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  • 1. Contemporary Police in America Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Ackerman
  • 2. Contemporary Policing
    • One of the most distinctive characteristics of U.S. policing is that there are thousands of police agencies each with their own jurisdiction.
    • Generally, the jurisdiction of policing can be divided into local, state, and federal police.
    • The media and policing
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 3. Who Are the Police?
    • 17,000 fragmented, semi-autonomous law enforcement agencies
    • Over 12,000 are under the control of a city government
    • Over 3,000 are sheriff’s departments
    • There are approximately 1,700 special police and 49 state police agencies
    • There are less than 100 federal law enforcement agencies, and only 6 are well known to the public
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 4. Federal Law Enforcement
    • Three types of federal law enforcement agencies: military, civilian, and Indian Tribal police. Civilian law enforcement agencies, particularly the FBI, have been reorganized to respond to terrorist threats
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 5. Civilian Federal Law Enforcement
    • U.S. does not have a national police agency
    • Instead, the nation has adopted a system of approximately 50 semi-autonomous agencies under the command of various departments in the federal government
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 6. Figure 7.3: Responsibilities of Civilian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 7. Other Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
    • U.S. Marshals Service
    • U.S. Postal Investigation Service
    • U.S. Secret Service
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation
    • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
    • Drug Enforcement Agency
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 8. Reorganization of the FBI Following September 11, 2001
    • Protect the U.S. from terrorist attack
    • Protect the U.S. against foreign intelligence operations and espionage
    • Protect the U.S. against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes
    • Combat public corruption at all levels
    • Protect civil rights
    • Combat transnational and national criminal organizations
    • Combat major white-collar crime
    • Combat significant violent crime
    • Support federal, state, local, and international partners
    • Upgrade technology to successfully perform the FBI’s mission
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 9. The State Police
    • State police agencies enforce traffic laws and investigate criminal activities.
    • Investigations – “any state bureau of investigation”
    • Traffic enforcement – State Highway Patrol
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Ackerman
  • 10. The Sheriff
    • The chief law enforcement officer of the county
    • Responsibilities include: law enforcement, court service and protection, and jail operations
    • The only elected chief executive officer of a law enforcement agency
    • Officers are called deputy sheriffs and usually wear the traditional star-shaped badge
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 11. Municipal Police
    • The most visible and numerous of the police agencies
    • Have the broadest legal jurisdiction
    • Chief of Police is appointed by the mayor, city council, or police commission and does not have civil service job protection
    • Deputy Chief, or assistant chief, is selected by the chief from among the higher-ranking police administrators
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 12. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  • 13. Special Police
    • Special police agencies have limited jurisdictions, responsibilities, and powers.
    • Policing on major college campuses
    • Little impact on the development of the criminal justice system
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Ackerman
  • 14. Technology and Policing
    • National Crime Information Center (NCIC)
      • Data mining
    • Gun detector technology
    • Crime mapping
    • http://www.crimemapping.com/map.aspx?aid=0052826e-f7db-48e6-8622-121fd4c4c2ff
    • http://spotcrime.com/wa/tacoma
    • Biometrics
    • Automated fingerprint identification (AFIS)
    • DNA testing