Contemporary policing


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Contemporary policing

  1. 1. Contemporary Police in America Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Ackerman
  2. 2. Contemporary Policing <ul><li>One of the most distinctive characteristics of U.S. policing is that there are thousands of police agencies each with their own jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, the jurisdiction of policing can be divided into local, state, and federal police. </li></ul><ul><li>The media and policing </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  3. 3. Who Are the Police? <ul><li>17,000 fragmented, semi-autonomous law enforcement agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Over 12,000 are under the control of a city government </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3,000 are sheriff’s departments </li></ul><ul><li>There are approximately 1,700 special police and 49 state police agencies </li></ul><ul><li>There are less than 100 federal law enforcement agencies, and only 6 are well known to the public </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  4. 4. Federal Law Enforcement <ul><li>Three types of federal law enforcement agencies: military, civilian, and Indian Tribal police. Civilian law enforcement agencies, particularly the FBI, have been reorganized to respond to terrorist threats </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  5. 5. Civilian Federal Law Enforcement <ul><li>U.S. does not have a national police agency </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, the nation has adopted a system of approximately 50 semi-autonomous agencies under the command of various departments in the federal government </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  6. 6. Figure 7.3: Responsibilities of Civilian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  7. 7. Other Federal Law Enforcement Agencies <ul><li>U.S. Marshals Service </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Postal Investigation Service </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Secret Service </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Bureau of Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Enforcement Agency </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  8. 8. Reorganization of the FBI Following September 11, 2001 <ul><li>Protect the U.S. from terrorist attack </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the U.S. against foreign intelligence operations and espionage </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the U.S. against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Combat public corruption at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Protect civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Combat transnational and national criminal organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Combat major white-collar crime </li></ul><ul><li>Combat significant violent crime </li></ul><ul><li>Support federal, state, local, and international partners </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade technology to successfully perform the FBI’s mission </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  9. 9. The State Police <ul><li>State police agencies enforce traffic laws and investigate criminal activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigations – “any state bureau of investigation” </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic enforcement – State Highway Patrol </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Ackerman
  10. 10. The Sheriff <ul><li>The chief law enforcement officer of the county </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities include: law enforcement, court service and protection, and jail operations </li></ul><ul><li>The only elected chief executive officer of a law enforcement agency </li></ul><ul><li>Officers are called deputy sheriffs and usually wear the traditional star-shaped badge </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  11. 11. Municipal Police <ul><li>The most visible and numerous of the police agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Have the broadest legal jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of Police is appointed by the mayor, city council, or police commission and does not have civil service job protection </li></ul><ul><li>Deputy Chief, or assistant chief, is selected by the chief from among the higher-ranking police administrators </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  12. 12. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
  13. 13. Special Police <ul><li>Special police agencies have limited jurisdictions, responsibilities, and powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Policing on major college campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Little impact on the development of the criminal justice system </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Ackerman
  14. 14. Technology and Policing <ul><li>National Crime Information Center (NCIC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data mining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gun detector technology </li></ul><ul><li>Crime mapping </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Biometrics </li></ul><ul><li>Automated fingerprint identification (AFIS) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA testing </li></ul>