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Itd 546 sisson a   assgnmt 4 - learning theory matrix v4
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Itd 546 sisson a assgnmt 4 - learning theory matrix v4

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  • 1. Learning Theory Matrix Click Theory to Display Info* Behaviorism Social Learning Cognitivism Connectivism Constructivism Adult Learning * Info profile questions are from Schunk (1991), as quoted in Ertmer and Newby (1993).  matrix from Angela Sisson
  • 2. Behaviorist Theory How does learning occur? Learning is observable when either form or frequency of a behavior/performance changes; accomplishment of desired learning is associated with observation of a proper/desired response related to specific stimulus* What factors influence learning? Learner and environment variables are each important; environment is the most significant factor* What is the role of memory? Memory is not a prominent component in Behaviorist theory; “forgetting” is merely associated with non-use/lack of reinforcement* How does transfer occur? In the Behaviorist view, transfer results from generalization; essentially, common/similar situations set up the opportunity to transfer learned behaviors based on common elements* What types of learning are best explained by this theory? discriminations (recalling facts); generalizations (defining and illustrating concepts); associations (applying explanations); and, chaining (automatically performing a specified procedure)* How is technology used for learning in your industry? << home Examples might be training videos (for example, for driving) which condition an approved approach/behavior * Source: Ertmer and Newby (1993) next: Cognitive
  • 3. Cognitive Theory How does learning occur? Mental activity requiring the learner to encode and structure information* What factors influence learning? Mental factors involving support processes for learning, such as planning and strategizing* What is the role of memory? Memory is crucial: learning occurs when something is stored in memory in a meaningful way; “forgetting” is associated with a lack of memory cues or damaged memory* How does transfer occur? A cognitive view is that transfer is when a learner understands something at a level involving discriminating thought and is thus able to apply that knowledge in different contexts* What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? << home Cognitive learning is best seen in complex learning, such as reasoning, problem-solving and information-processing Examples include puzzles/problem-solving games * Source: Ertmer and Newby (1993) next: Constructivist
  • 4. Constructivist Theory How does learning occur? In essence, this is a mental activity in which one creates meaning from experience* What factors influence learning? Learner, environment, and interaction are each key to completing the activity that results in learning* What is the role of memory? Memory is considered a cumulative history of interactions* How does transfer occur? Transfer of learning is thought to occur when authentic tasks contextualize information in conjunction with something meaningful* What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? << home Best observed in cases in which learners have knowledge and face complex and ill-structured problems (described by Jonassen [1991] in Ertmer and Newby [1993]) Examples may include problem-solving games * Source: Ertmer and Newby (1993) next: Social Learning
  • 5. Social Learning Theory How does learning occur? Interaction in social settings prompts learning; this may include direct instruction or observation; much learning relates to modeling* What factors influence learning? Factors of social interaction influence learning: ability to communicate (ex: natural vs. forced, formal vs. informal, media for communication and interaction, etc); reinforcement may play a part, as may behavior* What is the role of memory? Retention plays a factor, as the ability to identify influences on modeling of behavior come into play* How does transfer occur? Transfer occurs when observed learnings are deemed meaningful for replication (ex: when learner is able to call on memory of behavior and model it appropriately)* What types of learning are best explained by this theory? This type of learning best occurs when social interaction allows for modeling both as a tool and means to demonstrate learning* How is technology used for learning in your industry? Online instructional design may make best use of this through chat rooms and social media postings << home *Source: Grusec, Joan (1992). next: Connectivism
  • 6. Connectivism Theory How does learning occur? Learning occurs as distributed in an enhanced network through recognizing and interpreting patterns* What factors influence learning? Diversity within the network itself* What is the role of memory? Memory needs to call on adaptive patterns and information garnered from existing networks* How does transfer occur? Connecting to a network allows transfer* What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? << home Knowledge requiring the process of diverse learning sources illustrates this* An example of this may be a social media; for example, a networkbased media such as LinkedIn * Source: Davis, C., Edmunds, E., & KellyBateman, V. (2008). next: Adult Learning
  • 7. Adult Learning Theory How does learning occur? Learning for adults occurs in the same ways as for youth, but environment should be considered as it reflects factors influencing effective adult education* What factors influence learning? Adult learners may want/need consideration for their goals and responsibilities; adult learners are particularly responsive to problem- or need-based tasks; adults are more likely intrinsically motivated* What is the role of memory? Role varies depending on task/approach (as mentioned, this draws on learning similar to children)* How does transfer occur? Transfer occurs through problem-solving * What types of learning are best explained by this theory? How is technology used for learning in your industry? << home Project-based learning is a key example: this draws on experience reservoirs and engages adults in application* An example may be project management software * Source: Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). next: Citations
  • 8. Citations • Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult learning. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. • Davis, C., Edmunds, E., & Kelly-Bateman, V. (2008). Connectivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. • Ertmer, P.A., & Newby, T.J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4),50-71. • Grusec, J. (1992). Social learning theory and developmental psychology: The legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura. Developmental Psychology. 28 (5). • Merriam, S. B. & Caffarella, R.S.(1999). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass Inc. • Schunk, D.H. (1991). Learning theories: An educational perspective. New York: Macmillan. << home

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