singular) wage or salary employment Major household expenditures (such as a large appliance for the house like refrigerator) Minor household expenditures (such as food for daily consumption or other household needs) G5.01: Who makes decision Main male or husband………………………………1 (if MALE) Main female or wife ………………....2 (if FEMALE) Husband and wife jointly…………………3 Someone else in the household…………………4 Jointly with someone else inside the household…………………5 Jointly with someone else outside the household…………………6 G5.02: Extent of participation in decision making Not at all …………………………1 Small extent……………………..2 Medium extent…………………..3 To a high extent…………………4
  41. 41. Field implementation issues • Who should be interviewed? “head of household?” • Should the head of household answer for all household members? • Different people will report different things—need to reconcile
  42. 42. Field implementation issues, cont’d • Privacy important, but especially important for asset issues (hidden assets) • Should field teams employ men and women? • Examples: – Pakistan and Bangladesh surveys have teams of men and women – Surveys in the Philippines almost always employ women (trust and safety issues) – Surveys in Guatemala City employ women to interviewer (safety issues) – Most interviewers in our other surveys are men (small cadre of women to draw on) • Need to train and employ skilled qualitative field personnel
  43. 43. Concluding remarks • Context, context, context • Identify focus of study to avoid getting lost in details • Mixed methods: hh survey should ideally be informed by qualitative work; quantitative and qualitative work can be iterative • Learn from experience of others in the field, especially in the same country

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